Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885

Antique_Autograph_Book_with_Handwritten_Letters_and_Vintage_Stickers_from_1885_01_sop Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885

Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885
Listing is for the autograph book of Anna/Annie Pegar/Peggar from Sioux City, IA. The book appears to have been gifted to her by Lena E. Moy in April, 1885. The book is 7″ long by 4.25″ high. The maroon material has an embossed crosshatch pattern rather than a smooth surface. The front cover is decorated with gold embossed art that includes birds, vines, and vintage graphics/lettering. The back cover has an embossed image with an array of leaves. The page edges are gilded in gold. The book maker is unknown. The book contains 27 entries from friends and relatives between 1885 and 1911. All signatures include a handwritten, personal note. Some of the penmanship is stunningly beautiful. The book also contains 39 embossed, die-cut stickers on random pages that appear to be placed by hand (by Annie or Lena rather than being original to the book because entries are written around them). The stickers include flowers, little girls, and messages of love and hope. None of the stickers are loose as of this moment. Two of the stickers are silver foil fabric labels. Both are embossed and die-cut with fine details. The book was signed by brother Victor Pegar and brother Jos. I do not have access to ancestry tools to learn Annie’s story and I have not been able to find any signatures of historic relevance. The inside cover has been signed by L. The book is 137 years old. It’s charming with it’s worn cover and age-stained pages (and personal contents), but the binding is very loose. At least three pages have detached and many are ready to fall out with too much use. The pages are sewn into the joint, but the paper is fragile and getting worse. The spine is soft and the cover moves laterally at least half an inch up and down. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Paper\Ephemera\1800-99″. The seller is “atomic_closet” and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Unknown
  • Time Period Manufactured: 1800-99

Antique Autograph Book with Handwritten Letters and Vintage Stickers from 1885

Child Actor Autograph Handwritten Letter Bill Mauch Signed Star Vintage

Child_Actor_Autograph_Handwritten_Letter_Bill_Mauch_Signed_Star_Vintage_01_jeeq Child Actor Autograph Handwritten Letter Bill Mauch Signed Star Vintage
Child Actor Autograph Handwritten Letter Bill Mauch Signed Star Vintage

Child Actor Autograph Handwritten Letter Bill Mauch Signed Star Vintage
BILLY MAUCH ON OFFICIAL BILL MAUCH LETTERHEAD AUTOGRAPH LETTRER SIGNED MEASURING APPROXIMATELY 5 1/2 X 7 1/4 INCHES. It is always good. To hear from you a loyal. I regret that my. Brother no longer signs. Pictures or gives autographs. William John Mauch (July 6, 1921 – September 29, 2006) and his identical twin brother, Robert Joseph Mauch (July 6, 1921 – October 15, 2007), were child actors in the 1930s. They had starring roles in the 1937 film The Prince and the Pauper, based on the novel of the same name by Mark Twain. Robert Joseph Mauch, actor and film editor: born Peoria, Illinois 6 July 1921; married; died 15 October 2007. Bobby Mauch, the actor and film editor, was one of a pair of identical twins, Billy and Bobby Mauch (pronounced “Mawk”), who starred in a distinguished version of the Mark Twain classic The Prince and the Pauper in 1937. The spirited pair were so completely alike that they were often able to take each other’s place without revealing their true identity. The sons of a railroad agent, Robert and his brother William were born in Peoria, Illinois in 1921 – Billy, who died in September 2006, was the older by 10 minutes. Their mother, soon aware of the possibilities available to her personable progeny, taught them to dance before they started school. From the age of three they performed at private parties, and by the time they were seven they were modelling and acting on radio, gaining early exposure on NBC’s Sunday morning amateur hour for children Coast-to-Coast on a Bus and Let’s Pretend, a drama series for children which also nurtured the talents of the future teenage stars Jimmy Lydon and Billy Halop. Warner Bros had been looking for a young boy who looked enough like Fredric March to play the actor as a youth in Anthony Adverse, and the twins fitted the bill. Initially, Billy was signed to play Anthony, with Bobby hired as his stand-in, but after the film’s completion they confessed to the director Mervyn LeRoy that they had been taking turns at playing the role, confident that no one would know. Their mother stated that she could tell them apart when they were awake, but that even she could not tell which was which when they were sleeping – the only major difference between them was that Bobby was right-handed and Billy left-handed, and Billy wore glasses for reading. The pair allegedly shared the next role in which Billy was cast, as a drummer boy befriended by Florence Nightingale (Kay Francis) in the Crimea in William Dieterle’s The White Angel (1936). Warners then offered Billy a contract, but their formidable mother told the studio that if one of the boys was a stand-in for the other it would give him an inferiority complex, and that if only Billy were signed, she would take Bobby to a rival studio. The boys were both given performer contracts, with Mrs Mauch hired as their guardian, and when a vehicle was sought to showcase the twins, a prime choice was The Prince and the Pauper, which had last been filmed as a silent starring Marguerite Clark in both the title roles in 1915. The story of two boys, one the son of Henry the Eighth and the other the son of a pickpocket, whose identities are switched, it seemed a shrewd project to release in the year of the Coronation in Britain, since the film concludes with a lavish crowning. Directed by William Keighley, with Errol Flynn top-billed (though his role as a soldier of fortune who befriends the Prince, thinking him an urchin, was secondary to those of the twins), plus a rousing score by Erich Korngold, the result is still considered the finest dramatisation of the Twain tale. Time magazine wrote of the brothers: Their major assets are energy, lack of precocity and a wholesome distaste for showing off, which prevents them from trying to steal scenes like most of their contemporaries. Initially, one twin was to play all the royal scenes, with the other to play all the guttersnipe scenes, regardless of which character appeared in them, but the boys again switched roles occasionally. Billy was next cast in Penrod and Sam (1937), based on the second of Booth Tarkington’s tales of a mischievous lad in the American Midwest in the early 1900s, with Bobby officially Billy’s stand-in, but the two boys were teamed in the two “Penrod” adventures that followed, Penrod and his Twin Brother and Penrod’s Double Trouble (both 1938). Their last film together, playing twin brothers, was I’ll Tell the World (1939). During the Second World War the twins served together in the United States Air Force in the Philippines – the military had a rule that twins could not be separated unless they so requested – and they acted together in Moss Hart’s play Winged Victory (1943), produced for the Army Emergency Relief Fund. After the war, Billy continued acting, often playing small roles in films directed by old pals from the Warner days – he was in Dieterle’s gripping thriller The Accused and William Keighley’s crime drama The Street with No Name (both 1948). In his last film, Bedtime for Bonzo (1951) he was the student of a psychology professor (Ronald Reagan) who adopts a chimpanzee. The brothers remained close, and lived near each other in San Fernando Valley, California. Mauch Twins & Mark Twain. With all the stories in the world to choose from, which story would a shrewd cinema producer pick to coincide with the coronation of a King of England? This was one problem which last year faced Warner Brothers’ Associate Executive in Charge of Production Hal Wallis. For a cinema producer, problems never come singly. Another and more difficult riddle for Producer Wallis was this: what were the best roles in which to cast two 12-year-old identical twins who looked so much alike that their mother could scarcely tell them apart? One test of a cinema producer is his ability to solve two problems at the same time. Ready for simultaneous release in 275 U. Cities last week was Producer Wallis’ exceedingly neat finesse of his dilemma: Billy & Bobby Mauch in Mark Twain’s The Prince and the Pauper, last made as a silent picture with Marguerite Clark playing both roles in 1915. The Prince and the Pauper starts on the day in 1537 when boy infants are born simultaneously to Henry the VIII in Windsor Palace and to Pickpocket John Canty in Offal Court. Young Prince Edward thrives at the court, under the tutelage of the Duke of Norfolk (Henry Stephenson). Young Tom Canty thrives in the gutter, with Latin lessons from Father Andrew and whackings from his father (Barton MacLane). Prowling about London one day, Tom crawls under a bench outside the castle to take a nap. The Captain of the Guard hauls him out and is giving him a thrashing when Prince Edward comes out of the palace to call his dog. Prince invites pauper indoors to play. They change clothes for a joke, laugh when the mirror shows how much they look alike. Then the Prince runs out again to find his dog. The Captain of the Guard, thinking it is the pauper, resumes his interrupted thrashing, tosses Prince Edward out into the street. In his story, Author Mark Twain set out to show that palaces were not much better than the people in them. At Windsor, young Tom Canty falls under the wing of the bad Earl of Hertford (Claude Rains) who, when he hears Tom’s story about how he got into the palace, merely tells King Henry that the Prince is mad. When the old king dies. Hertford plans to execute the Duke of Norfolk and have Tom Canty crowned, with himself as Lord Protector. As things shape up, he seems in a fair way to accomplish it. Another notion of Mark Twain’s was that monarchies would do better if kings saw how their subjects lived. In medieval London’s alleys, Edward fares not much better than his counterpart in the palace until he encounters a young soldier of fortune named Miles Hendon (Errol Flynn). Hendon feeds him, humors his apparently preposterous notion that he is the King of England, sets out, when the boy is kidnapped, to rescue him from John Canty’s gang of thieves. When the rescue entails fighting off the palace guards, sent to kill the young King before he can return to foil the Hertford, plot, Hendon begins to think his young protege’s ideas of his own grandeur may not be delusions after all, hurries him back to London. Biggest scene in The Prince and the Pauper is naturally the Coronation, for which Warners used their big new Stage 22, too ft. Longer than the lot’s ordinary 40-ft. Stages; a small army of extras, the St. Luke’s Choir and six technical advisers. In this scene Tom Canty, already prayed over, sworn and anointed, is about to get the crown when Prince Edward comes scampering up Westminster Abbey’s central aisle to present his claims. When Tom Canty corroborates them, the Archbishop of Canterbury agrees to crown Edward if he can tell the whereabouts of the Great Seal of England. Edward does so with some difficulty. When next seen he is on the throne distributing rewards to those who deserve them, passing laws for the improvement of the slum population, and taking waivers on the Earl of Hertford. The Prince and the Pauper is not and does not aim to be screen drama of cosmic import, superspectacle or Hollywood picture-poem. It does aim to be, and is, a frisky, fresh and wholly likable comedy by the best comic writer, for the screen or otherwise, whom the U. Directed by William Keighley, acted by Warner Brothers’ most high-powered cast since Midsummer Night’s Dream, staged by Robert Lord and scored by Erich Korngold, it should amply grace next fortnight’s Coronation. It should also grace, if not climax, the careers of two amiable young actors from Peoria, Ill. Who, among Hollywood’s currently swollen quota of remarkable children, are perhaps the most remarkable. Billy & Bobby Mauch (pronounced mock) are more extraordinary than Shirley Temple because there are two of them. They have an advantage over the Dionnes because they are interchangeable. In The Prince and the Pauper, it is not possible to say which Mauch played which. The original plan was, not to have one play Prince and the other Pauper, but to have Billy play all the palace scenes and Bobby play all the guttersnipe scenes, regardless of which character appeared in them. This plan came to nothing because it suited the Mauch twins’ sense of humor to switch from time to time. This was by no means the first trick of the kind they had played. The Mauch brothers got their Hollywood jobs not because they looked alike but because they both look like Fredric March. Producer Wallis, who had been scouring the U. For a ten-year-old to play young Anthony in March’s Anthony Adverse, found the Mauchs, signed Billy for the part. In Anthony Adverse Bobby Mauch’s job was stand-in for his brother. Actually he did nothing of the sort. When the picture was over, he and Billy confessed to Director Mervyn Le Roy that they had switched jobs whenever they felt like it. Neither Director Le Roy nor anyone else knew the difference at the time or in the picture. Sons of an employe of the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroad, the Mauchs were born in 1924. Billy is the older by ten minutes. Their mother, delighted with her product, had them taught to dance before they went to school. By the time they were seven, the little Mauchs were acting on radio and posing for ads in their spare time. Their jobs were comparatively easy because whenever one felt unlike working the other took his place. By the time they got their Warner contract in 1935, the Mauchs had had experience on programs like Lucky Strike. Show Boat and THE MARCH OF TIME. After Anthony Adverse, Bobby Mauch was cast in Penrod & Sam. Again he and Billy took turns acting and. When Warners drew up a new contract, Mrs. Mauch refused to let one son perform as stand-in for the other on the ground that it might give him an inferiority complex. When studio executives demurred, Mrs. Mauch threatened to let Warners keep one twin, sign the other with a rival studio. Until last week, Father Felix Mauch, currently a general agent for the Toledo, Peoria & Western, lived and worked in New York, dashing out West to see his sons on his vacations. Between pictures his sons visited him in the East. The Mauchs travel by train, because they consider that planes are injurious to their father’s business. On the screen the Mauchs’ main defects are their Midwest accents. Their major assets are energy, lack of precocity and a wholesome distaste for showing off, which prevents them from trying to steal scenes like most of their contemporaries. Off screen, the Mauchs’ most apparent assets are good brains. Both are currently well ahead of the average in their lessons. Most serious off-screen defect in the Mauchs is their enthusiasm for capitalizing their similarity of appearance to fool acquaintances. When not practicing this hobby, the Mauchs are easily distinguish able. Contrary to legend, Mrs. Mauch can always tell her sons apart when they are awake. She sometimes makes a mistake when both are asleep. To avoid waking the wrong twin the morning when only one has to go to work early, the Mauch family has worked out a system. The Mauch who has worked late the night before leaves make-up on his arm. Only the clean twin is disturbed next day. Invariable question raised by every cinema fan magazine about every child actor is whether or not the child actor is unspoiled. Equally invariable is the fan magazine answer: No. Whether or not the Mauchs are unspoiled, time will tell. Tricking people about their identity, however, is by no means the only Mauch peccadillo. Two years ago, when Bobby was sick, the Mauch twins got a chemistry set. With it they have since compounded a mixture of ink and ketchup for making spots on bedspreads; an ink spot remover, for removing the spots; and a rotten egg extract, for harmlessly discommoding din ner guests at the Mauch apartment on Franklin Avenue. When not engaged in chemistry, the Mauchs invent other contrivances. Their most formidable invention was a submarine in which Bobby took the maiden voyage. In addition to being inventors, the Mauchs are pugilists, speculators, sportsmen, collectors and litterateurs. As litterateurs, the Mauchs have written several scenarios for themselves and other Warner actors. None has so far been accepted. Their tastes in reading are catholic. Recently Billy Mauch read Alexis Carrel’s Man, the Unknown. Last Christmas both were reading Gulliver’s Travels. One day Father Mauch, who was paying them a visit, fell asleep on a sofa. They found two spools of thread, wound it around him so that when he woke up he found himself in the same predicament as Gulliver in Lilliput. Mauch extricated her husband with a pair of scissors. What will become of the Mauchs, not even their parents dare to guess. Neither wants to be an actor. Currently, Bobby wants to be a civil engineer, Billy a doctor. Past ambitions of the Mauchs were to be baseball players, transport pilots, acrobats, firemen, G-Men. Both intend to go to college. Last fortnight the Mauchs were in New York for a holiday. This week they were back in Hollywood, ready to start work on the next Mauch picture-probably an adaptation of Hugh Walpole’s book, A Prayer For My Son. Billy and Bobby were born in Peoria, Illinois, to Felix, an employee of the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railroad and Marguerite Mauch, née Burley. [2] Billy was older than Bobby by ten minutes. They began singing and acting in radio at the age of seven[2] and later appeared in print advertisements before signing a contract with Warner Bros. After moving with their mother to Hollywood in 1935, Billy was cast as the young title character in the film Anthony Adverse because he resembled Fredric March, [1][2] who was to play Adverse as an adult. His brother Bobby was his stand-in for the role, but the brothers, whose voice and appearance were almost indistinguishable, later claimed that they had freely alternated who would play the part in the takes. [2] The picture earned them the cover story in the May 3, 1937 issue of Time magazine. The twins went on to appear together in three films based on the Penrod stories by Booth Tarkington, but Bobby ended his acting career shortly afterwards. Billy and Bobby both attended Loyola High School in Los Angeles before graduating from the Mar-Ken School for professional children, in Hollywood. During their senior year, they ran jointly for the office of class president under the campaign slogan Two Heads Are Better than One. In 1943 the brothers appeared in the Broadway play Winged Victory, then saw actual military service together in World War II, stationed in the Pacific. After the war, Billy continued to play minor roles in films, the last of which was the comedy Bedtime for Bonzo (1951), which famously starred Ronald Reagan and a chimpanzee. Interested in the technical aspects of movie-making, both brothers eventually found employment in that field. Bobby became a film editor whose work included the 1950s television series Dragnet. [1] In 1950 Billy became a sound editor for Warner Brothers and went on to work on more than 300 films and television shows. He created the sound effects for the car chase in Bullitt and the giant ants in Them! . Billy and his wife Marjorie, who were married 53 years, had one son, William J. Mauch II, named after himself. Billy died, aged 85, in his home in Palatine, Illinois. Bobby Mauch married professional figure skater Georgia “Gigi” Shattuck, whom he first met at the Mar-Ken School in the 1940s, [2] but married in 1971. They had no children. He died, aged 86, at a nursing home in Santa Rosa, California. Bobby Mauch, who played the pauper or was it the prince? In the rambunctious 1937 film of Mark Twain’s “Prince and the Pauper” opposite his spitting-image twin brother, Billy, who portrayed the prince or was it the other way around? 15 near his home in Santa Rosa, Calif. The cause was heart failure, his wife, Georgia, said. Twelve years old, 5 feet tall and 99 pounds apiece, the winsome, blue-eyed Mauch (rhymes with walk) brothers were cast, along with Errol Flynn, in the Warner Brothers talkie version of Twain’s tale of the beggar lad Tom Canty. There had been a silent version in 1915. Tom, the son of a pickpocket, wanders onto the grounds of the Palace of Westminster and meets his stunning look-alike, Prince Edward, son of Henry VIII. As a joke, Tom trades his rags for princely robes, then inadvertently finds himself filling in as royalty while the real prince is kicked and belittled while roaming with knaves and cutthroats through the streets of 16th-century London. Billy Mauch, 10 minutes older than Bobby, was cast by the director, William Keighley, as the prince; Bobby as the pauper. But, as they had before in another movie, the boys sometimes secretly traded roles, tricking the entire cast and crew. Their mother, who had taken them to Hollywood in the early 1930s, could tell them apart, theoretically. But as she told Time magazine, which ran their faces side by side on its cover in November 1937, that was only possible when the boys were awake and Billy was wearing his glasses; or when it was obvious that Bobby was right-handed and Billy left-handed. In his May 6, 1937, review, The New York Times film critic Frank S. Nugent wrote: Bobby and Billy justify their twinship completely, not merely by investing the Twain legend of mistaken royal identity with a pleasing degree of credibility, but by playing their roles with such straightforwardness and naturalness that the picture becomes one of the most likable entertainments of the year. The boys first came to Hollywood’s attention not because of their mirror image, but because they fit the bill of resembling a very young Fredric March in the 1936 film “Anthony Adverse, ” about an abandoned child who later wanders the world. Billy was signed to play the preteen Anthony, with Bobby as his stand-in. Later they confessed to the director, Mervyn LeRoy, that they had taken turns playing the role. “I won’t be a stand-in for anybody, not even my brother, ” Bobby Mauch told The New York American in August 1936. Robert Joseph and William John Mauch were born in Peoria, Ill. On July 6, 1921. Billy Mauch died last year. The boys’ father was a ticket agent for the Toledo, Peoria & Western Railway. Their mother started teaching the boys to dance when they were 3. At 7 they were singing and acting on the radio. Mauch took them to Hollywood. Saturday Night Live’ Takes on the N. S Jon Gruden Scandal. John Grisham on Judges, Innocence and the Judgments He Ignores. Continue reading the main story. After the “Prince and the Pauper, ” the twins appeared together in several more films, including “Penrod and His Twin Brother” and “Penrod’s Double Trouble, ” sometimes flipping a coin to choose their roles. During World War II they served together in the military in the Pacific, and acted together on Broadway in Moss Hart’s “Winged Victory, ” a wartime morale booster starring servicemen. Bobby Mauch later became a film editor in Hollywood. His brother worked at Warner Brothers as a sound editor. In 1971 Bobby Mauch married Georgia Shattuck; she is his only immediate survivor. They first met in high school, at the Mar-Ken School for professional children in Hollywood. Reached at home in Santa Rosa yesterday, Mrs. Mauch recalled how the twins had run, together, for senior class president, with her as their campaign manager. Their winning slogan: Two Heads Are Better Than One. Sound Effects and Dialogue Editor. Born July 6, 1921 in Peoria, Illinois, longtime motion picture and television sound effects and dialogue editor William John Mauch passed away September 29, 2006 of respiratory failure. Mauch began his show business career singing with his twin brother, Robert, on radio in Peoria. In the early 1930s, they were under contract to CBS and NBC radio in New York with major parts in Let’s Pretend, March of Time and others. They also modeled for General Motors, Ivory Soap and Underwood Typewriters. Then Hollywood beckoned and the brothers starred in The Prince and the Pauper and the Penrod and Sam series. Bill also played Anthony as a boy in Anthony Adverse. Appearing on Broadway in Winged Victory, and later in the film version, Mauch was a freelance actor in Hollywood in the 1940s. He joined Warner Bros. In 1950 as a sound editor, creating many audio effects–among them the famous car chase scene in Bullitt, as well as the sounds of the ants in Them. In 1967, he became a dialogue editor at Warners and in 1976 joined Universal Studios as a dialogue loop editor. Before his retirement in 1986, Mauch had worked on well over 300 films and TV series, the last one being Murder She Wrote. Mauch attended Loyola High School in Los Angeles and Mar-Ken Professional School in Hollywood. He served in the United States 13th Army Air Force in World War II in the Philippines. He was a member of Editors Guild Local 776. He had resided in Palatine, Illinois, near Chicago, with his wife for the past 20 years. For several years beginning in 1987, Mauch volunteered with the Palatine Police Department, reviewing training videotapes, and cataloguing and editing entries. He also volunteered at American Cable Systems Access Studio. Mauch is survived by his loving wife of 53 years, Marjorie; his brother, Robert of Santa Rosa, California; and his son, William of Houston, Texas. A funeral mass was held at St. Mary Church in Kickapoo, Illinois on October 4, 2006 and internment was at Swan Lake Cemetery in Peoria. Billy and Bobby Mauch. Born in Peoria, Illinois. On July 6, 1924. Billy Mauch in The White Angel #401 The Mauch Twins publicity photo #402 Bobby Mauch publicity photo #408. Billy and Bobby Mauch were identical twins. When Billy was cast in “Anthony Adverse, ” Bobby was to be his stand-in for unimportant scenes. Once the film was completed, however, the twins revealed to director Mervyn LeRoy that that had taken turns playing the lead role throughout the movie, confident that no one would notice. They are said to have played the same trick during the filming of “The White Angel, ” where Billy again was cast as the lead. The only noticeable difference between them is that Billy is left-handed, and Bobby is right-handed. The term child actor or child actress is generally applied to a child acting on stage or in movies or television, but also to an adult who began their acting career as a child. To avoid confusion, the latter is also called a former child actor. Closely associated is teenage actor or teen actor, an actor who reached popularity as a teenager. Many child actors find themselves struggling to adapt as they become adults, mainly due to typecasting. Macaulay Culkin and Lindsay Lohan are two particular famous child actors who eventually experienced much difficulty with the fame they acquired at a young age. Some child actors do go on to have successful acting careers as adults; notable actors who first gained fame as children include Kurt Russell, Jodie Foster, Christian Bale, Elijah Wood, Natalie Portman, Lacey Chabert, and Scarlett Johansson. Other child actors have gone on to successful careers in other fields, including director Ron Howard, politicians Lech and Jaroslaw Kaczynski, and singer Jenny Lewis. After the childhood success. In the United States, the activities of child actors are regulated by the governing labor union, if any, and state laws. Some projects film in distant locations specifically to evade regulations intended to protect the child. Longer work hours or risky stunts prohibited by California, for example, might be permitted to a project filming in British Columbia. US federal law specifically exempted minors working in the Entertainment Business from all provisions of the Child Labor Laws. Any regulation of child actors is governed by disparate state laws. Due to the large presence of the entertainment industry in Hollywood, the state of California has some of the most explicit laws protecting child actors. Being a minor, a child actor must secure an entertainment work permit before accepting any paid performing work. Compulsory education laws mandate that the education of the child actor not be disrupted while the child is working, whether the child actor is enrolled in public school, private school or even home school. The child does their schoolwork under the supervision of a studio teacher while on the set. In the United Kingdom, a child actor is defined as someone under school leaving age. [1][2] A child requires three hours minimum of tutoring daily and a lesson must be a minimum of 30 minutes to count towards the total and with regards to 16 and 17-year-olds in further education, considerations are made in regards to their studies. There are regulations and guidance to safeguard all actors under the age of 18; OFCOM guidance states a child’s health and safety, wellbeing and welfare is paramount in television production and factors such as their age, maturity and life experiences can affect their performance. [4] OFCOM also advises that broadcasters undertake risk assessments, consider seeking expert advice and follow best practise. Jackie Coogan earned millions of dollars from working as a child actor only to see most of it squandered by his parents. In 1939, California weighed in on this controversy and enacted the Coogan Bill, which requires a portion of the earnings of a child to be preserved in a special savings account called a blocked trust. Also criticize the parents of child actors for allowing their children to work, believing that more “normal” activities should be the staple during the childhood years. Observe that competition is present in all areas of a child’s life-from sports to student newspaper to orchestra and band-and believe that the work ethic instilled or the talent developed accrues to the child’s benefit. The child actor may experience unique and negative pressures when working under tight production schedules. Large projects which depend for their success on the ability of the child to deliver an effective performance add to the pressure. Ethel Merman, who several times worked in long-running stage productions with child actors, disliked what she eventually saw as their overprofessionalization-“acting more like midgets than children”-and disapproved of parents pushing adulthood on them. This section possibly contains synthesis of material which does not verifiably mention or relate to the main topic. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. (May 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Jodie Foster in 1974. There are many instances of troubled adult lives due to the stressful environment to which child actors are subjected. It is common to see a child actor grow up in front of the camera, whether in films, TV shows or both. However, it is not uncommon to see child actors continue their careers throughout as actors or in a different professional field. Jodie Foster started acting at age 3, becoming the quintessential child actor during the 1970s with roles in films such as Tom Sawyer (1973), Alice Doesn’t Live Here Anymore (1974), Taxi Driver (1976), Bugsy Malone (1976), The Little Girl Who Lives Down the Lane (1976), and Freaky Friday (1976). A child prodigy, Foster received her first Academy Award nomination at age 13 and later took a sabbatical from films to attend Yale University. She made a successful transition to adult roles, winning two Academy Awards for Best Actress before the age of 30, and starring in several successful and acclaimed films such as The Accused (1988), The Silence of the Lambs (1991), Nell (1994), Maverick (1994), Contact (1997), and The Brave One (2007), thus establishing herself as one of the most accomplished and sought-after actresses of her generation. Now adults, Daniel Radcliffe, Rupert Grint and Emma Watson, the three leads of the acclaimed Harry Potter film series (2001-11), starred in every installment in the series, and have since continued to act in film, television, and theater in their early 30s. Her performance earned her a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination at age 8 in 2002, making her the youngest nominee in SAG history. She later appeared in major Hollywood productions, in such acclaimed blockbuster films as Man on Fire (2004), War of the Worlds (2005), Charlotte’s Web (2006), Hounddog (2007), The Secret Life of Bees (2008), Coraline (2009), The Twilight Saga film series (2009-12), The Runaways (2010), and The Motel Life (2012). Fanning’s younger sister, Elle Fanning also rose to prominence as a child actress, having appeared in many films since before she turned 3. Miranda Cosgrove, known mainly for her role on Nickelodeon’s Drake & Josh as a child, gained more attention for her role as a teenager in the show iCarly. Since the end of the show she has been featured in other roles, including as the voice of Margo in the Despicable Me franchise. Once she was of age, she decided to pursue a college degree in film at the University of Southern California. Late actress Shirley Temple became a public figure and diplomat, beginning in the 1960s. Ambassador in countries such as Ghana and Czechoslovakia. Mary-Kate Olsen was treated for an eating disorder, deemed anorexia, but her twin sister remained less troubled. In an article with the magazine Marie Claire, Mary-Kate expressed the bittersweet nature of the twins’ childhood. “I look at old photos of me, and I don’t feel connected to them at all, ” she said. I would never wish my upbringing on anyone… But I wouldn’t take it back for the world. Since the beginning of her career at age 15 in 1999, Mandy Moore is one of the child stars to have success as an adult. Drew Barrymore started acting at age 3. During her childhood she battled with drugs, but today she continues to act in films. Natalie Portman took a small break in acting to get a bachelor’s degree in Psychology from Harvard University before continuing her career as an actress. Rider Strong, known as “Shawn Hunter” in Boy Meets World, was educated at Columbia University and now runs a successful blog and published a graphic novel. [11] Neil Patrick Harris got his acting start in Doogie Howser, M. He continues to act in television, films and theater. Jonathan Lipnicki, known mostly for the Stuart Little films, now successfully competes in Brazilian jiu-jitsu. [11] Sara Gilbert is known for her role on Roseanne and later created and served as a co-host for CBS’s The Talk. Also from Roseanne, Michael Fishman continued to work in film, but behind the scenes and has since been nominated for an Emmy for the work he did in Sports Science. [11] Kirsten Dunst and Lacey Chabert both made the transition from a child actress to an adult actress with a rough patch including depression. After a stay in a rehabilitation center, Dunst was able to recover and continue her career. She proves that the pressures of growing up under the spotlight may not come without repercussions. Roddy McDowall, who had a long and outstanding career including as the regular star of the Planet of the Apes series; Micky Dolenz, who started his career as a child star in the 1950s, grew up to be a musician of the successful 1960s pop group The Monkees, which had its own successful television show; Ron Howard, who, in addition to being the star of both of the long running The Andy Griffith Show and Happy Days television series, became an Academy Award-winning director in adulthood; Elijah Wood, who continued his career successfully into adulthood, starring as Frodo Baggins in The Lord of the Rings film series and starring as Ryan Newman in the television series Wilfred. Many actors’ careers are short-lived and this is also true of child actors. Many actors out of personal choice that start their careers as child actors decide not to pursue the same careers as adults, Shirley Temple became a public figure and diplomat. Peter Ostrum, appearing in his only role, the titular character of Charlie Bucket in Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory became a large-scale veterinarian surgeon. Whilst Jenny Lewis, formerly of film Troop Beverly Hills in 1989, is a well-known singer-songwriter indie rock musician. In Poland, former child actors and identical twin brothers Lech and Jaroslaw Kaczynski became successful politicians, at one time Lech being President and Jaroslaw the Prime Minister. List of child actors. Worked as child actor with identical twin brother, Bobby Mauch. They are best remembered for their performance in Mark Twain’s “The Prince and the Pauper” which “stole the show” from Errol Flynn, Alan Hale and Claude Rains. Became a sound engineer. From the September 30, 1938 Mar-Ken Journal. Jackie Morrow, after working in several of the “Penrod” series which starred our new pupils “The Mauch Twins” has also worked in Boystown. Wilber could tell them. From the October 13, 1938 Mar-Ken Journal. THINGS WE COULDN’T DO WITHOUT: Mauch Twins – Their giggle. The Mauch twins are trying very hard to get to school on time lately. Here’s luck to them. From the October 28, 1938 Mar-Ken Journal. Billy Mauch is 10th Grade (Sophomore) Class Vice-President. From the December 16, 1938 Mar-Ken Journal. WHAT THEY ARE DOING FOR CHRISTMAS – Mauch Twins: Roughing in the woods. WHAT THEY WANT FROM SANTA CLAUS – Mauch Twins: Motor for a scooter-bike. From the January 24, 1940 Mar-Ken Journal. SNOOPER: What’s the great secret the 12th grade has in store for the high-school. Bill and Bob Mauch, President of the senior grade, stated Just wait and see, we promise to surprise even ourselves. Seen stalking one field mouse while hunting were the Mauchs. Speaking of the Mauchs, Bob Mauch is reputed to play a spanking good game of Monopoly, so you monopoly fans take heed. From the 1940 Mar-Ken Yearbook, as a Junior. WILLIAM JOHN AND ROBERT MAUCH – – Billy and Bobby to you, were born July 6th in Peoria, Illinois. Billy likes to collect stamps while Bobby enjoys collecting curios. Both of these boys like football, women and the songs “Intermezzo” and “All the Things You Are”. Billy hopes to be a doctor; Bobby wants to do something for mankind for which he shall be remembered. Co-Vice President Junior Class, 1940. From the September 27, 1940 Mar-Ken Journal. SNOOPER: Guest night at the Orpheum might have been called “Mar-Ken Night” one evening last week with the bright array of talent from ye halls of learnin. Seen heartily enjoying themselves were Linda Ware, Jackie Moran, Ann Gillis and those men about town the Mauchs. From the October 11, 1940 Mar-Ken Journal. The Mauch twins rounded out the evenings entertainment with a duet and a song of their own composition at the Mar-Ken Get Acquainted Party given by the school faculty on the evening of September 27. Seniors – Class Officers Elected: Elected by a large vote, Bill and Bob Mauch have assumed the roll of Senior Class President for the year 1941. From the October 25, 1940 Mar-Ken Journal. WHO’S WHO: Among the Seniors Are – The Presidents – Bill Mauch. Billy would like to be a doctor. Are you going to specialize in “heart” trouble, Billy? His hobbies are stamp collecting and photography. He’s the other half when you find yourself seeing double. SENIOR DINNER PARTY: October 11, was the date of the first Senior activity of the term – attended by all members of the graduating class. / Given at the home of June Carlson and sponsored by the 12th grade officers, the evening was highlighted by “Charades” with Bill and Bob Mauch as Captains of competitive teams. / Particularly good pantomimes were provided by Tina Thayer enacting “Birth of a Nation, ” “Quality of mercy is not strained” by June Carlson; “To be or not to be, ” given by William John Bernard Mauch; “Grand Illusion” acted out by Janice Chambers. / Dancing and a buffet dinner were significant aspects of the festivity. Curfew hour was announced at 12:00 by those members of the faculty who had joined the party. / When interviewed by a reporter, Senior members stated: Bob Mauch – “Swell time”; Mary Alice Dill – “Terrific”; June Carlson – “I had a good time, hope everybody else did too”; David Tillotson – Bill ate a lot. SNOOPER: Badminton games are again THE thing with Mar-Kenites and many students of the Senior class may be found at Jean Gordon’s. Seen at Gordon adobe Monday evening were Ray Dixon, Bill and Jeanne Johnston, June Carlson and the Mauchs. From the November 8, 1940 Mar-Ken Journal. HALLOWEEN PARTY. The floor show included tap dancing by Jeanne Johnston, dances by the De Clerq sisters and original songs by Linda Ware and the Mauchs. / The evening was highlighted by a dramatic play entitled J. Rides Again” or “Empty Saddles. The case included the Mauchs, Jack Moran, and Bill Johnston. The melodrama practically brought down the house!! SNOOPER: Viewing the cinema Saturday evening were Mildred Schenk and Bill Mauch. / Such Mar-Ken luminaries as Mary Alice Dill, Bill Johnston, June Carlson, the Machs, and Diana Patterson were seen chasing one very small turkey for the senior Halloween party – – your reporter hears tell fun was had by all but the turkey. From the November 20, 1940 Mar-Ken Journal. THANKSGIVING PLANS: Mauchs – Going hunting!! From the 1941 Mar-Ken Yearbook, as a Senior. Being a twin presented a very interesting problem when the time came for the election of the Senior officers. Consequently, it all ended with two presidents in one. Bill is one of the two. He works hard for his class and plays hard on activities. All in all, he helps the class have a good time. As means of relaxation, music and photography get his vote. Next year he plans to go to Notre Dame and study for the medical profession. Links to other resources about William John Mauch. How many people can you think of that have appeared on the cover of Time Magazine that are now largely forgotten by the pages of history? I had never heard of the Mauch Twins (pronounced “Mock”,) until I acquired a stash of movie star scrapbooks from an elderly woman in Ohio. She had meticulously cut out articles and pictures of her favorite stars, when she was growing up in the 1930’s and 1940’s. Among her articles were those of Billy and Bobby Mauch, identical twin child actors of that time. I had to know more. Here is their story. Billy and Bobby Mauch were born on July 6, 1921 in Peoria, Illinois. Billy was the older twin by ten minutes. Their father, Felix, worked for the railroad and their mother, Dorothy, a homemaker, was also a twin. She taught the boys songs, and they began to entertain at banquets and radio stations in Peoria, eventually moving to New York. Billy and Bobby auditioned there and were signed for CBS and NBC radio, performing on shows such as “Beauty Box Revue, ” “Lucky Strike, ” “Show Boat, ” and March of Time. Besides singing, the twins could also dance and play the piano. In New York the boys attended The Professional Children School. It was their radio work and appearance in the musical comedy, Mr. Smith, that brought them to the attention of Warner Brothers. They were on the look-out for a child actor to play a young Frederic March in the movie Anthony Adverse. Warner Brothers wanted a boy that resembled Frederic March at a younger age. After auditioning, Warner’s only wanted to sign Billy, but Mrs. Mauch insisted that Bobby be signed also, and Bobby was the stand-in. The twins were very close and devoted to each other. Billy and Bobby were notorious for their practical jokes and switching places constantly, even while filming. Their mother also had trouble telling them apart. She told an interviewer that Bobby wears a ring with a setting, and Billy wears a plain band ring. The interviewer asked how could she be positive that they never swapped rings? When the Mauch Twins moved to Hollywood, they attended the famous Mar-Ken Professional School. Besides, “Anthony Adverse” in 1936, their other big role came in 1937’s The Prince and the Pauper. Critics complained because Errol Flynn (the star of the film) was not in it that much. Between 1937 and 1938, the boys starred in the “Penrod” series of films about a group of Junior G-Men who tried to solve crimes. Bill and Bobby did not want to be film actors when they grew up, they were more interested in behind the scenes. Although, they did some acting separately up until the 1950’s, the Mauch twins also served in the Air Force during World War ll in the Philippines. Billy Mauch eventually became a sound editor at Warner Brothers and Universal and Bobby Mauch became a film editor with work on the TV show, “Dragnet, ” among other shows. Billy married Marjorie Barnewolt in 1953 and had a son, William J. Mauch ll; Bobby married Georgia Shattuck in 1971 and had no children. In child actress Sybil Jason’s book, “Five Minutes More, ” Sybil recalled a time when she decided to invite a whole list of child stars she worked with at Warner Brothers for her husband’s surprise birthday party in 1979. Sybil invited both Billy and Bobby Mauch, but only Bobby was able to make it. She remembered how Mrs. Mauch (their mother) was surprised that Sybil was the only one who could tell the twins apart. Bobby and Sybil rekindled their friendship. In Sybil Jason’s book, “My Fifteen Minutes, ” Bob Mauch quoted, To be a friend of Sybil Jason you know you have a real friend. She has a sense of humor and a way of knowing how you feel and is willing to help in any way. The years go by but Sybil remains Sybil. A treasure for all who are blessed by her friendship. I know Bill (Mauch) feels the same way. William “Billy” Mauch died on September 29, 2006 at the age of 85 and is buried Swan Lake Memory Garden in Peoria, Illinois. Robert “Bobby” Mauch died on October 15, 2007 at the age of 86 and was cremated. Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), [1] known by his pen name Mark Twain, was an American writer, humorist, entrepreneur, publisher, and lecturer. He was lauded as the “greatest humorist the United States has produced”, [2] and William Faulkner called him “the father of American literature”. [3] His novels include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876) and its sequel, Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), [4] the latter of which has often been called the “Great American Novel”. Twain was raised in Hannibal, Missouri, which later provided the setting for Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. He served an apprenticeship with a printer and then worked as a typesetter, contributing articles to the newspaper of his older brother Orion Clemens. He later became a riverboat pilot on the Mississippi River before heading west to join Orion in Nevada. He referred humorously to his lack of success at mining, turning to journalism for the Virginia City Territorial Enterprise. [5] His humorous story “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” was published in 1865, based on a story that he heard at Angels Hotel in Angels Camp, California, where he had spent some time as a miner. The short story brought international attention and was even translated into French. [6] His wit and satire, in prose and in speech, earned praise from critics and peers, and he was a friend to presidents, artists, industrialists, and European royalty. He filed for bankruptcy in the wake of these financial setbacks, but in time overcame his financial troubles with the help of Henry Huttleston Rogers. He eventually paid all his creditors in full, even though his bankruptcy relieved him of having to do so. Twain was born shortly after an appearance of Halley’s Comet, and he predicted that he would “go out with it” as well, dying the day after the comet made its closest approach to Earth. In the American West. Love of science and technology. Later life and death. Early journalism and travelogues. Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn. Samuel Clemens, age 15. Samuel Langhorne Clemens was born on November 30, 1835, in Florida, Missouri. His parents met when his father moved to Missouri. They were married in 1823. [7][8] Twain was of Cornish, English, and Scots-Irish descent. When he was four, Twain’s family moved to Hannibal, Missouri, [15] a port town on the Mississippi River that inspired the fictional town of St. Petersburg in The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. [16] Slavery was legal in Missouri at the time, and it became a theme in these writings. His father was an attorney and judge, who died of pneumonia in 1847, when Twain was 11. [17] The following year, Twain left school after the fifth grade to become a printer’s apprentice. [1] In 1851, he began working as a typesetter, contributing articles and humorous sketches to the Hannibal Journal, a newspaper that Orion owned. When he was 18, he left Hannibal and worked as a printer in New York City, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and Cincinnati, joining the newly formed International Typographical Union, the printers trade union. He educated himself in public libraries in the evenings, finding wider information than at a conventional school. Twain describes his boyhood in Life on the Mississippi, stating that “there was but one permanent ambition” among his comrades: to be a steamboatman. Pilot was the grandest position of all. The pilot, even in those days of trivial wages, had a princely salary – from a hundred and fifty to two hundred and fifty dollars a month, and no board to pay. As Twain described it, the pilot’s prestige exceeded that of the captain. The pilot had to get up a warm personal acquaintanceship with every old snag and one-limbed cottonwood and every obscure wood pile that ornaments the banks of this river for twelve hundred miles; and more than that, must… Actually know where these things are in the dark. Steamboat pilot Horace E. Bixby took Twain on as a cub pilot to teach him the river between New Orleans and St. Twain studied the Mississippi, learning its landmarks, how to navigate its currents effectively, and how to read the river and its constantly shifting channels, reefs, submerged snags, and rocks that would “tear the life out of the strongest vessel that ever floated”. [19] It was more than two years before he received his pilot’s license. Piloting also gave him his pen name from “mark twain”, the leadsman’s cry for a measured river depth of two fathoms (12 feet), which was safe water for a steamboat. As a young pilot, Clemens served on the steamer A. Chambers with Grant Marsh, who became famous for his exploits as a steamboat captain on the Missouri River. The two liked each other, and admired one another, and maintained a correspondence for many years after Clemens left the river. While training, Samuel convinced his younger brother Henry to work with him, and even arranged a post of mud clerk for him on the steamboat Pennsylvania. On June 13, 1858, the steamboat’s boiler exploded; Henry succumbed to his wounds on June 21. Twain claimed to have foreseen this death in a dream a month earlier, [23]:? Which inspired his interest in parapsychology; he was an early member of the Society for Psychical Research. [24] Twain was guilt-stricken and held himself responsible for the rest of his life. He continued to work on the river and was a river pilot until the Civil War broke out in 1861, when traffic was curtailed along the Mississippi River. At the start of hostilities, he enlisted briefly in a local Confederate unit. He later wrote the sketch “The Private History of a Campaign That Failed”, describing how he and his friends had been Confederate volunteers for two weeks before disbanding. He then left for Nevada to work for his brother Orion, who was Secretary of the Nevada Territory. Twain describes the episode in his book Roughing It. Orion became secretary to Nevada Territory governor James W. Nye in 1861, and Twain joined him when he moved west. The brothers traveled more than two weeks on a stagecoach across the Great Plains and the Rocky Mountains, visiting the Mormon community in Salt Lake City. Twain’s journey ended in the silver-mining town of Virginia City, Nevada, where he became a miner on the Comstock Lode. [25] He failed as a miner and went to work at the Virginia City newspaper Territorial Enterprise, [28] working under a friend, the writer Dan DeQuille. He first used his pen name here on February 3, 1863, when he wrote a humorous travel account titled Letter From Carson – re: Joe Goodman; party at Gov. Johnson’s; music” and signed it “Mark Twain. His experiences in the American West inspired Roughing It, written during 1870-71 and published in 1872. His experiences in Angels Camp (in Calaveras County, California) provided material for “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” (1865). Twain moved to San Francisco in 1864, still as a journalist, and met writers such as Bret Harte and Artemus Ward. He may have been romantically involved with the poet Ina Coolbrith. His first success as a writer came when his humorous tall tale “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” was published on November 18, 1865, in the New York weekly The Saturday Press, bringing him national attention. His letters to the Union were popular and became the basis for his first lectures. In 1867, a local newspaper funded his trip to the Mediterranean aboard the Quaker City, including a tour of Europe and the Middle East. He wrote a collection of travel letters which were later compiled as The Innocents Abroad (1869). It was on this trip that he met fellow passenger Charles Langdon, who showed him a picture of his sister Olivia. Twain later claimed to have fallen in love at first sight. Upon returning to the United States, Twain was offered honorary membership in Yale University’s secret society Scroll and Key in 1868. Twain with American Civil War correspondent and author George Alfred Townsend, and David Gray, editor of the rival Buffalo Courier[35]. Twain House in Hartford, Connecticut. Twain and Olivia Langdon corresponded throughout 1868. After she rejected his first marriage proposal, they were married in Elmira, New York in February 1870, [32] where he courted her and managed to overcome her father’s initial reluctance. [36] She came from a “wealthy but liberal family”; through her, he met abolitionists, “socialists, principled atheists and activists for women’s rights and social equality”, including Harriet Beecher Stowe, Frederick Douglass, and utopian socialist writer William Dean Howells, [37] who became a long-time friend. The Clemenses lived in Buffalo, New York, from 1869 to 1871. He owned a stake in the Buffalo Express newspaper and worked as an editor and writer. [38][35] While they were living in Buffalo, their son Langdon died of diphtheria at the age of 19 months. The Clemenses formed a friendship with David Gray, who worked as an editor of the rival Buffalo Courier, and his wife Martha. Twain later wrote that the Grays were “‘all the solace’ he and Livy had during their’sorrowful and pathetic brief sojourn in Buffalo'”, and that Gray’s “delicate gift for poetry” was wasted working for a newspaper. In November 1872, Twain was a passenger on the Cunard Line steamship Batavia which rescued the nine surviving crew of the British barque Charles Ward. Twain witnessed the rescue, and wrote to the Royal Humane Society recommending them to honour Batavia’s captain and the lifeboat’s crew. [40] Starting in 1873, Twain moved his family to Hartford, Connecticut, where he arranged the building of a home next door to Stowe. In the 1870s and 1880s, the family summered at Quarry Farm in Elmira, the home of Olivia’s sister, Susan Crane. [41][42] In 1874, [41] Susan had a study built apart from the main house so that Twain would have a quiet place in which to write. Also, he smoked cigars constantly, and Susan did not want him to do so in her house. They include The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), The Prince and the Pauper (1881), Life on the Mississippi (1883), Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), and A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1889). The couple’s marriage lasted 34 years until Olivia’s death in 1904. All of the Clemens family are buried in Elmira’s Woodlawn Cemetery. Twain in the laboratory of Nikola Tesla, early 1894. Twain was fascinated with science and scientific inquiry. He developed a close and lasting friendship with Nikola Tesla, and the two spent much time together in Tesla’s laboratory. Twain patented three inventions, including an “Improvement in Adjustable and Detachable Straps for Garments” (to replace suspenders) and a history trivia game. [43][44] Most commercially successful was a self-pasting scrapbook; a dried adhesive on the pages needed only to be moistened before use. Twain was an early proponent of fingerprinting as a forensic technique, featuring it in a tall tale in Life on the Mississippi (1883) and as a central plot element in the novel Pudd’nhead Wilson (1894). Twain’s novel A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court (1889) features a time traveler from the contemporary U. Using his knowledge of science to introduce modern technology to Arthurian England. This type of historical manipulation became a trope of speculative fiction as alternate histories. In 1909, Thomas Edison visited Twain at Stormfield, his home in Redding, Connecticut and filmed him. Part of the footage was used in The Prince and the Pauper (1909), a two-reel short film. It is the only known existing film footage of Twain. He invested mostly in new inventions and technology, particularly the Paige typesetting machine. It was a beautifully engineered mechanical marvel that amazed viewers when it worked, but it was prone to breakdowns. He lost the bulk of his book profits, as well as a substantial portion of his wife’s inheritance. Twain and his family closed down their expensive Hartford home in response to the dwindling income and moved to Europe in June 1891. Laffan of The New York Sun and the McClure Newspaper Syndicate offered him the publication of a series of six European letters. Twain, Olivia, and their daughter Susy were all faced with health problems, and they believed that it would be of benefit to visit European baths. The family stayed mainly in France, Germany, and Italy until May 1895, with longer spells at Berlin (winter 1891-92), Florence (fall and winter 1892-93), and Paris (winters and springs 1893-94 and 1894-95). Twain’s writings and lectures enabled him to recover financially, combined with the help of his friend, Henry Huttleston Rogers. [50] In 1893 he began a friendship with the financier, a principal of Standard Oil, that lasted the remainder of his life. Rogers first made him file for bankruptcy in April 1894, then had him transfer the copyrights on his written works to his wife to prevent creditors from gaining possession of them. Twain accepted an offer from Robert Sparrow Smythe[51] and embarked on a year-long around-the-world lecture tour in July 1895[52] to pay off his creditors in full, although he was no longer under any legal obligation to do so. [53] It was a long, arduous journey, and he was sick much of the time, mostly from a cold and a carbuncle. The first part of the itinerary took him across northern America to British Columbia, Canada, until the second half of August. For the second part, he sailed across the Pacific Ocean. [54] Twain went on to Fiji, Australia, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, India, Mauritius, and South Africa. His three months in India became the centerpiece of his 712-page book Following the Equator. In the second half of July 1896, he sailed back to England, completing his circumnavigation of the world begun 14 months before. Twain and his family spent four more years in Europe, mainly in England and Austria (October 1897 to May 1899), with longer spells in London and Vienna. Clara had wished to study the piano under Theodor Leschetizky in Vienna. However, Jean’s health did not benefit from consulting with specialists in Vienna, the “City of Doctors”. [55] The family moved to London in spring 1899, following a lead by Poultney Bigelow, who had a good experience being treated by Dr. Jonas Henrik Kellgren, a Swedish osteopathic practitioner in Belgravia. They were persuaded to spend the summer at Kellgren’s sanatorium by the lake in the Swedish village of Sanna. Coming back in fall, they continued the treatment in London, until Twain was convinced by lengthy inquiries in America that similar osteopathic expertise was available there. In mid-1900, he was the guest of newspaper proprietor Hugh Gilzean-Reid at Dollis Hill House, located on the north side of London. Twain wrote that he had never seen any place that was so satisfactorily situated, with its noble trees and stretch of country, and everything that went to make life delightful, and all within a biscuit’s throw of the metropolis of the world. In winter 1900/01, he became his country’s most prominent opponent of imperialism, raising the issue in his speeches, interviews, and writings. In January 1901, he began serving as vice-president of the Anti-Imperialist League of New York. Plaque on Sydney Writers Walk commemorating the visit of Twain in 1895. Twain was in great demand as a featured speaker, performing solo humorous talks similar to modern stand-up comedy. [59] He gave paid talks to many men’s clubs, including the Authors’ Club, Beefsteak Club, Vagabonds, White Friars, and Monday Evening Club of Hartford. In the late 1890s, he spoke to the Savage Club in London and was elected an honorary member. He was told that only three men had been so honored, including the Prince of Wales, and he replied: Well, it must make the Prince feel mighty fine. He visited Melbourne and Sydney in 1895 as part of a world lecture tour. In 1897, he spoke to the Concordia Press Club in Vienna as a special guest, following the diplomat Charlemagne Tower, Jr. He delivered the speech “Die Schrecken der Deutschen Sprache” (“The Horrors of the German Language”)-in German-to the great amusement of the audience. In 1901, he was invited to speak at Princeton University’s Cliosophic Literary Society, where he was made an honorary member. [61] In 1883, he paid a brief visit to Ottawa, [62] and he visited Toronto twice in 1884 and 1885 on a reading tour with George Washington Cable, known as the “Twins of Genius” tour. The reason for the Toronto visits was to secure Canadian and British copyrights for his upcoming book Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, [62][64] to which he had alluded in his Montreal visit. The reason for the Ottawa visit had been to secure Canadian and British copyrights for Life on the Mississippi. [62] He had unsuccessfully attempted to secure the rights for The Prince and the Pauper in 1881, in conjunction with his Montreal trip. The report of my death was an exaggeration. Twain lived in his later years at 14 West 10th Street in Manhattan. [67] He passed through a period of deep depression which began in 1896 when his daughter Susy died of meningitis. Olivia’s death in 1904 and Jean’s on December 24, 1909, deepened his gloom. [1] On May 20, 1909, his close friend Henry Rogers died suddenly. To further aid Coolbrith, George Wharton James visited Twain in New York and arranged for a new portrait session. He was resistant initially, but he eventually admitted that four of the resulting images were the finest ones ever taken of him. [69] In September, Twain started publishing chapters from his autobiography in the North American Review. [70] The same year, Charlotte Teller, a writer living with her grandmother at 3 Fifth Avenue, began an acquaintanceship with him which “lasted several years and may have included romantic intentions” on his part. Twain photographed in 1908 via the Autochrome Lumiere process. In 1906 Twain formed the Angel Fish and Aquarium Club, for girls whom he viewed as surrogate granddaughters. Its dozen or so members ranged in age from 10 to 16. He exchanged letters with his “Angel Fish” girls and invited them to concerts and the theatre and to play games. Twain wrote in 1908 that the club was his “life’s chief delight”. In 1907, he met Dorothy Quick (aged 11) on a transatlantic crossing, beginning “a friendship that was to last until the very day of his death”. Twain in academic regalia for acceptance of the D. Degree awarded him by Oxford University. Twain was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters D. By Yale University in 1901. Then in 1902, the Doctor of Law by the University of Missouri, Oxford University would also award him the Doctorate of Law in 1907. Twain was born two weeks after Halley’s Comet’s closest approach in 1835; he said in 1909:[49]. I came in with Halley’s Comet in 1835. It is coming again next year, and I expect to go out with it. It will be the greatest disappointment of my life if I don’t go out with Halley’s Comet. The Almighty has said, no doubt: “Now here are these two unaccountable freaks; they came in together, they must go out together”. Twain’s prediction was eerily accurate; he died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910, in Stormfield, one day after the comet’s closest approach to Earth. Twain and his wife are buried side by side in Elmira’s Woodlawn Cemetery. Upon hearing of Twain’s death, President William Howard Taft said:[75][76]. Mark Twain gave pleasure – real intellectual enjoyment – to millions, and his works will continue to give such pleasure to millions yet to come. His humor was American, but he was nearly as much appreciated by Englishmen and people of other countries as by his own countrymen. He has made an enduring part of American literature. Twain’s funeral was at the Brick Presbyterian Church on Fifth Avenue, New York. [77] He is buried in his wife’s family plot at Woodlawn Cemetery in Elmira, New York. The Langdon family plot is marked by a 12-foot monument (two fathoms, or “mark twain”) placed there by his surviving daughter Clara. [78] There is also a smaller headstone. He expressed a preference for cremation (for example, in Life on the Mississippi), but he acknowledged that his surviving family would have the last word. Twain began his career writing light, humorous verse, but he became a chronicler of the vanities, hypocrisies, and murderous acts of mankind. At mid-career, he combined rich humor, sturdy narrative, and social criticism in Huckleberry Finn. He was a master of rendering colloquial speech and helped to create and popularize a distinctive American literature built on American themes and language. Many of his works have been suppressed at times for various reasons. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn has been repeatedly restricted in American high schools, not least for its frequent use of the word “nigger”, [80] which was in common usage in the pre-Civil War period in which the novel was set. A complete bibliography of Twain’s works is nearly impossible to compile because of the vast number of pieces he wrote (often in obscure newspapers) and his use of several different pen names. Additionally, a large portion of his speeches and lectures have been lost or were not recorded; thus, the compilation of Twain’s works is an ongoing process. Researchers rediscovered published material as recently as 1995 and 2015. Twain was writing for the Virginia City newspaper the Territorial Enterprise in 1863 when he met lawyer Tom Fitch, editor of the competing newspaper Virginia Daily Union and known as the “silver-tongued orator of the Pacific”. He credited Fitch with giving him his “first really profitable lesson” in writing. “When I first began to lecture, and in my earlier writings, ” Twain later commented, my sole idea was to make comic capital out of everything I saw and heard. [83] In 1866, he presented his lecture on the Sandwich Islands to a crowd in Washoe City, Nevada. [84] Afterwards, Fitch told him. Clemens, your lecture was magnificent. It was eloquent, moving, sincere. Never in my entire life have I listened to such a magnificent piece of descriptive narration. But you committed one unpardonable sin – the unpardonable sin. It is a sin you must never commit again. You closed a most eloquent description, by which you had keyed your audience up to a pitch of the intensest interest, with a piece of atrocious anti-climax which nullified all the really fine effect you had produced. Cabin where Twain wrote “Jumping Frog of Calaveras County”, Jackass Hill, Tuolumne County. It was in these days that Twain became a writer of the Sagebrush School; he was known later as its most famous member. [86] His first important work was “The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, ” published in the New York Saturday Press on November 18, 1865. After a burst of popularity, the Sacramento Union commissioned him to write letters about his travel experiences. All the while, he was writing letters to the newspaper that were meant for publishing, chronicling his experiences with humor. These letters proved to be the genesis to his work with the San Francisco Alta California newspaper, which designated him a traveling correspondent for a trip from San Francisco to New York City via the Panama isthmus. On June 8, 1867, he set sail on the pleasure cruiser Quaker City for five months, and this trip resulted in The Innocents Abroad or The New Pilgrims’ Progress. The book lampoons American and Western society in the same way that Innocents critiqued the various countries of Europe and the Middle East. His next work was The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, his first attempt at writing a novel. The book, written with his neighbor Charles Dudley Warner, is also his only collaboration. Twain’s next work drew on his experiences on the Mississippi River. Old Times on the Mississippi was a series of sketches published in the Atlantic Monthly in 1875 featuring his disillusionment with Romanticism. [87] Old Times eventually became the starting point for Life on the Mississippi. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Find sources: “Mark Twain” – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Twain’s next major publication was The Adventures of Tom Sawyer, which draws on his youth in Hannibal. Tom Sawyer was modeled on Twain as a child, with traces of schoolmates John Briggs and Will Bowen. [citation needed] The book also introduces Huckleberry Finn in a supporting role, based on Twain’s boyhood friend Tom Blankenship. The Prince and the Pauper was not as well received, despite a storyline that is common in film and literature today. The book tells the story of two boys born on the same day who are physically identical, acting as a social commentary as the prince and pauper switch places. Twain had started Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (which he consistently had problems completing)[88] and had completed his travel book A Tramp Abroad, which describes his travels through central and southern Europe. Twain’s next major published work was the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which confirmed him as a noteworthy American writer. Some have called it the first Great American Novel, and the book has become required reading in many schools throughout the United States. Huckleberry Finn was an offshoot from Tom Sawyer and had a more serious tone than its predecessor. Four hundred manuscript pages were written in mid-1876, right after the publication of Tom Sawyer. The last fifth of Huckleberry Finn is subject to much controversy. Some say that Twain experienced a “failure of nerve, ” as critic Leo Marx puts it. Ernest Hemingway once said of Huckleberry Finn. If you read it, you must stop where the Nigger Jim is stolen from the boys. That is the real end. The rest is just cheating. Hemingway also wrote in the same essay. All modern American literature comes from one book by Mark Twain called Huckleberry Finn. Near the completion of Huckleberry Finn, Twain wrote Life on the Mississippi, which is said to have heavily influenced the novel. [48] The travel work recounts Twain’s memories and new experiences after a 22-year absence from the Mississippi River. In it, he also explains that “Mark Twain” was the call made when the boat was in safe water, indicating a depth of two (or twain) fathoms (12 feet or 3.7 metres). The McDowell’s cave-now known as Mark Twain Cave in Hannibal, Missouri, and frequently mentioned in Twain’s book The Adventures of Tom Sawyer-has “Sam Clemens”, Twain’s real name, engraved on the wall by Twain himself. Twain produced President Ulysses S. Grant’s Memoirs through his fledgling publishing house, Charles L. Webster & Company, which he co-owned with Charles L. Webster, his nephew by marriage. At this time he also wrote “The Private History of a Campaign That Failed” for The Century Magazine. [92] This piece detailed his two-week stint in a Confederate militia during the Civil War. He next focused on A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court, written with the same historical fiction style as The Prince and the Pauper. A Connecticut Yankee showed the absurdities of political and social norms by setting them in the court of King Arthur. The book was started in December 1885, then shelved a few months later until the summer of 1887, and eventually finished in the spring of 1889. His next large-scale work was Pudd’nhead Wilson, which he wrote rapidly, as he was desperately trying to stave off bankruptcy. From November 12 to December 14, 1893, Twain wrote 60,000 words for the novel. Have pointed to this rushed completion as the cause of the novel’s rough organization and constant disruption of the plot. This novel also contains the tale of two boys born on the same day who switch positions in life, like The Prince and the Pauper. It was first published serially in Century Magazine and, when it was finally published in book form, Pudd’nhead Wilson appeared as the main title; however, the “subtitles” make the entire title read: The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson and the Comedy of The Extraordinary Twins. Twain’s next venture was a work of straight fiction that he called Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc and dedicated to his wife. He had long saidwhere? That this was the work that he was most proud of, despite the criticism that he received for it. The book had been a dream of his since childhood, and he claimed that he had found a manuscript detailing the life of Joan of Arc when he was an adolescent. [48] This was another piece that he was convinced would save his publishing company. His financial adviser Henry Huttleston Rogers quashed that idea and got Twain out of that business altogether, but the book was published nonetheless. He filed for bankruptcy in 1894. During this time of dire financial straits, he published several literary reviews in newspapers to help make ends meet. He famously derided James Fenimore Cooper in his article detailing Cooper’s “Literary Offenses”. He became an extremely outspoken critic of other authors and other critics; he suggested that, before praising Cooper’s work, Thomas Lounsbury, Brander Matthews, and Wilkie Collins “ought to have read some of it”. George Eliot, Jane Austen, and Robert Louis Stevenson also fell under Twain’s attack during this time period, beginning around 1890 and continuing until his death. [94] He outlines what he considers to be “quality writing” in several letters and essays, in addition to providing a source for the “tooth and claw” style of literary criticism. He places emphasis on concision, utility of word choice, and realism; he complains, for example, that Cooper’s Deerslayer purports to be realistic but has several shortcomings. Ironically, several of his own works were later criticized for lack of continuity (Adventures of Huckleberry Finn) and organization (Pudd’nhead Wilson). Twain’s wife died in 1904 while the couple were staying at the Villa di Quarto in Florence. After some time had passed he published some works that his wife, his de facto editor and censor throughout her married life, had looked down upon. The Mysterious Stranger is perhaps the best known, depicting various visits of Satan to earth. This particular work was not published in Twain’s lifetime. His manuscripts included three versions, written between 1897 and 1905: the so-called Hannibal, Eseldorf, and Print Shop versions. The resulting confusion led to extensive publication of a jumbled version, and only recently have the original versions become available as Twain wrote them. Twain’s last work was his autobiography, which he dictated and thought would be most entertaining if he went off on whims and tangents in non-chronological order. Some archivists and compilers have rearranged the biography into a more conventional form, thereby eliminating some of Twain’s humor and the flow of the book. The first volume of the autobiography, over 736 pages, was published by the University of California in November 2010, 100 years after his death, as Twain wished. Twain’s works have been subjected to censorship efforts. According to Stuart (2013), “Leading these banning campaigns, generally, were religious organizations or individuals in positions of influence – not so much working librarians, who had been instilled with that American “library spirit” which honored intellectual freedom (within bounds of course)”. In 1905, the Brooklyn Public Library banned both The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Adventures of Tom Sawyer from the children’s department because of their language. Twain’s views became more radical as he grew older. In a letter to friend and fellow writer William Dean Howells in 1887, he acknowledged that his views had changed and developed over his lifetime, referring to one of his favorite works. When I finished Carlyle’s French Revolution in 1871, I was a Girondin; every time I have read it since, I have read it differently – being influenced and changed, little by little, by life and environment… And not a pale, characterless Sansculotte, but a Marat. Twain was a staunch supporter of technological progress and commerce. He was against welfare measures, because he believed that society in the “business age” is governed by “exact and constant” laws that should not be “interfered with for the accommodation of any individual or political or religious faction”. [101] He opined that “there is no good government at all & none possible”. [101] According to Washington University professor Guy A. By present standards Mark Twain was more conservative than liberal. He believed strongly in laissez faire, thought personal political rights secondary to property rights, admired self-made plutocrats, and advocated a leadership to be composed of men of wealth and brains. Among his attitudes now more readily recognized as liberal were a faith in progress through technology and a hostility towards monarchy, inherited aristocracy, the Roman Catholic church, and, in his later years, imperialism. Twain wrote glowingly about unions in the river boating industry in Life on the Mississippi, which was read in union halls decades later. [103] He supported the labor movement, especially one of the most important unions, the Knights of Labor. [37] In a speech to them, he said. Who are the oppressors? The few: the King, the capitalist, and a handful of other overseers and superintendents. Who are the oppressed? The many: the nations of the earth; the valuable personages; the workers; they that make the bread that the soft-handed and idle eat. Before 1899, Twain was an ardent imperialist. In the late 1860s and early 1870s, he spoke out strongly in favor of American interests in the Hawaiian Islands. [105] He said the war with Spain in 1898 was “the worthiest” war ever fought. [106] In 1899, however, he reversed course. In the New York Herald, October 16, 1900, Twain describes his transformation and political awakening, in the context of the Philippine-American War, to anti-imperialism. I wanted the American eagle to go screaming into the Pacific… Why not spread its wings over the Philippines, I asked myself? I said to myself, Here are a people who have suffered for three centuries. We can make them as free as ourselves, give them a government and country of their own, put a miniature of the American Constitution afloat in the Pacific, start a brand new republic to take its place among the free nations of the world. It seemed to me a great task to which we had addressed ourselves. But I have thought some more, since then, and I have read carefully the treaty of Paris (which ended the Spanish-American War), and I have seen that we do not intend to free, but to subjugate the people of the Philippines. We have gone there to conquer, not to redeem. It should, it seems to me, be our pleasure and duty to make those people free, and let them deal with their own domestic questions in their own way. During the Boxer Rebellion, Twain said that the Boxer is a patriot. He loves his country better than he does the countries of other people. I wish him success. From 1901, soon after his return from Europe, until his death in 1910, Twain was vice-president of the American Anti-Imperialist League, [110] which opposed the annexation of the Philippines by the United States and had “tens of thousands of members”. [37] He wrote many political pamphlets for the organization. The Incident in the Philippines, posthumously published in 1924, was in response to the Moro Crater Massacre, in which six hundred Moros were killed. [111] Many of his neglected and previously uncollected writings on anti-imperialism appeared for the first time in book form in 1992. Twain was critical of imperialism in other countries as well. In Following the Equator, Twain expresses “hatred and condemnation of imperialism of all stripes”. [37] He was highly critical of European imperialists such as Cecil Rhodes and King Leopold II of Belgium, both of whom attempted to establish colonies on the African continent during the Scramble for Africa. [37] King Leopold’s Soliloquy is a political satire about his private colony, the Congo Free State. Reports of outrageous exploitation and grotesque abuses led to widespread international outcry in the early 1900s, arguably the first large-scale human rights movement. In the soliloquy, the King argues that bringing Christianity to the colony outweighs “a little starvation”. The abuses against Congolese forced laborers continued until the movement forced the Belgian government to take direct control of the colony. During the Philippine-American War, Twain wrote a short pacifist story titled The War Prayer, which makes the point that humanism and Christianity’s preaching of love are incompatible with the conduct of war. It was submitted to Harper’s Bazaar for publication, but on March 22, 1905, the magazine rejected the story as “not quite suited to a woman’s magazine”. Eight days later, Twain wrote to his friend Daniel Carter Beard, to whom he had read the story, I don’t think the prayer will be published in my time. None but the dead are permitted to tell the truth. Because he had an exclusive contract with Harper & Brothers, Twain could not publish The War Prayer elsewhere; it remained unpublished until 1916. [114] It was republished in the 1960s as campaigning material by anti-war activists. Twain acknowledged that he had originally sympathized with the more moderate Girondins of the French Revolution and then shifted his sympathies to the more radical Sansculottes, indeed identifying himself as “a Marat” and writing that the Reign of Terror paled in comparison to the older terrors that preceded it. [115] Twain supported the revolutionaries in Russia against the reformists, arguing that the Tsar must be got rid of by violent means, because peaceful ones would not work. [116] He summed up his views of revolutions in the following statement. Twain was an adamant supporter of the abolition of slavery and the emancipation of slaves, even going so far as to say, Lincoln’s Proclamation… Not only set the black slaves free, but set the white man free also. [118] He argued that non-whites did not receive justice in the United States, once saying, I have seen Chinamen abused and maltreated in all the mean, cowardly ways possible to the invention of a degraded nature… But I never saw a Chinaman righted in a court of justice for wrongs thus done to him. [119] He paid for at least one black person to attend Yale Law School and for another black person to attend a southern university to become a minister. Twain’s forward-thinking views on race were not reflected in his early writings on American Indians. Of them, Twain wrote in 1870. His heart is a cesspool of falsehood, of treachery, and of low and devilish instincts. With him, gratitude is an unknown emotion; and when one does him a kindness, it is safest to keep the face toward him, lest the reward be an arrow in the back. To accept of a favor from him is to assume a debt which you can never repay to his satisfaction, though you bankrupt yourself trying. The scum of the earth! As counterpoint, Twain’s essay on “The Literary Offenses of Fenimore Cooper” offers a much kinder view of Indians. [93] No, other Indians would have noticed these things, but Cooper’s Indians never notice anything. Cooper thinks they are marvelous creatures for noticing, but he was almost always in error about his Indians. There was seldom a sane one among them. “[122] In his later travelogue Following the Equator (1897), Twain observes that in colonized lands all over the world, “savages” have always been wronged by “whites” in the most merciless ways, such as “robbery, humiliation, and slow, slow murder, through poverty and the white man’s whiskey”; his conclusion is that “there are many humorous things in this world; among them the white man’s notion that he is less savage than the other savages. Where every prospect pleases, and only man is vile. Twain was also a supporter of women’s suffrage, as evidenced by his “Votes for Women” speech, given in 1901. Helen Keller benefited from Twain’s support as she pursued her college education and publishing despite her disabilities and financial limitations. The two were friends for roughly 16 years. Through Twain’s efforts, the Connecticut legislature voted a pension for Prudence Crandall, since 1995 Connecticut’s official heroine, for her efforts towards the education of young African-American women in Connecticut. Twain was a Republican for most of his life. However, in 1884 he publicly broke with his party and joined the Mugwumps to support the Democratic nominee, Grover Cleveland, over the Republican nominee, James G. Blaine, whom he considered a corrupt politician. [128] Twain spoke at rallies in favor of Cleveland. In the early 20th century, he began decrying both Democrats and Republicans as “insane” and proposed, in his 1907 book Christian Science, that while each party recognized the other’s insanity, only the Mugwumps (that is, those who eschewed party loyalties in favor of voting for “the best man”) could perceive the overall madness linking the two. See also: Twain-Ament indemnities controversy. Twain was a Presbyterian. [129] He was critical of organized religion and certain elements of Christianity through his later life. He wrote, for example, “Faith is believing what you know ain’t so”, and “If Christ were here now there is one thing he would not be – a Christian”. [130] With anti-Catholic sentiment rampant in 19th century America, Twain noted he was “educated to enmity toward everything that is Catholic”. [131] As an adult, he engaged in religious discussions and attended services, his theology developing as he wrestled with the deaths of loved ones and with his own mortality. Twain generally avoided publishing his most controversial[133] opinions on religion in his lifetime, and they are known from essays and stories that were published later. In the essay Three Statements of the Eighties in the 1880s, Twain stated that he believed in an almighty God, but not in any messages, revelations, holy scriptures such as the Bible, Providence, or retribution in the afterlife. He did state that “the goodness, the justice, and the mercy of God are manifested in His works”, but also that “the universe is governed by strict and immutable laws”, which determine “small matters”, such as who dies in a pestilence. [134] At other times, he plainly professed a belief in Providence. [135] In some later writings in the 1890s, he was less optimistic about the goodness of God, observing that “if our Maker is all-powerful for good or evil, He is not in His right mind”. At other times, he conjectured sardonically that perhaps God had created the world with all its tortures for some purpose of His own, but was otherwise indifferent to humanity, which was too petty and insignificant to deserve His attention anyway. In 1901, Twain criticized the actions of the missionary Dr. Twain’s response to hearing of Ament’s methods was published in the North American Review in February 1901: To the Person Sitting in Darkness, and deals with examples of imperialism in China, South Africa, and with the U. Occupation of the Philippines. [137] A subsequent article, “To My Missionary Critics” published in The North American Review in April 1901, unapologetically continues his attack, but with the focus shifted from Ament to his missionary superiors, the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. After his death, Twain’s family suppressed some of his work that was especially irreverent toward conventional religion, including Letters from the Earth, which was not published until his daughter Clara reversed her position in 1962 in response to Soviet propaganda about the withholding. [139] The anti-religious The Mysterious Stranger was published in 1916. Little Bessie, a story ridiculing Christianity, was first published in the 1972 collection Mark Twain’s Fables of Man. Twain created a reverent portrayal of Joan of Arc, a subject over which he had obsessed for forty years, studied for a dozen years and spent two years writing about. [142] In 1900 and again in 1908 he stated, “I like Joan of Arc best of all my books, it is the best”. Those who knew Twain well late in life recount that he dwelt on the subject of the afterlife, his daughter Clara saying: Sometimes he believed death ended everything, but most of the time he felt sure of a life beyond. Twain’s frankest views on religion appeared in his final work Autobiography of Mark Twain, the publication of which started in November 2010, 100 years after his death. In it, he said:[145]. Measured by our Christianity of to-day, bad as it is, hypocritical as it is, empty and hollow as it is, neither the Deity nor his Son is a Christian, nor qualified for that moderately high place. Ours is a terrible religion. The fleets of the world could swim in spacious comfort in the innocent blood it has spilled. Twain was a Freemason. [146][147] He belonged to Polar Star Lodge No. He was initiated an Entered Apprentice on May 22, 1861, passed to the degree of Fellow Craft on June 12, and raised to the degree of Master Mason on July 10. Twain visited Salt Lake City for two days and met there members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. They also gave him a Book of Mormon. [148] He later wrote in Roughing It about that book:[149][150]. The book seems to be merely a prosy detail of imaginary history, with the Old Testament for a model; followed by a tedious plagiarism of the New Testament. Twain was opposed to the vivisection practices of his day. His objection was not on a scientific basis but rather an ethical one. He specifically cited the pain caused to the animal as his basis of his opposition:[151][152]. The pains which it inflicts upon unconsenting animals is the basis of my enmity towards it, and it is to me sufficient justification of the enmity without looking further. Twain used different pen names before deciding on “Mark Twain”. He signed humorous and imaginative sketches as “Josh” until 1863. Additionally, he used the pen name “Thomas Jefferson Snodgrass” for a series of humorous letters. He maintained that his primary pen name came from his years working on Mississippi riverboats, where two fathoms, a depth indicating water safe for the passage of boat, was a measure on the sounding line. Twain is an archaic term for “two”, as in The veil of the temple was rent in twain. “[154] The riverboatman’s cry was “mark twain” or, more fully, “by the mark twain”, meaning “according to the mark [on the line], [the depth is] two [fathoms]”; that is, “The water is 12 feet (3.7 m) deep and it is safe to pass. Twain said that his famous pen name was not entirely his invention. In Life on the Mississippi, he wrote. Captain Isaiah Sellers was not of literary turn or capacity, but he used to jot down brief paragraphs of plain practical information about the river, and sign them “MARK TWAIN”, and give them to the New Orleans Picayune. They related to the stage and condition of the river, and were accurate and valuable… At the time that the telegraph brought the news of his death, I was on the Pacific coast. I was a fresh new journalist, and needed a nom de guerre; so I confiscated the ancient mariner’s discarded one, and have done my best to make it remain what it was in his hands – a sign and symbol and warrant that whatever is found in its company may be gambled on as being the petrified truth; how I have succeeded, it would not be modest in me to say. Twain’s story about his pen name has been questioned by some, [156] with the suggestion that “mark twain” refers to a running bar tab that Twain would regularly incur while drinking at John Piper’s saloon in Virginia City, Nevada. Samuel Clemens himself responded to this suggestion by saying, Mark Twain was the nom de plume of one Captain Isaiah Sellers, who used to write river news over it for the New Orleans Picayune. He died in 1863 and as he could no longer need that signature, I laid violent hands upon it without asking permission of the proprietor’s remains. That is the history of the nom de plume I bear. In his autobiography, Twain writes further of Captain Sellers’ use of “Mark Twain”. I was a cub pilot on the Mississippi River then, and one day I wrote a rude and crude satire which was leveled at Captain Isaiah Sellers, the oldest steamboat pilot on the Mississippi River, and the most respected, esteemed, and revered. For many years he had occasionally written brief paragraphs concerning the river and the changes which it had undergone under his observation during fifty years, and had signed these paragraphs “Mark Twain” and published them in the St. Louis and New Orleans journals. In my satire I made rude game of his reminiscences. It was a shabby poor performance, but I didn’t know it, and the pilots didn’t know it. The pilots thought it was brilliant. They were jealous of Sellers, because when the gray-heads among them pleased their vanity by detailing in the hearing of the younger craftsmen marvels which they had seen in the long ago on the river, Sellers was always likely to step in at the psychological moment and snuff them out with wonders of his own which made their small marvels look pale and sick. However, I have told all about this in Old Times on the Mississippi. The pilots handed my extravagant satire to a river reporter, and it was published in the New Orleans True Delta. That poor old Captain Sellers was deeply wounded. He had never been held up to ridicule before; he was sensitive, and he never got over the hurt which I had wantonly and stupidly inflicted upon his dignity. I was proud of my performance for a while, and considered it quite wonderful, but I have changed my opinion of it long ago. Sellers never published another paragraph nor ever used his nom de guerre again. Main article: Mark Twain in popular culture. Caricature of Twain by Spy in the London magazine Vanity Fair, May 1908. While Twain is often depicted wearing a white suit, modern representations suggesting that he wore them throughout his life are unfounded. Evidence suggests that Twain began wearing white suits on the lecture circuit, after the death of his wife in 1904. However, there is also evidence showing him wearing a white suit before 1904. In 1882, he sent a photograph of himself in a white suit to 18-year-old Edward W. Bok, later publisher of the Ladies Home Journal, with a handwritten dated note. [48] McMasters’ The Mark Twain Encyclopedia states that Twain did not wear a white suit in his last three years, except at one banquet speech. In his autobiography, Twain writes of his early experiments with wearing white out-of-season:[160]. Next after fine colors, I like plain white. One of my sorrows, when the summer ends, is that I must put off my cheery and comfortable white clothes and enter for the winter into the depressing captivity of the shapeless and degrading black ones. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Celebrities”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Vietnam, Uruguay.
Child Actor Autograph Handwritten Letter Bill Mauch Signed Star Vintage
in child | 15,766 Words

Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean

Korea_Chang_Myun_Handwritten_Letter_Assassination_Signed_Vintage_Korean_01_iv Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean
Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean

Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean
A FANTASTICALLY RARE HANDWRITTEN LETTER ON REPUBLIC OF KOREA PAPER BY CHANG MYUN. ALSO ORIGINAL ARTICLE REFERENCING HIS ATTEMPTED ASSAINATION ATTEMPT. THE LETTER REFERENCES THE ATTEMPT ON HIS LIFE AND TO PROTECT HIM AND THE WELFARE OF HIS PEOPLE. August 28, 1899 – June 4, 1966 was a South Korean statesman, educator, diplomat, journalist and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the last Vice President of South Korea and the Prime Minister of the Second Republic. His styled name (ho) was Unseok?? His English name was John Chang Myon (baptismal name, surname, given name). Under the Japanese rule, Chang worked as a teacher. From 1919-21, he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School and from 1931-36 at Dongsung Commerce High School. From 1937-44, he was principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten of the Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church. From 1936-45, he was principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. In 1948, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly. In 1949, he became the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In 1950, he successfully appealed to the United States and the UN to send troops to assist in the Korean War. On November 23, 1950, he was appointed the second prime minister of the First Republic of Korea. From 1956 to 1960, he served as the fourth vice president of the First Republic of Korea. When Syngman Rhee’s government was ousted by the student-led pro-democracy uprising of April 19 Movement, he was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic in 1960. After the country adopted a parliamentary system in response to Rhee’s abuse of presidential power, Chang became the head of government. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee led a successful military coup on May 16, 1961, which marked the end of the Second Republic and the nation’s brief experimentation with the cabinet form of government. Study in the United States. Religious belief and education movements. Prime Minister of the First Republic. Prime Minister of the Second Republic. Chang Myon was born in 1899 in Jeokseon-dong, Hansung. He was the first son of Chang Gi-bin and Lucia Hwang. His given name was Myon? [2] He was a member of the Indong Chang Family???? , and descended from Jukjong Chang Cham???? , a well-known Neo-Confucianism philosopher. Chang’s ninth-generation grandfather lived in South Pyongan Province Province but his father moved to Incheon. [3] The first Roman Catholic believer in his family was his great-grandmother, Lady Park. In 1906, he began studying at Incheon Parkmun Primary School?? , and graduated in 1912. He then went to Incheon Public Simsang Elementary School?? He later attended Suwon Agriculture High School???????? , and he graduated on May 25, 1917. In March 1916, he married Kim Ok-yun. They had six sons and three daughters. Manhattan College student, 1921. In September 1918, he was registered at the YMCA Village School, and from 1919-21 he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School??? On March 1, 1919, he participated in the eponymous protests against Japanese occupation of Korea but escaped arrest. In January 1921, Chang Myon went to the United States with his younger brother Chang Bal to study. They were sponsored by the Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America. In September 1921, he entered Manhattan College and in 1924 took a one-year leave of absence from the college due to acute appendicitis. In August 1921, he entered the Secular Franciscan Order. After graduating from Manhattan College in July 1925, he left for Italy on July 30 to attend the beatification of 79 Korean Joseon Catholic martyrs. He was also received by Pope Pius XII. On December 2, 1925, he was appointed Maryknoll Center School’s professor of the Korean language and translation. At the same time, he served as the leader of the laity for the Pyongyang archdiocese. On February 11, 1927, he formally entered the service of the Pyongyang Catholic church. He translated religious terms for Catholic teaching into the Korean language and published The Summary of Religious Terms in November 1929. In 1930, he published Way of the seeker of truth???? And on September 15 he published An Outline of Joseon Catholic History?????????? On March 18, 1931, he resigned from the affairs of Pyongyang archdiocese????? And moved to Seoul. Appointed as a teacher at Dongsung Commerce High School???????? On April 1, 1931, he took on the responsibility of teaching English and rhetorical subjects. On July 10th, along with Jeong Ji-yong, he published the first issue of Catholic Young Men’s News??? In 1935, he became Manager of Affairs for Dongsung Commerce High School. On April 1, 1937, he became the lay leader of Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church??? And principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten????? On November 19, 1936, he became principal of Dongsung Commerce High School???????? At the same time he took on the additional role of principal of Gyesong Elementary School?????? In Jongro, Seoul, in April 1939. That September, he was appointed chairman of the Seoul Catholic Young Men’s National Union???????? He translated James Gibbons’ The Faith of Our Fathers: A Plain Exposition and Vindication of the Church Founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ into the Korean language and published the hangul edition???? On July 4, 1944. Republic of Korea Ambassador to USA, 1949. The Third UN General Assembly, 1948. On February 11, 1946, he was appointed a member of the Democratic Conference???? And a Representative of Emergency Peoples Conference?????? That August, Chang was elected to the South Korean Provisional National Assembly?????????? By this time, he emerged as a major political figure in the Syngman Rhee administration of the First Republic of Korea. On May 10, 1948, he ran for a National Assembly seat from Jongro District of Seoul, and he was duly elected on May 30. On October 11 of the same year, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly and witnessed the recognition of the Republic of Korea as a sovereign nation by the UN on December 12, 1948. In 1949, he visited the Vatican to express his appreciation of the Vatican’s active support of his diplomatic endeavors. In December 1949, he was appointed the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In April 1950, he was designated a special envoy of the Republic of Korea to Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. Immediately after the outbreak of the Korean War, on June 25, 1950, he actively solicited urgent aide from the United States and the UN. The 6th UN General Assembly, 1952. In November 1950, Chang was appointed the second Prime Minister of the First Republic of Korea, a position he at first refused, but after an earnest request from Syngman Rhee, he accepted and went on to serve from October 1951 until April 29, 1952. He was sent to the sixth UN General Assembly held in Paris, France. The involvement of the Catholic Church with the democratic opposition to the Rhee administration first began in the 1950s. As the foremost leader of the opposition in the late 1950s, Chang Myon, a devout Catholic, already had a good relationship with Roh Ki-nam, the Bishop of Seoul, from the early 1940s. Roh soon came to be known as the “political bishop” because of his frequent critical statements on the dictatorial tendencies of Syngman Rhee. In the 1950s, the governing Liberal Party was led by President Syngman Rhee. In April 1952, opposition lawmakers and some Liberal Party lawmakers attempted a constitutional amendment but were branded enemies of the state by Syngman Rhee[5] When the assembly voted to have martial law lifted in Busan, Rhee had half of them arrested. After a staged assassination attempt on Rhee, police began to investigate alleged links to the opposition. Police claimed that Chang Myon was working with assassins paid by North Korea to depose Rhee. Under this type of pressure, the assembly voted 160 to zero for Rhee’s constitutional amendments. [5] By the late 1950s Chang Myon emerged as the major alternative to Rhee, and in 1960, when Rhee was overthrown by the April 19th Movement and a popular revolution, Chang Myon was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea and de facto chief executive. Chang’s campaign for vice-presidency (1956). On September 18, 1955, he was defeated by a narrow margin by Shin Ik-hee for the Democratic Party’s candidacy in the presidential election. Instead, he was nominated for the vice-presidency as the running mate of Shin Ik-hee, who died suddenly on May 5, 1956. On May 30, 1956, Chang was duly elected the fourth vice president of the Republic of Korea. On September 28, 1956, at the Democratic party’s national convention in the Sigong Building??? In Jongno, Seoul, he was shot by a sniper in the September 28 Incident [ko] and received a penetrating wound to the wrist. The would-be assassin was immediately arrested. The assassination attempt was in all probability sponsored by the top echelon of the Liberal Party. During his vice presidency, Chang came into conflict with Lee Ki-poong, an influential Liberal Party member, who sent spies and placed him under surveillance. In 1959, he was appointed as a member of the Supreme Council of the Democratic Party of the Republic of Korea. In the same year, he became the Democratic Party’s candidate for the vice-presidency and the running mate of presidential candidate Cho Byong-ok. Chang had attempted to become a candidate for the presidency, but once again he lost by a narrow margin, this time to Cho. In November of the same year, he was reelected as a member of the supreme council of the Democratic Party. In the Republic of Korea’s vice-presidential election of March 15, 1960, Chang suffered defeat at the hands of Lee Ki-poong by such a suspiciously large margin that protesters took to the streets alleging fraud. [6] A thousand residents gathered in front of the opposition Democratic Party building in the southern city of Masan to protest. When the police started shooting, the protesters responded by throwing rocks. Following the suppression of the protests, the body of a young man, Kim Ju-yul, a student at Masan Commercial High School who had participated in the protests, was found on a nearby beach. [6] This tragic incident served as a catalyst for the April 19 Movement and the popular revolution that overthrew the Rhee regime in May 1960. In May 1960, Chang was a candidate in the election for a National Assembly seat. At the time, he was the leader of the New Group in the Democratic Party??? On August 18, 1960, he was duly elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea under a parliamentary system. When Syngman Rhee was forced out of office in April 1960 because of the Rhee administration and Lee Ki-poong’s misgovernment of state affairs, compounded by the exposure of egregious corruption, the Republic of Korea found itself in serious disarray. Hence, the administration led by Prime Minister Chang Myon faced volatile political and grievous socioeconomic difficulties. In the midst of such difficulties, the Chang administration did not resort to dictatorship. After all, Chang Myon fought against the Rhee dictatorship for many years. He was a true believer in democracy. [7] Moreover, his administration had successfully designed the first five-year economic development plan that would have proven beneficial for all Koreans. And this five-year economic development plan was “borrowed” by the Park Chung-hee administration. Park used virtually the same Five-Year Economic Development Plan, originally designed and drafted by the Chang Myon administration, for his economic development after the May 16 military coup. In 1961, the Chang Myon administration attempted to resume talks on a treaty of relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea, and discussed eight of the proposed articles designed to normalize diplomatic ties. However, the talks came to a halt because of the military coup led by Park Chung-hee on May 16. On May 20, 1961, he was removed from the position of Prime Minister after less than one year in power. In January 2005, the government of the Republic of Korea uncovered 1,200 pages of diplomatic documents of the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea of 1965 that had been kept secret for forty years. These documents revealed that the Japanese government proposed to the government of the Republic of Korea, headed by Park Chung-hee, to directly compensate individual victims of Japanese colonization of Korea, but it was the Park administration that insisted it would handle the individual compensation to the victims, and took over the entire amount of the grant, 300 million dollars, (for 35 years of Japanese colonial rule in Korea), on behalf of the victims. The Park administration negotiated for a total of 360 million dollars in compensation for the 1.03 million Koreans conscripted into the forced labor and military service during the colonial period but received only 300 million dollars. [9] On March 30, 1962, the Park Military Government detained Chang and prohibited him from engaging in any further political activity. Initially, he was under the threat of the death penalty. However, in August 1962, he was released on bail. In 1962, he wrote an appeal to F. Remler, Why Must I suffer? On January 27, 1966, Chang was hospitalized with hepatitis at the Holy Mother Hospital???? In Seoul, and on June 4, 1966, he died in Jongro at the age of 66. Chang was buried in the Hehwa Catholic Church burial site on Chonbo mountain??? In Pocheon, Gyeonggi Province. On October 27, 1999, he was posthumously honored by President Kim Dae-jung of the Republic of Korea, with the first class rank of the Order of Merit for National Foundation. [10] On the occasion of the hundredth birthday of Chang Myon, Cardinal Kim Sou-hwan celebrated a memorial mass at Hehwa Catholic Parish Church in August 1999. He rhetorically asked: How is it possible for the leaders of the May 16 military coup to declare that the Chang Myon administration of the Second Republic was already corrupt and incompetent in less than a month of its inception? Their first two children died at an early age. The first child, Anna Chang Myeong-sook (baptismal name, surname, given name), died before age one, and the second child, Joseph Chang Young died at age two. Joseph Chang Jin, Ph. Was a professor of biology at Princeton University and Sogang University (deceased); Benedicta Chang Yi-sook, MFA, an artist and teacher, a member of the order of Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur; Andrew Chang Geon, MA, a successful architect; John Chang Yik, Catholic bishop of Chuncheon (deceased); Leo Chang Soon, Ph. A professor of political science; Matthew Chang Heung, Ph. A manager at the Bank of Paris; Teresa Chang Myong-ja, MA in Library Science, a librarian (deceased). Chang Myon had two younger brothers and three younger sisters. The older, Louis Chang Bal, was an artist and dean of the College of Fine Arts, Seoul National University (deceased); the younger, Paul Chang Geuk, Ph. Was a professor of physics and aerodynamics/space scientist at NASA, Catholic University, Washington, DC, and the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), (deceased); the eldest of the three younger sisters was Gunaegunda Chang Jeong-hae (deceased), the second, Agneta Chang Jeong-eun, was a Maryknoll Sister and the founder and the mother superior of a Korean order in North Korea, Sisters of Our Perpetual Help, (deceased under fateful duress, October 1950); and the third was Martha Chang Jeong-soon, deceased in 1937 at the age of 21, a senior at Sacred Heart University. Third UN General Assembly, 1948. Chang Myon championed liberal and democratic values. Therefore, he was strongly opposed to communism as practiced by the Soviet Union and fascism/Nazism as practiced by Nazi Germany. Likewise, he firmly opposed totalitarianism and authoritarianism in any shape or form. He believed in individualism in the context of common good. Thus, he abhorred endemic political and economic/financial corruption in the Republic of Korea. The word republic stands for res, things/affairs, and publica, public. In short, republic stands for things public, commonweal, public interest and/or common good. He led a modest and frugal life. He lived in a small, unpretentious house (Seoul, Jongro-gu, Myongreun-dong, 1 Ga, 36-1) where he and his spouse spent most of their life and raised seven children. Anyone who visits the old house, now renovated, can readily see his life style. This house is now designated a National Heritage site and converted to be a museum dedicated to him. It is open to the public. As a member of the National Assembly in the late 1940s, he initiated a legislation prohibiting concubinage and prostitution. It was duly passed. Throughout his life, he abstained from smoking and drinking. He had many good friends and enjoyed listening to classical music. He influenced the conversion of Kim Dae-jung to Catholicism and became his godfather. Kim later remarked that Chang was a devout Catholic who believed in Catholic action to rectify many evils in Korea. Democratic Party of Korea. The Second Republic of Korea was the government of South Korea from April 1960 to May 1961. The Second Republic was founded during the April Revolution mass protests against President Syngman Rhee, succeeding the First Republic and establishing a parliamentary government under President Yun Bo-seon and Prime Minister Chang Myon. The Second Republic ended Rhee’s authoritarianism and repression, formed a liberal democracy, and formulated the first Five-Year Plans to develop the neglected economy. The Second Republic’s failure to improve South Korea’s political and economic issues led to instability, and after thirteen months it was overthrown by the South Korean Army in the May 16 coup led by Park Chung-hee. The Second Republic was replaced by a provisional military government under the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, leading to the Third Republic of Korea. The short-lived Second Republic was the only government under a parliamentary system in the history of Korea. Proclamation of the Second Republic of Korea. From right: Chang Myon (Prime Minister), Yun Bo-seon (President), Paik Nak-jun (President of the House of Councillors) and Kwak Sang-hoon (President of the Chamber of Deputies). The First Republic of Korea had existed since 1948 under President Syngman Rhee, who was widely considered to be corrupt and a dictator who abused his presidential powers to maintain his rule and cronyism. Although the First Republic was officially a representative democracy, Rhee adopted a strongly anti-communist position and used the threat of communism to enact a policy of severe repression against all political opposition. Tolerance of Rhee and his Liberal Party-dominated government declined in the mid-to-late 1950s, as the South Korean public were increasingly discontent with the repression and the limited economic and social development. In April 1960, Rhee was overthrown by widespread protests known as the “April Revolution” in response to the discovery of a high school student murdered by police during demonstrations against Rhee and rigged election in March. After Rhee’s fall, power was briefly held by a caretaker government headed by Heo Jeong as Prime Minister until a new parliamentary election was held on 29 July 1960. The Second Republic operated under a parliamentary system, with the Prime Minister of South Korea as the head of government and the President of South Korea as the head of state. Due to Rhee’s numerous abuses of power, the President’s power was greatly reduced, to the point that he was effectively a figurehead. He was elected by both houses of the legislature. Real power was vested in the Prime Minister, who was elected by the National Assembly. The Second Republic was the first and the only instance of the South Korean government using a cabinet system instead of a presidential system. The Democratic Party, which had been in the opposition during the First Republic, easily gained power. And Rhee’s former opponent Chang Myon became Prime Minister. The new legislature was bicameral, with the House of Commons as the lower house and the Senate as the upper house. Yun Bo-seon was elected as the second President of South Korea on 13 August 1960. Real power now rested with the Prime Minister and cabinet, who were both elected by the National Assembly. Part of a series on the. History of South Korea. Preludes to Division 1910-48. People’s Republic of Korea. Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Assassination of Park Chung-hee. 1997 Asian financial crisis. Flag of South Korea. Svg South Korea portal. Much of this activity was from leftist and student groups, which had been instrumental in the overthrow of the First Republic. Membership of unions and activity grew rapidly during the later months of 1960. [2] Estimates suggest around 2,000 demonstrations were held during eight months of the Second Republic. Under pressure from the left-wing, the Chang government carried out a series of purges of military and police officials who had been involved in anti-democratic activities or corruption during the First Republic. A special law to this effect was passed on 31 October 1960. [4] Around 40,000 people were placed under investigation; of these, more than 2,200 government officials and 4,000 police officers were purged. [5] In addition, the government considered reducing the size of the South Korean Army by 100,000, although this plan was shelved. The Second Republic government was faced with mounting instability in economic terms as well, seeing unemployment and wholesale prices also rose during this period. The won lost half of its value against the US dollar between fall 1960 and spring 1961. [7] The government formulated a five-year economic plan based around agriculture and light industry to decrease unemployment, although it was unable to act on it prior to being overthrown. Chang’s government resumed negotiations for the normalization of diplomatic relations between Korea and Japan, which had not progressed under the Rhee regime that had existed since the end of Japanese rule. The Second Republic established diplomatic relations with many new countries, with Sohn Won-yil, the first ambassador to West Germany, attending the independence ceremonies of Cameroon, Togo, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Morocco. The Second Republic suffered from numerous political, economic, and social issues that were both new and inherited from the First Republic. Failure to properly address the issues caused a growth in political instability as factional fighting within the Democratic Party, combined with the increasing activity from opposition and activist groups, led to a breakdown in South Korean politics. Main article: May 16 coup. Many high-ranking figures of the South Korean military held animosity for so-called “liberation aristocrats” – the ruling class of conservative politicians involved in the Korean independence movement and United States Army Military Government – that they blamed for the stalling of development in South Korea. Military figures noted how South Korea had been intensively developed under the Japanese colonial system and the “economic miracle” occurring in Japan, in marked contrast to Rhee’s presidency which saw little significant effort to develop the economy, which remained stagnant, poor and largely agrarian. The lack of development under Rhee provoked a growing nationalistic intellectual reaction which called for a radical restructuring of society and a thorough political and economic reorganization, rejecting the model being pursued by the governing elite. Park Chung-hee, a Major General in the Republic of Korea Army with decidedly ambiguous political leanings, was heavily influenced by this unfolding intellectual reaction. Park became the leader of a reformist faction within the military that plotted a coup d’etat against the civilian government of the Second Republic on 12 May 1961. The plot was aborted after being leaked, however, the military attempted another coup four days later on 16 May which was successful, dissolving the Second Republic. They proceeded to broadcast a proclamation outlining the policy objectives of the coup, including anti-communism, strengthening of ties with the United States, the elimination of political corruption, the construction of an autonomous national economy, Korean reunification, and the removal of the present generation of politicians. Park and his supporters subsequently established the Military Revolutionary Committee as a military junta government, later renamed the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Park became the de facto dictator of South Korea as the Chairman of the Council, while Yun Bo-seon remained President as a figurehead. On one autumn day in 1969, when the Korean engineering design office of a Nevada Corporation was located within the U. Army Yongsan Garrison in central Seoul, a tall handsome man, dressed in a black suit with a small rectangular white window in the front part of the collar, visited my design office. He was Father Chang Ick. Somehow, I immediately liked his elegant and refined manner. I don’t remember why, but we spoke in English. He wanted us to design a Catholic church building in Seongbuk-dong, northeastern Seoul, and showed me a cadastral map. I asked him to give us the general concept and specifications of the proposed building. May I use your typewriter? I let him sit at my desk, and quickly replaced the old typewriter ribbon with a new one. The Father knew by heart every concept of his new church, and typed the design requirements rather quickly. He typed three pages of the specifications, without even making typographical errors. I glanced over the papers and said Give us two weeks and I’ll submit to you three different conceptual ideas showing the floor layouts and facades, before we enter into the detailed design. Then I checked the city planning regulations in the area around City Hall. There were no restrictions. Then, later we applied for a building permit. The answer came back a week later and we were told that there is a height restriction in the area by the Metropolitan Army Defense Command. We were told that the very area in Seongbuk-dong comes within the field vision of anti-aircraft artillery as the zone is within the range of protection for Cheong Wa Dae. We redesigned and lowered the height of the tower of the Roman Catholic church and finally we were able to receive the building permit. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee, a major-general, led a military coup on May 16, 1961. Over a cup of coffee in my office, Father Chang kept criticizing Park Chung-hee for taking over the country in a coup d’etat. Such anti-military government words were taboo and dangerous at the time. 20, 2011 this column carried an article Cryptography is the key to Information Age. ” A part of it reads, “When Chang Myon, vice president and prime minister of the First and the Second Republic, was assigned as South Korea’s first ambassador to the United States in 1949, he hid a Korean-English dictionary in his portfolio. The foreign ministry’s Seoul Office had the same copy. The dictionary was their code book. A word is picked up by indicating the page number and the column number from the same dictionaries in Washington, D. Bishop Chang Ick was my age, 87. I’m thinking of that wonderful gentleman in this time of sorrow. [Raw] Gwangmyeong 3 (1899). [Death] 1966.6.4. Graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After earning a doctorate in law and returning to Japan, engaged in Christian business. He was a member of the Constituent National Assembly in 1948 and became the first ambassador to the United States in 1949. 51 years Prime Minister became but Lee Sunman (Syngman Rhee) president and the collision to resign. In 1955, he organized the Democratic Party with Sin Ik-hui and became an opposition leader. In the third presidential election in 1981, he was elected vice president from the opposition party under President Lee Seung-man of the Liberal Party. Even after taking office, he blamed the Lee administration’s policies and resigned as vice president in the student revolution in April 1960. August Cabinet has been appointed to the responsibility system the second Prime Minister of the Republic, the following year of the five-sixteen military revolution can not respond quickly in, resulting in a successful revolution as a result. The Cabinet resigned altogether. Imprisoned for anti-revolution case in 1987Received a 10-year sentence, but was released from expulsion in 1965. Source Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Information about. Commentary on Digital Daijisen. Became Prime Minister in 1950, but resigned in conflict with President Syngman Rhee. He formed the Democratic Party of Japan in 1955, and was reappointed as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April Revolution of 1960. 1961 Chung of the coup in the downfall. Chang Myon (Chang Myon). Commentary on the 2nd edition of the World Encyclopedia. The issue is Unishi. Born in Incheon, Gyeonggi Province. Graduated from the Catholic University of Manhattan in New York in 1925. Participated in the formation of the Democratic Party of the Conservative Opposition in 1955. He defeated Lee Ki-poong of the Liberal Party in 1981 and was elected Vice President, but there was no fundamental difference in his pro-American personality. Inaugurated as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April 1960 Revolution. In 1961, he signed the Korea-US Economic and Technical Assistance Agreement and endeavored to realize a new Korea-US relationship. But the president Yoon?? Administration, such as (in-failure) faction split is a weakness, not be able to respond effectively to the popular movements that hope the negative and unification also to North-South dialogue as a transient regime, 61 years Chung of He was banished from political activities in the 5/16 coup d’etat. Source Information about Heibonsha World Encyclopedia 2nd Edition. Commentary on the Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). A politician from South Korea. Born in Gyeonggi Province. After graduating from Suwon High School of Agriculture and Forestry, studied abroad in the United States and graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After returning to Japan, following the Catholic business, he became the principal of Tosei Commercial School from 1931 to 1945. After liberation, he entered politics and became a member of various parliament. 1951 Prime Minister, 1952 Presidential election and lost. He founded the Democratic Party in 1955 and confronted the ruling Liberal Party. After the student revolution in April 1960, he was elected Prime Minister under the new constitution and established the Democratic Party of Japan (a spokesman at the time was later President Kim Dae-Jung). However, he was dismissed by the military revolution in May 1961 and was temporarily charged with anti-revolutionary charges. He was released from exile in 1965, but died in June 1966 in disappointment. Mention of Chang Myon in the World Encyclopedia. From [Republic of Korea]. However, in order to perpetuate the administration, the people were forced to revise the constitution, such as changing the presidential election method from indirect elections by members of the Diet to direct elections by the people, and abolishing the three-election prohibition clause for the presidential term. The Lee administration collapsed due to the April revolution centered on students in 1960, against the backdrop of the economic crisis. In the Second Republic, which was established in its place, the criticism of Lee’s dictatorship was changed to a responsible cabinet system with significantly reduced presidential authority, and the Chang Myon administration (President Yun Posun) based on the opposition party (Democratic Party) during the Lee administration. However, the energy of the people who caused the April Revolution overcame the regulations of the Zhang administration, and the movement for democratization and unity showed unprecedented upsurge. [From the Park administration to all administrations] When. It seemed that a new phase would be opened in the North-South division situation, a military coup d’etat (May 16 coup d’etat) broke out on May 16, 1961, and mainly military personnel. Chung administration (third Republic) is satisfied. Korea (or Korean peninsula) is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”) and South Korea (officially the “Republic of Korea”). Korea consists of the mainland Korean Peninsula (“Mainland Korea”), Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. It is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, together known as the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the second half of the 1st millennium, Silla defeated and conquered Baekje and Goguryeo, leading to the “Unified Silla” period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north, superseding former Goguryeo. Unified Silla eventually collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium, Goguryeo was resurrected as Goryeo, which defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as a single sovereign state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo. Goryeo (also spelled as Koryo), whose name developed into the modern exonym “Korea”, was a highly cultured state that created the world’s first metal movable type in 1234. [3][4][5][6][7][8] However, multiple incursions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century greatly weakened the nation, which eventually agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin that ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, and Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 17 July 1392. The first 200 years of the Joseon era were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the later part of the dynasty, Korea’s isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the “Hermit Kingdom”. By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire’s effort to modernize, the country was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by it until the end of World War II in August 1945. In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. These circumstances became the basis for the division of Korea by the 2 superpowers with the 2 diffirent ideologies, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea’s division into two political entities in 1948: North Korea, and South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty. This status contributes to the high tensions that continue to divide the peninsula. Both governments of the two Koreas always claim to be the sole legitimate government of this region. Japanese occupation and Japan-Korea Annexation. List of heads of state (since 1897). Comparison of the two countries of Korea. Notable public holidays in South Korea. Independence Movement Day, March 1st. Memorial day, 6 June. National Liberation Day, 15 August. Hangul Day, 9 October. Main article: Names of Korea. See also: Korean romanization. “Korea” is the modern spelling of “Corea”, a name attested in English as early as 1614. [9][10] Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, [11] of the Chinese?? This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo Korean:?? MR: Koryo, which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo’s time. Korea’s introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, [13] with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. [14] Goryeo’s name was a continuation of Goguryeo (Koguryo) the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which was officially known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century. [15] The original name was a combination of the adjective go (“high, lofty”) with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either Guru?? “Walled city, ” inferred from some toponyms in Chinese historical documents or Gauri??? With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling “Korea” appeared and gradually grew in popularity;[9] its use in transcribing East Asian languages avoids the issues caused by the separate hard and soft Cs existing in English vocabulary derived from the Romance languages. The name Korea is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk?? “Country of the Han”. The name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. [16][17] Although written in Hanja as? This Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription OC:? Han[12] or Gan of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning “big” or “great”, particularly in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria and Central Asia. In North Korea, Japan, China and Vietnam, Korea as a whole is referred to as?? “[land of the] Morning Calm”. “Great Joseon” was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon??? , who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108? BCE by China’s Han Empire. This go is the Hanja? And simply means “ancient” or “old”; it is a modern usage to distinguish the ancient Joseon from the later dynasty. Joseon itself is the modern Korean pronunciation of the Hanja?? But it is unclear whether this was a transcription of a native Korean name OC? T[r]awser, MC? Trjewsjen[12] or a partial translation into Chinese of the Korean capital Asadal??? , [18] whose meaning has been reconstructed as “Morning Land” or “Mountain”. Main article: Geography of Korea. See also: Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea, and Provinces of Korea. A neighborhood in North Gyeongsang Province. A view of Mount Seorak. Daedongyeojido – this 1861 map of Korea represents the peak of pre-modern mapmaking in the region. Korea consists of a peninsula and nearby islands located in East Asia. The peninsula extends southwards for about 1,100 km (680 mi) from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the east and the Yellow Sea (West Sea) to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water. [19][20] To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia. [21] Notable islands include Jeju Island, Ulleung Island, Dokdo. The southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu (2,744 m), through which runs the border with China. The southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter. To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan. Some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan (1,439 m), Mount Kumgang (1,638 m), Mount Seorak (1,708 m), Mount Taebaek (1,567 m), and Mount Jiri (1,915 m). There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is almost perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan. They are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are basically northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan (1950 m) is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of Japan, the composition of which is more felsic than Jeju-do. The volcanic islands tend to be younger, the more westward. Because the mountainous region is mostly on the eastern part of the peninsula, the main rivers tend to flow westwards. Two exceptions are the southward-flowing Nakdong River and Seomjin River. Important rivers running westward include the Amnok River, the Chongchon River, the Taedong River, the Han River, the Geum River, and the Yeongsan River. These rivers have vast flood plains and provide an ideal environment for wet-rice cultivation. The southern and southwestern coastlines of the peninsula form a well-developed ria coastline, known as Dadohae-jin in Korean. Its convoluted coastline provides mild seas, and the resulting calm environment allows for safe navigation, fishing, and seaweed farming. In addition to the complex coastline, the western coast of the Korean Peninsula has an extremely high tidal amplitude at Incheon, around the middle of the western coast. It can get as high as 9 m. Vast tidal flats have been developing on the south and west coastlines. Korea has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula’s position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west. The peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining. When these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with often cloudy days with rain, which is sometimes very heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer; temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) daily at this time of year. Usually, high pressure is heavily dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes relatively low. The weather becomes increasingly dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is relatively dry with some snow falling at times. Main article: Wildlife of Korea. Animal life of the Korean Peninsula includes a considerable number of bird species and native freshwater fish. Native or endemic species of the Korean Peninsula include Korean hare, Korean water deer, Korean field mouse, Korean brown frog, Korean pine and Korean spruce. The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) with its forest and natural wetlands is a unique biodiversity spot, which harbours eighty-two endangered species. Korea once hosted many Siberian tigers, but as the number of people affected by the tigers increased, the tigers were killed in the Joseon Dynasty and the Siberian tigers in the South Korea became extinct during the Japanese colonial era period. It has been confirmed that Siberian tigers are only on the side of North Korea now. There are also approximately 3,034 species of vascular plants. Main article: History of Korea. See also: History of North Korea and History of South Korea. Four Commanderies of Han. Northern and Southern States period. United Silla (Unified Silla). Later Three Kingdoms period. Unified Silla (Later Silla). ArtDivisionLanguageMilitary (Goguryeo)MonarchsNavalScience and technologyHistory of Jeju. Main articles: Prehistoric Korea and Gojoseon. The Korean Academy claimed ancient hominid fossils originating from about 100,000? BCE in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. Fluorescent and high-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000? [24] The best preserved Korean pottery goes back to the paleolithic times around 10,000? BCE and the Neolithic period begins around 6000? According to legend, Dangun, a descendant of Heaven, established Gojoseon in 2333? BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Gojoseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula. By 313, Goguryeo annexed all of the Chinese commanderies. Main article: Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea. The Proto-Three Kingdoms period, sometimes called the Multiple States Period, is the earlier part of what is commonly called the Three Kingdoms Period, following the fall of Gojoseon but before Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla fully developed into kingdoms. This time period saw numerous states spring up from the former territories of Gojoseon, which encompassed northern Korea and southern Manchuria. With the fall of Gojoseon, southern Korea entered the Samhan period. Located in the southern part of Korea, Samhan referred to the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. Mahan was the largest and consisted of 54 states. Byeonhan and Jinhan both consisted of twelve states, bringing a total of 78 states within the Samhan. These three confederacies eventually developed into Baekje, Silla, and Gaya. Main articles: Three Kingdoms of Korea, Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. 7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea consisted of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje. Silla and Baekje controlled the southern half of the Korean Peninsula, maintaining the former Samhan territories, while Goguryeo controlled the northern half of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria and the Liaodong Peninsula, uniting Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and other states in the former Gojoseon territories. Goguryeo was a highly militaristic state;[26][27]self-published source? It was a powerful empire and one of the great powers in East Asia, [28][29][30][31]self-published source? Reaching its zenith in the 5th century when its territories expanded to encompass most of Manchuria to the north, parts of Inner Mongolia to the west, [32] parts of Russia to the east, [33] and the Seoul region to the south. [34] Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Jangsu, [35][36][37][38] who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power on the Korean Peninsula. [39][40] In addition to contesting for control of the Korean Peninsula, Goguryeo had many military conflicts with various Chinese dynasties, [41]self-published source? Most notably the Goguryeo-Sui War, in which Goguryeo defeated a huge force said to number over a million men. [42][43][44][45][46] In 642, the powerful general Yeon Gaesomun led a coup and gained complete control over Goguryeo. In response, Emperor Tang Taizong of China led a campaign against Goguryeo, but was defeated and retreated. [47][48]self-published source? After the death of Tang Taizong, his son Emperor Tang Gaozong allied with the Korean kingdom of Silla and invaded Goguryeo again, but was unable to overcome Goguryeo’s stalwart defenses and was defeated in 662. [49][50] However, Yeon Gaesomun died of a natural cause in 666 and Goguryeo was thrown into chaos and weakened by a succession struggle among his sons and younger brother, with his eldest son defecting to Tang and his younger brother defecting to Silla. [51][52] The Tang-Silla alliance finally conquered Goguryeo in 668. After the collapse of Goguryeo, Tang and Silla ended their alliance and fought over control of the Korean Peninsula. Silla succeeded in gaining control over most of the Korean Peninsula, while Tang gained control over Goguryeo’s northern territories. However, 30 years after the fall of Goguryeo, a Goguryeo general by the name of Dae Joyeong founded the Korean-Mohe state of Balhae and successfully expelled the Tang presence from much of the former Goguryeo territories. Seokguram Grotto from the Silla era, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The southwestern Korean kingdom of Baekje was founded around modern-day Seoul by a Goguryeo prince, a son of the founder of Goguryeo. [53][54]self-published source? [55] Baekje absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as parts of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralised government; during the expansion of its territory, Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through maritime contacts with the Southern Dynasties. Baekje was a great maritime power;[56] its nautical skill, which made it the Phoenicia of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan. [57][58] Historic evidence suggests that Japanese culture, art, and language were influenced by the kingdom of Baekje and Korea itself;[31][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69] Baekje also played an important role in transmitting advanced Chinese culture to the Japanese archipelago. Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, most notably in the 4th century during the rule of Geunchogo when its influence extended across the sea to Liaoxi and Shandong in China, taking advantage of the weakened state of Former Qin, and Kyushu in the Japanese archipelago;[70] however, Baekje was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined. The Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century. Although later records claim that Silla was the oldest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it is now believed to have been the last kingdom to develop. By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a large state in the southeast, occupying and influencing its neighboring city-states. In 562, Silla annexed the Gaya confederacy, which was located between Baekje and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea often warred with each other and Silla was often dominated by Baekje and Goguryeo. Silla was the smallest and weakest of the three, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage. [71][72] In 660, King Muyeol ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin, aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje after defeating General Gyebaek at the Battle of Hwangsanbeol. In 661, Silla and Tang attacked Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of General Kim Yu-shin, launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year. Main articles: North-South States Period, Later Silla, and Balhae. Beginning in the 6th century, Silla’s power gradually extended across the Korean Peninsula. Silla first annexed the adjacent Gaya confederacy in 562. By the 640s, Silla formed an alliance with the Tang dynasty of China to conquer Baekje and later Goguryeo. After conquering Baekje and Goguryeo, Silla repulsed Tang China from the Korean peninsula in 676. Even though Silla unified most of the Korean Peninsula, most of the Goguryeo territories to the north of the Korean Peninsula were ruled by Balhae. Former Goguryeo general[73][74] or chief of Sumo Mohe[75][76][77] Dae Jo-yeong led a group of Goguryeo and Mohe refugees to the Jilin and founded the kingdom of Balhae, 30 years after the collapse of Goguryeo, as the successor to Goguryeo. At its height, Balhae’s territories extended from southern Manchuria down to the northern Korean peninsula. Balhae was called the “Prosperous Country in the East”. Unified Silla and Balhae in the 8th century CE. Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia, [79] and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River. [80][81][82][83] Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country, [84] and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju[85] was the fourth largest city in the world. [86][87][88][89] Later Silla was a golden age of art and culture, [90][91][92][93] as evidenced by the Hwangnyongsa, Seokguram, and Emille Bell. Buddhism flourished during this time, and many Korean Buddhists gained great fame among Chinese Buddhists[94] and contributed to Chinese Buddhism, [95] including: Woncheuk, Wonhyo, Uisang, Musang, [96][97][98][99] and Kim Gyo-gak, a Silla prince whose influence made Mount Jiuhua one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism. [100][101][102][103][104]. Later Silla fell apart in the late 9th century, giving way to the tumultuous Later Three Kingdoms period (892-935), and Balhae was destroyed by the Khitans in 926. Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms and received the last crown prince and much of the ruling class of Balhae, thus bringing about a unification of the two successor nations of Goguryeo. Goryeo was founded in 918 and replaced Silla as the ruling dynasty of Korea. Goryeo’s land was at first what is now South Korea and about 1/3 of North Korea, but later on managed to recover most of the Korean peninsula. Is a short form of “Goguryeo”??? And was first used during the time of King Jangsu. Goryeo regarded itself as the successor of Goguryeo, hence its name and efforts to recover the former territories of Goguryeo. [106][107][108][109] Wang Geon, the founder of Goryeo, was of Goguryeo descent and traced his ancestry to a noble Goguryeo clan. [110] He made Kaesong, his hometown, the capital. During this period, laws were codified and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon industries flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. The publication of the Tripitaka Koreana onto more than 80,000 wooden blocks and the invention of the world’s first metal movable type in the 13th century attest to Goryeo’s cultural achievements. [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Goryeo had to defend frequently against attacks by nomadic empires, especially the Khitans and the Mongols. Goryeo had a hostile relationship with the Khitans, because the Khitan Empire had destroyed Balhae, also a successor state of Goguryeo. In 993, the Khitans, who had established the Liao dynasty in 907, invaded Goryeo, demanding that it make amity with them. Goryeo sent the diplomat Seo Hui to negotiate, who successfully persuaded the Khitans to let Goryeo expand to the banks of the Amnok (Yalu) River, citing that in the past the land belonged to Goguryeo, the predecessor of Goryeo. [111] During the Goryeo-Khitan War, the Khitan Empire invaded Korea twice more in 1009 and 1018, but was defeated. After defeating the Khitan Empire, which was the most powerful empire of its time, [112][113] Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which the Tripitaka Koreana was completed, and there were great developments in printing and publishing, promoting learning and dispersing knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science; by 1100, there were 12 universities that produced famous scholars and scientists. Goryeo was invaded by the Mongols in seven major campaigns from the 1230s until the 1270s, but was never conquered. [116] Exhausted after decades of fighting, Goryeo sent its crown prince to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to the Mongols; Kublai Khan accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince, [116] and the dynastic line of Goryeo continued to survive under the overlordship of the Mongol Yuan dynasty as a semi-autonomous vassal state and compulsory ally. The two nations became intertwined for 80 years as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses, [116] and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess. In the 1350s, King Gongmin was free at last to reform the Goryeo government when the Yuan dynasty began to crumble. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, which included the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars. During this tumultuous period, Goryeo momentarily conquered Liaoyang in 1356, repulsed two large invasions by the Red Turbans in 1359 and 1360, and defeated the final attempt by the Yuan to dominate Goryeo when General Choe Yeong defeated a Mongol tumen in 1364. In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye overthrew the Goryeo dynasty after he staged a coup and defeated General Choe Yeong. Yi Seong-gye named his new dynasty Joseon and moved the capital from Kaesong to Hanseong (formerly Hanyang; modern-day Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung palace. [117] In 1394, he adopted Confucianism as the country’s official ideology, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy of the Joseon dynasty was Neo-Confucianism, which was epitomized by the seonbi class, scholars who passed up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity. Joseon was a nominal tributary state of China but exercised full sovereignty, [118][119] and maintained the highest position among China’s tributary states, [120][121] which also included countries such as the Ryukyu Kingdom, Vietnam, Burma, Brunei, Laos, Thailand, [122][123][124] and the Philippines, among others. [125][126] In addition, Joseon received tribute from Jurchens and Japanese until the 17th century, [127][128][129] and had a small enclave in the Ryukyu Kingdom that engaged in trade with Siam and Java. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Joseon enjoyed many benevolent rulers who promoted education and science. [131] Most notable among them was Sejong the Great r. 1418-50, who personally created and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet. [132] This golden age[131] saw great cultural and scientific advancements, [133] including in printing, meteorological observation, astronomy, calendar science, ceramics, military technology, geography, cartography, medicine, and agricultural technology, some of which were unrivaled elsewhere. [134] Joseon implemented a class system that consisted of yangban the noble class, jungin the middle class, yangin the common class, and cheonin the lowest class, which included occupations such as butchers, tanners, shamans, entertainers, and nobi, the equivalent of slaves, bondservants, or serfs. In 1592 and again in 1597, the Japanese invaded Korea; the Korean military at the time was unprepared and untrained, due to two centuries of peace on the Korean Peninsula. However, Joseon experienced great destruction, including a tremendous loss of cultural sites such as temples and palaces to Japanese pillaging, and the Japanese brought back to Japan an estimated 100,000-200,000 noses cut from Korean victims. [139] Less than 30 years after the Japanese invasions, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon’s war-weakened state and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty. After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynasty, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century. In the 19th century, the royal in-law families gained control of the government, leading to mass corruption and weakening of the state, with severe poverty and peasant rebellions spreading throughout the country. Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname “the hermit kingdom”, but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders, beginning an era leading into Japanese imperial rule. Main article: Korean Empire. The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889. Beginning in 1871, Japan began to exert more influence in Korea, forcing it out of China’s traditional sphere of influence. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), the Qing dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong of Korea was assassinated by Japanese agents. King Gojong became emperor. During this brief period, Korea had some success in modernizing the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries. Russia, Japan, France, and the United States all invested in the country and sought to influence it politically. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on 26 October 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, Ito Hirobumi, for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation. Main article: Korea under Japanese rule. See also: Japanese war crimes. The memorial tablet for the March 1st Movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul. In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin. [143] There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes. Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation[144][145][146] was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military. [147] The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia. Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939, [148] and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan’s military. [149] Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died. [150] Approximately 200,000 girls and women, [151] mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. [152] In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named “comfort women”. During the Japanese annexation, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Soshi-kaimei. [155] Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed[156] or taken to Japan. [157] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections. [158] One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan. [157][159] Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date[157] this has not occurred. [159] Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Dokdo islets, located east of the Korean Peninsula. There was significant emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese occupation period, including Korea. [161] By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea. [162] After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan. Main articles: Division of Korea, Korean conflict, and Korean reunification. Flag of North Korea. In 1945, with the surrender of Japan, the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea. Satellite image of the Korean peninsula taken at night showing the extent of the division between the Koreas; note the difference in light emitted between the two countries. The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, North Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic was established in the north and South Korea; a Western-style regime, was established in the South. North Korea is a one-party state, now centred on Kim Il-sung’s Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history. Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957, South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana, [163] and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana’s. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987;[165] others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone. [166] Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008. [167] In South Korea, as guerrilla activities expanded, the South Korean government used strong measures against peasants, such as forcefully moving their families from guerrilla areas. According to one estimate, these measures resulted in 36,000 people killed, 11,000 people wounded, and 432,000 people displaced. Main article: Korean War. Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as U. Marines fight North Koreans holding the city. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remained divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states. In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (1950-53) more than 1.2 million people died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities. [169] The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line, but the two governments are officially at war. In 2018, the leaders of North Korea and South Korea officially signed the Panmunjom Declaration, announcing that they will work to end the conflict. Korean Empire (1897 1910). 12 October 1897 20 July 1907. 20 July 1907 29 August 1910. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1948). Chairman of the Standing Committee. Of the Supreme People’s Assembly. 9 September 1948 20 September 1957. 20 September 1957 28 December 1972. 28 December 1972 8 July 1994. President of the Presidium. 5 September 1998 11 April 2019. Chairman of the National Defence Commission. 9 April 2009 17 December 2011. First Chairman of the National Defence Commission/Chairman of the State Affairs Commission. Republic of Korea (1948). 24 July 1948 26 April 1960. 13 August 1960 23 March 1962. 17 December 1963 26 October 1979. 6 December 1979 16 August 1980. 1 September 1980 24 February 1988. 25 February 1988 24 February 1993. 25 February 1993 24 February 1998. 25 February 1998 24 February 2003. 25 February 2003 24 February 2008. 25 February 2008 24 February 2013. 25 February 2013 10 March 2017. The name “Korea” is written as it started from 1897. Main articles: Koreans, Demographics of South Korea, and Demographics of North Korea. The combined population of the Koreas is about 76 million (North Korea: 25 million, South Korea: 51 million). Korea is chiefly populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak the Korean language. [170] The number of foreigners living in Korea has also steadily increased since the late 20th century, particularly in South Korea, where more than 1 million foreigners reside. [171] It was estimated in 2006 that only 26,700 of the old Chinese community now remain in South Korea. [172] However, in recent years, immigration from mainland China has increased; 624,994 persons of Chinese nationality have immigrated to South Korea, including 443,566 of ethnic Korean descent. [173] Small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese are also found in North Korea. Main articles: Korean language and Korean Sign Language. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul. Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 25 million. Other large groups of Korean speakers through Korean diaspora are found in China, the United States, Japan, former Soviet Union and elsewhere. Modern Korean is written almost exclusively in the script of the Korean alphabet (known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosungul in China and North Korea), which was invented in the 15th century. Korean is sometimes written with the addition of some Chinese characters called Hanja; however, this is only occasionally seen nowadays. Main articles: Culture of Korea, Korean art, Korean pottery and porcelain, Korean martial arts, Korean dance, Korean bow, and Korean architecture. Location of World Heritage Sites in Korea. Note: Seoul is home to three separate properties; Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty locate throughout the country, only one site is shown on map. Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu). In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as “Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk”???? And “Eastern Nation of Decorum”?????? [177] Individuals are regarded as one year old when they are born, as Koreans reckon the pregnancy period as one year of life for infants, and age increments increase on New Year’s Day rather than on the anniversary of birthdays. Thus, one born immediately before New Year’s Day may only be a few days old in western reckoning, but two years old in Korea. Accordingly, a Korean person’s stated age (at least among fellow Koreans) will be one or two years more than their age according to western reckoning. However, western reckoning is sometimes applied with regard to the concept of legal age; for example, the legal age for purchasing alcohol or cigarettes in the Republic of Korea is 19, which is measured according to western reckoning. Main article: Korean literature. Korean literature written before the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called “Classical” or Traditional. Literature, written in Chinese characters (hanja), was established at the same time as the Chinese script arrived on the peninsula. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the classical Korean style as early as the 2nd century? BCE, reflecting Korean thoughts and experiences of that time. Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the peninsula, strongly influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Modern literature is often linked with the development of hangul, which helped spread literacy from the aristocracy to the common people. Hangul, however, only reached a dominant position in Korean literature in the second half of the 19th century, resulting in a major growth in Korean literature. Sinsoseol, for instance, are novels written in hangul. The Korean War led to the development of literature centered on the wounds and chaos of war. Much of the post-war literature in South Korea deals with the daily lives of ordinary people, and their struggles with national pain. The collapse of the traditional Korean value system is another common theme of the time. Main article: Music of Korea. Traditional Korean music includes combinations of the folk, vocal, religious and ritual music styles of the Korean people. Korean music has been practiced since prehistoric times. [178] Korean music falls into two broad categories. The first, Hyangak, literally means The local music or Music native to Korea, a famous example of which is Sujechon, a piece of instrumental music often claimed to be at least 1,300 years old. [179] The second, yangak, represents a more Western style. Main articles: Religion in Korea, Religion in South Korea, and Religion in North Korea. See also: Korean shamanism, Korean Confucianism, Korean Buddhism, Taoism in Korea, Christianity in Korea, and Islam in Korea. Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s. Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religious practice has been suppressed in North Korea. Throughout Korean history and culture, regardless of separation; the influence of traditional beliefs of Korean Shamanism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism have remained an underlying religion of the Korean people as well as a vital aspect of their culture; all these traditions have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years up to today despite strong Westernisation from Christian missionary conversions in the South[180][181][182] or the pressure from the Juche government in the North. According to 2005 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 29.2% of the population (of which are Protestants 18.3% and Catholics 10.9%) and Buddhists 22.8%. Islam in South Korea is practiced by about 45,000 natives (about 0.09% of the population) in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers from Muslim countries. Main article: Korean cuisine. See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean royal court cuisine. Tteokbokki, rice cakes with spicy gochujang sauce. Koreans traditionally believe that the taste and quality of food depend on its spices and sauces, the essential ingredients to making a delicious meal. Therefore, soybean paste, soy sauce, gochujang or red pepper paste and kimchi are some of the most important staples in a Korean household. Korean cuisine was greatly influenced by the geography and climate of the Korean Peninsula, which is known for its cold autumns and winters, therefore there are many fermented dishes and hot soups and stews. Bulgogi and side dishes. Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, a side dish which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables, most commonly cabbage. Kimchi is said to relieve the pores on the skin, thereby reducing wrinkles and providing nutrients to the skin naturally. It is also healthy, as it provides necessary vitamins and nutrients. Gochujang, a traditional Korean sauce made of red pepper is also commonly used, often as pepper (chilli) paste, earning the cuisine a reputation for spiciness. Bulgogi (roasted marinated meat, usually beef), galbi (marinated grilled short ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork belly) are popular meat entrees. Fish is also a popular commodity, as it is the traditional meat that Koreans eat. Meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, such as galbitang (stewed ribs) or doenjang jjigae (fermented bean paste soup). The center of the table is filled with a shared collection of sidedishes called banchan. Other popular dishes include bibimbap, which literally means “mixed rice” (rice mixed with meat, vegetables, and red pepper paste), and naengmyeon (cold noodles). Instant noodles, or ramyeon, is a popular snack food. Koreans also enjoy food from pojangmachas (street vendors), which serve tteokbokki, rice cake and fish cake with a spicy gochujang sauce; gimbap, made of steamed white rice wrapped in dried laver seaweed; fried squid; and glazed sweet potato. Soondae, a sausage made of cellophane noodles and pork blood, is widely eaten. Additionally, some other common snacks include “Choco Pie”, shrimp crackers, “bbeongtwigi” (puffed rice grains), and “nurungji” (slightly burnt rice). Nurungji can be eaten as it is or boiled with water to make a soup. Nurungji can also be eaten as a snack or a dessert. Korea is unique among Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks. Metal chopsticks have been discovered in archaeological sites belonging to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. Main articles: Education in North Korea and Education in South Korea. The modern South Korean school system consists of six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranks South Korea’s science education as the third best in the world and being significantly higher than the OECD average. South Korea ranks second on math and literature and first in problem solving[citation needed]. Although South Korean students often rank high on international comparative assessments, the education system is criticised for emphasising too much upon passive learning and memorization. The South Korean education system is rather notably strict and structured as compared to its counterparts in most Western societies. The North Korean education system consists primarily of universal and state funded schooling by the government. The national literacy rate for citizens 15 years of age and above is over 99 percent. [190][191] Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, and then on to universities. The most prestigious university in the DPRK is Kim Il-sung University. Other notable universities include Kim Chaek University of Technology, which focuses on computer science, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, which trains working level diplomats and trade officials, and Kim Hyong Jik University, which trains teachers. Main article: History of science and technology in Korea. See also: List of Korean inventions and discoveries. Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris. One of the best known artifacts of Korea’s history of science and technology is the Cheomseongdae??? , a 9.4-meter high observatory built in 634. The earliest known surviving Korean example of woodblock printing is the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra. [192] It is believed to have been printed in Korea in 750-51, which if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. During the Goryeo Dynasty, metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in 1234. [193][5][194][195][8][3] This invention made printing easier, more efficient and also increased literacy, which observed by Chinese visitors was seen to be so important where it was considered to be shameful to not be able to read. [196] The Mongol Empire later adopted Korea’s movable type printing and spread as far as Central Asia. There is conjecture as to whether or not Choe’s invention had any influence on later printing inventions such as Gutenberg’s Printing press. [197] When the Mongols invaded Europe they inadvertently introduced different kinds of Asian technology. The Korean alphabet hangul was also invented during this time by King Sejong the Great. Main articles: Sport in South Korea and Sport in North Korea. North Korea and South Korea usually compete as two separate nations in international events. There are, however, a few examples of them having competed as one entity, under the name Korea. While association football remains one of the most popular sports in South Korea, the martial art of taekwondo is considered to be the national sport. Baseball and golf are also popular. Taekwon-Do is Korea’s most famous martial art and sport. It combines combat techniques, self-defence, sport and exercise. Taekwon-Do has become an official Olympic sport, starting as a demonstration event in 1988 (when South Korea hosted the Games in Seoul) and becoming an official medal event in 2000. The two major Taekwon-Do federations were founded in Korea. The two are the International Taekwon-Do Federation and the World Taekwondo Federation. Hapkido is a modern Korean martial art with a grappling focus that employs joint locks, throws, kicks, punches and other striking attacks like attacks against pressure points. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the pure use of strength against strength. Ssireum is a traditional form of wrestling that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years, with evidence discovered from Goguryeo of Korea’s Three Kingdoms Period 57? Ssireum is the traditional national sport of Korea. During a match, opponents grip each other by sash belts wrapped around the waist and the thigh, attempting to throw their competitor to the sandy ground of the ring. The first opponent to touch the ground with any body part above the knee or to lose hold of their opponent loses the round. Ssireum competitions are traditionally held twice a year, during the Dano Festival (the 5th day of the fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month). Competitions are also held throughout the year as a part of festivals and other events. Taekkyon is a traditional martial art, considered the oldest form of fighting technique of Korea. Practiced since centuries and especially popular during the Joseon dynasty, two forms co-existed: one for practical use, the other for sport. This form was usually practiced alongside Ssireum during festivals and competitions between villages. Nonetheless, Taekkyon almost disappeared during the Japanese Occupation and the Korean War. Though lost in North Korea, Taekkyon has enjoyed a spectacular revival from the 1980s in South Korea. It is the only martial art in the world (with Ssireum) recognized as a National Treasure of South Korea and a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Emblem of North Korea. Emblem of South Korea. GDP total 2011/2014 est. Korean People’s won sign:? Main article: List of public holidays in South Korea. Samiljeol, Independence Movement Day, commemorates Korea’s declaration of independence from Japanese occupation on 1 March 1919. The name is derived from Korean? “Jeol”‘day’, the date of the uprising in 1919. Korea was annexed to the Empire of Japan on 29 August 1910 following the imposed Japan-Korea Treaty. On 1 March 1919, Korean presented their resistance towards Japan and Japanese occupation with a declaration of independence. Following the conclusion of World War II, Korea was liberated from Japan and its independence restored. The newly established Korean government set aside 1 March as a national holiday to commemorate the sacrifices borne in the long struggle for Korean independence. Hyunchoongil is the national holiday in Korea commemorating those who fought and died for the nation. In August 1948, only a few years after Korea achieved its independence from Japan, the Korean War, in Korea also known as the 6.25 war, broke out between North and South Korea. During this war, approximately 400,000 soldiers and some one million citizens were killed or injured. In 1953, North and South Korea agreed to a cease-fire, and three years later the Korean government established Hyungchoogil to commemorate the soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Subsequent to its establishment, Hyungchoogil was reinterpreted as a day of remembrance for those who died defending Korea in all conflicts, not only during the Korean War. Gwangbokjeol is the day for celebrating liberation of the country from Japan in 1945 as well as celebrating the establishment of Korean government in 1948. It was first declared to be national holiday in 1949 October 1. On this date every year, the president of Korea visits Independence Hall, and invites diplomatic envoys from many countries and all social standings in countries to Cheongwadae (the Blue House, the Korean presidential residence). Hangul Day (also spelled as Hangeul Day) is a day that celebrates the creation of the Hunminjeongeum (Hangul, Korean alphabet), which was inscribed to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 1997. [202] Hangul was created by Sejong the Great in 1443 and proclaimed in 1446. Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil. [203][204][205][206] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often didn’t have the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. [207] Hangul Day was founded in 1926 during the Japanese occupation by members of the Korean Language Society, whose goal was to preserve the Korean language during a time of rapid forced Japanization. [208] Today, both South Korea and North Korea celebrate Hangul Day as a national holiday. Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea. Index of Korea-related articles. List of Korean inventions and discoveries. List of people of Korean descent. National Treasures of North Korea. National Treasures of South Korea. North Korea-South Korea relations. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Political\Other Political Autographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada.
Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean
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Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean

Korea_Chang_Myun_Handwritten_Letter_Assassination_Signed_Vintage_Korean_01_psbw Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean
Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean

Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean
A FANTASTICALLY RARE HANDWRITTEN LETTER ON REPUBLIC OF KOREA PAPER BY CHANG MYUN. ALSO ORIGINAL ARTICLE REFERENCING HIS ATTEMPTED ASSAINATION ATTEMPT. THE LETTER REFERENCES THE ATTEMPT ON HIS LIFE AND TO PROTECT HIM AND THE WELFARE OF HIS PEOPLE. August 28, 1899 – June 4, 1966 was a South Korean statesman, educator, diplomat, journalist and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the last Vice President of South Korea and the Prime Minister of the Second Republic. His styled name (ho) was Unseok?? His English name was John Chang Myon (baptismal name, surname, given name). Under the Japanese rule, Chang worked as a teacher. From 1919-21, he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School and from 1931-36 at Dongsung Commerce High School. From 1937-44, he was principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten of the Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church. From 1936-45, he was principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. In 1948, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly. In 1949, he became the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In 1950, he successfully appealed to the United States and the UN to send troops to assist in the Korean War. On November 23, 1950, he was appointed the second prime minister of the First Republic of Korea. From 1956 to 1960, he served as the fourth vice president of the First Republic of Korea. When Syngman Rhee’s government was ousted by the student-led pro-democracy uprising of April 19 Movement, he was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic in 1960. After the country adopted a parliamentary system in response to Rhee’s abuse of presidential power, Chang became the head of government. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee led a successful military coup on May 16, 1961, which marked the end of the Second Republic and the nation’s brief experimentation with the cabinet form of government. Study in the United States. Religious belief and education movements. Prime Minister of the First Republic. Prime Minister of the Second Republic. Chang Myon was born in 1899 in Jeokseon-dong, Hansung. He was the first son of Chang Gi-bin and Lucia Hwang. His given name was Myon? [2] He was a member of the Indong Chang Family???? , and descended from Jukjong Chang Cham???? , a well-known Neo-Confucianism philosopher. Chang’s ninth-generation grandfather lived in South Pyongan Province Province but his father moved to Incheon. [3] The first Roman Catholic believer in his family was his great-grandmother, Lady Park. In 1906, he began studying at Incheon Parkmun Primary School?? , and graduated in 1912. He then went to Incheon Public Simsang Elementary School?? He later attended Suwon Agriculture High School???????? , and he graduated on May 25, 1917. In March 1916, he married Kim Ok-yun. They had six sons and three daughters. Manhattan College student, 1921. In September 1918, he was registered at the YMCA Village School, and from 1919-21 he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School??? On March 1, 1919, he participated in the eponymous protests against Japanese occupation of Korea but escaped arrest. In January 1921, Chang Myon went to the United States with his younger brother Chang Bal to study. They were sponsored by the Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America. In September 1921, he entered Manhattan College and in 1924 took a one-year leave of absence from the college due to acute appendicitis. In August 1921, he entered the Secular Franciscan Order. After graduating from Manhattan College in July 1925, he left for Italy on July 30 to attend the beatification of 79 Korean Joseon Catholic martyrs. He was also received by Pope Pius XII. On December 2, 1925, he was appointed Maryknoll Center School’s professor of the Korean language and translation. At the same time, he served as the leader of the laity for the Pyongyang archdiocese. On February 11, 1927, he formally entered the service of the Pyongyang Catholic church. He translated religious terms for Catholic teaching into the Korean language and published The Summary of Religious Terms in November 1929. In 1930, he published Way of the seeker of truth???? And on September 15 he published An Outline of Joseon Catholic History?????????? On March 18, 1931, he resigned from the affairs of Pyongyang archdiocese????? And moved to Seoul. Appointed as a teacher at Dongsung Commerce High School???????? On April 1, 1931, he took on the responsibility of teaching English and rhetorical subjects. On July 10th, along with Jeong Ji-yong, he published the first issue of Catholic Young Men’s News??? In 1935, he became Manager of Affairs for Dongsung Commerce High School. On April 1, 1937, he became the lay leader of Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church??? And principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten????? On November 19, 1936, he became principal of Dongsung Commerce High School???????? At the same time he took on the additional role of principal of Gyesong Elementary School?????? In Jongro, Seoul, in April 1939. That September, he was appointed chairman of the Seoul Catholic Young Men’s National Union???????? He translated James Gibbons’ The Faith of Our Fathers: A Plain Exposition and Vindication of the Church Founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ into the Korean language and published the hangul edition???? On July 4, 1944. Republic of Korea Ambassador to USA, 1949. The Third UN General Assembly, 1948. On February 11, 1946, he was appointed a member of the Democratic Conference???? And a Representative of Emergency Peoples Conference?????? That August, Chang was elected to the South Korean Provisional National Assembly?????????? By this time, he emerged as a major political figure in the Syngman Rhee administration of the First Republic of Korea. On May 10, 1948, he ran for a National Assembly seat from Jongro District of Seoul, and he was duly elected on May 30. On October 11 of the same year, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly and witnessed the recognition of the Republic of Korea as a sovereign nation by the UN on December 12, 1948. In 1949, he visited the Vatican to express his appreciation of the Vatican’s active support of his diplomatic endeavors. In December 1949, he was appointed the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In April 1950, he was designated a special envoy of the Republic of Korea to Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. Immediately after the outbreak of the Korean War, on June 25, 1950, he actively solicited urgent aide from the United States and the UN. The 6th UN General Assembly, 1952. In November 1950, Chang was appointed the second Prime Minister of the First Republic of Korea, a position he at first refused, but after an earnest request from Syngman Rhee, he accepted and went on to serve from October 1951 until April 29, 1952. He was sent to the sixth UN General Assembly held in Paris, France. The involvement of the Catholic Church with the democratic opposition to the Rhee administration first began in the 1950s. As the foremost leader of the opposition in the late 1950s, Chang Myon, a devout Catholic, already had a good relationship with Roh Ki-nam, the Bishop of Seoul, from the early 1940s. Roh soon came to be known as the “political bishop” because of his frequent critical statements on the dictatorial tendencies of Syngman Rhee. In the 1950s, the governing Liberal Party was led by President Syngman Rhee. In April 1952, opposition lawmakers and some Liberal Party lawmakers attempted a constitutional amendment but were branded enemies of the state by Syngman Rhee[5] When the assembly voted to have martial law lifted in Busan, Rhee had half of them arrested. After a staged assassination attempt on Rhee, police began to investigate alleged links to the opposition. Police claimed that Chang Myon was working with assassins paid by North Korea to depose Rhee. Under this type of pressure, the assembly voted 160 to zero for Rhee’s constitutional amendments. [5] By the late 1950s Chang Myon emerged as the major alternative to Rhee, and in 1960, when Rhee was overthrown by the April 19th Movement and a popular revolution, Chang Myon was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea and de facto chief executive. Chang’s campaign for vice-presidency (1956). On September 18, 1955, he was defeated by a narrow margin by Shin Ik-hee for the Democratic Party’s candidacy in the presidential election. Instead, he was nominated for the vice-presidency as the running mate of Shin Ik-hee, who died suddenly on May 5, 1956. On May 30, 1956, Chang was duly elected the fourth vice president of the Republic of Korea. On September 28, 1956, at the Democratic party’s national convention in the Sigong Building??? In Jongno, Seoul, he was shot by a sniper in the September 28 Incident [ko] and received a penetrating wound to the wrist. The would-be assassin was immediately arrested. The assassination attempt was in all probability sponsored by the top echelon of the Liberal Party. During his vice presidency, Chang came into conflict with Lee Ki-poong, an influential Liberal Party member, who sent spies and placed him under surveillance. In 1959, he was appointed as a member of the Supreme Council of the Democratic Party of the Republic of Korea. In the same year, he became the Democratic Party’s candidate for the vice-presidency and the running mate of presidential candidate Cho Byong-ok. Chang had attempted to become a candidate for the presidency, but once again he lost by a narrow margin, this time to Cho. In November of the same year, he was reelected as a member of the supreme council of the Democratic Party. In the Republic of Korea’s vice-presidential election of March 15, 1960, Chang suffered defeat at the hands of Lee Ki-poong by such a suspiciously large margin that protesters took to the streets alleging fraud. [6] A thousand residents gathered in front of the opposition Democratic Party building in the southern city of Masan to protest. When the police started shooting, the protesters responded by throwing rocks. Following the suppression of the protests, the body of a young man, Kim Ju-yul, a student at Masan Commercial High School who had participated in the protests, was found on a nearby beach. [6] This tragic incident served as a catalyst for the April 19 Movement and the popular revolution that overthrew the Rhee regime in May 1960. In May 1960, Chang was a candidate in the election for a National Assembly seat. At the time, he was the leader of the New Group in the Democratic Party??? On August 18, 1960, he was duly elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea under a parliamentary system. When Syngman Rhee was forced out of office in April 1960 because of the Rhee administration and Lee Ki-poong’s misgovernment of state affairs, compounded by the exposure of egregious corruption, the Republic of Korea found itself in serious disarray. Hence, the administration led by Prime Minister Chang Myon faced volatile political and grievous socioeconomic difficulties. In the midst of such difficulties, the Chang administration did not resort to dictatorship. After all, Chang Myon fought against the Rhee dictatorship for many years. He was a true believer in democracy. [7] Moreover, his administration had successfully designed the first five-year economic development plan that would have proven beneficial for all Koreans. And this five-year economic development plan was “borrowed” by the Park Chung-hee administration. Park used virtually the same Five-Year Economic Development Plan, originally designed and drafted by the Chang Myon administration, for his economic development after the May 16 military coup. In 1961, the Chang Myon administration attempted to resume talks on a treaty of relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea, and discussed eight of the proposed articles designed to normalize diplomatic ties. However, the talks came to a halt because of the military coup led by Park Chung-hee on May 16. On May 20, 1961, he was removed from the position of Prime Minister after less than one year in power. In January 2005, the government of the Republic of Korea uncovered 1,200 pages of diplomatic documents of the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea of 1965 that had been kept secret for forty years. These documents revealed that the Japanese government proposed to the government of the Republic of Korea, headed by Park Chung-hee, to directly compensate individual victims of Japanese colonization of Korea, but it was the Park administration that insisted it would handle the individual compensation to the victims, and took over the entire amount of the grant, 300 million dollars, (for 35 years of Japanese colonial rule in Korea), on behalf of the victims. The Park administration negotiated for a total of 360 million dollars in compensation for the 1.03 million Koreans conscripted into the forced labor and military service during the colonial period but received only 300 million dollars. [9] On March 30, 1962, the Park Military Government detained Chang and prohibited him from engaging in any further political activity. Initially, he was under the threat of the death penalty. However, in August 1962, he was released on bail. In 1962, he wrote an appeal to F. Remler, Why Must I suffer? On January 27, 1966, Chang was hospitalized with hepatitis at the Holy Mother Hospital???? In Seoul, and on June 4, 1966, he died in Jongro at the age of 66. Chang was buried in the Hehwa Catholic Church burial site on Chonbo mountain??? In Pocheon, Gyeonggi Province. On October 27, 1999, he was posthumously honored by President Kim Dae-jung of the Republic of Korea, with the first class rank of the Order of Merit for National Foundation. [10] On the occasion of the hundredth birthday of Chang Myon, Cardinal Kim Sou-hwan celebrated a memorial mass at Hehwa Catholic Parish Church in August 1999. He rhetorically asked: How is it possible for the leaders of the May 16 military coup to declare that the Chang Myon administration of the Second Republic was already corrupt and incompetent in less than a month of its inception? Their first two children died at an early age. The first child, Anna Chang Myeong-sook (baptismal name, surname, given name), died before age one, and the second child, Joseph Chang Young died at age two. Joseph Chang Jin, Ph. Was a professor of biology at Princeton University and Sogang University (deceased); Benedicta Chang Yi-sook, MFA, an artist and teacher, a member of the order of Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur; Andrew Chang Geon, MA, a successful architect; John Chang Yik, Catholic bishop of Chuncheon (deceased); Leo Chang Soon, Ph. A professor of political science; Matthew Chang Heung, Ph. A manager at the Bank of Paris; Teresa Chang Myong-ja, MA in Library Science, a librarian (deceased). Chang Myon had two younger brothers and three younger sisters. The older, Louis Chang Bal, was an artist and dean of the College of Fine Arts, Seoul National University (deceased); the younger, Paul Chang Geuk, Ph. Was a professor of physics and aerodynamics/space scientist at NASA, Catholic University, Washington, DC, and the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), (deceased); the eldest of the three younger sisters was Gunaegunda Chang Jeong-hae (deceased), the second, Agneta Chang Jeong-eun, was a Maryknoll Sister and the founder and the mother superior of a Korean order in North Korea, Sisters of Our Perpetual Help, (deceased under fateful duress, October 1950); and the third was Martha Chang Jeong-soon, deceased in 1937 at the age of 21, a senior at Sacred Heart University. Third UN General Assembly, 1948. Chang Myon championed liberal and democratic values. Therefore, he was strongly opposed to communism as practiced by the Soviet Union and fascism/Nazism as practiced by Nazi Germany. Likewise, he firmly opposed totalitarianism and authoritarianism in any shape or form. He believed in individualism in the context of common good. Thus, he abhorred endemic political and economic/financial corruption in the Republic of Korea. The word republic stands for res, things/affairs, and publica, public. In short, republic stands for things public, commonweal, public interest and/or common good. He led a modest and frugal life. He lived in a small, unpretentious house (Seoul, Jongro-gu, Myongreun-dong, 1 Ga, 36-1) where he and his spouse spent most of their life and raised seven children. Anyone who visits the old house, now renovated, can readily see his life style. This house is now designated a National Heritage site and converted to be a museum dedicated to him. It is open to the public. As a member of the National Assembly in the late 1940s, he initiated a legislation prohibiting concubinage and prostitution. It was duly passed. Throughout his life, he abstained from smoking and drinking. He had many good friends and enjoyed listening to classical music. He influenced the conversion of Kim Dae-jung to Catholicism and became his godfather. Kim later remarked that Chang was a devout Catholic who believed in Catholic action to rectify many evils in Korea. Democratic Party of Korea. The Second Republic of Korea was the government of South Korea from April 1960 to May 1961. The Second Republic was founded during the April Revolution mass protests against President Syngman Rhee, succeeding the First Republic and establishing a parliamentary government under President Yun Bo-seon and Prime Minister Chang Myon. The Second Republic ended Rhee’s authoritarianism and repression, formed a liberal democracy, and formulated the first Five-Year Plans to develop the neglected economy. The Second Republic’s failure to improve South Korea’s political and economic issues led to instability, and after thirteen months it was overthrown by the South Korean Army in the May 16 coup led by Park Chung-hee. The Second Republic was replaced by a provisional military government under the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, leading to the Third Republic of Korea. The short-lived Second Republic was the only government under a parliamentary system in the history of Korea. Proclamation of the Second Republic of Korea. From right: Chang Myon (Prime Minister), Yun Bo-seon (President), Paik Nak-jun (President of the House of Councillors) and Kwak Sang-hoon (President of the Chamber of Deputies). The First Republic of Korea had existed since 1948 under President Syngman Rhee, who was widely considered to be corrupt and a dictator who abused his presidential powers to maintain his rule and cronyism. Although the First Republic was officially a representative democracy, Rhee adopted a strongly anti-communist position and used the threat of communism to enact a policy of severe repression against all political opposition. Tolerance of Rhee and his Liberal Party-dominated government declined in the mid-to-late 1950s, as the South Korean public were increasingly discontent with the repression and the limited economic and social development. In April 1960, Rhee was overthrown by widespread protests known as the “April Revolution” in response to the discovery of a high school student murdered by police during demonstrations against Rhee and rigged election in March. After Rhee’s fall, power was briefly held by a caretaker government headed by Heo Jeong as Prime Minister until a new parliamentary election was held on 29 July 1960. The Second Republic operated under a parliamentary system, with the Prime Minister of South Korea as the head of government and the President of South Korea as the head of state. Due to Rhee’s numerous abuses of power, the President’s power was greatly reduced, to the point that he was effectively a figurehead. He was elected by both houses of the legislature. Real power was vested in the Prime Minister, who was elected by the National Assembly. The Second Republic was the first and the only instance of the South Korean government using a cabinet system instead of a presidential system. The Democratic Party, which had been in the opposition during the First Republic, easily gained power. And Rhee’s former opponent Chang Myon became Prime Minister. The new legislature was bicameral, with the House of Commons as the lower house and the Senate as the upper house. Yun Bo-seon was elected as the second President of South Korea on 13 August 1960. Real power now rested with the Prime Minister and cabinet, who were both elected by the National Assembly. Part of a series on the. History of South Korea. Preludes to Division 1910-48. People’s Republic of Korea. Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Assassination of Park Chung-hee. 1997 Asian financial crisis. Flag of South Korea. Svg South Korea portal. Much of this activity was from leftist and student groups, which had been instrumental in the overthrow of the First Republic. Membership of unions and activity grew rapidly during the later months of 1960. [2] Estimates suggest around 2,000 demonstrations were held during eight months of the Second Republic. Under pressure from the left-wing, the Chang government carried out a series of purges of military and police officials who had been involved in anti-democratic activities or corruption during the First Republic. A special law to this effect was passed on 31 October 1960. [4] Around 40,000 people were placed under investigation; of these, more than 2,200 government officials and 4,000 police officers were purged. [5] In addition, the government considered reducing the size of the South Korean Army by 100,000, although this plan was shelved. The Second Republic government was faced with mounting instability in economic terms as well, seeing unemployment and wholesale prices also rose during this period. The won lost half of its value against the US dollar between fall 1960 and spring 1961. [7] The government formulated a five-year economic plan based around agriculture and light industry to decrease unemployment, although it was unable to act on it prior to being overthrown. Chang’s government resumed negotiations for the normalization of diplomatic relations between Korea and Japan, which had not progressed under the Rhee regime that had existed since the end of Japanese rule. The Second Republic established diplomatic relations with many new countries, with Sohn Won-yil, the first ambassador to West Germany, attending the independence ceremonies of Cameroon, Togo, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Morocco. The Second Republic suffered from numerous political, economic, and social issues that were both new and inherited from the First Republic. Failure to properly address the issues caused a growth in political instability as factional fighting within the Democratic Party, combined with the increasing activity from opposition and activist groups, led to a breakdown in South Korean politics. Main article: May 16 coup. Many high-ranking figures of the South Korean military held animosity for so-called “liberation aristocrats” – the ruling class of conservative politicians involved in the Korean independence movement and United States Army Military Government – that they blamed for the stalling of development in South Korea. Military figures noted how South Korea had been intensively developed under the Japanese colonial system and the “economic miracle” occurring in Japan, in marked contrast to Rhee’s presidency which saw little significant effort to develop the economy, which remained stagnant, poor and largely agrarian. The lack of development under Rhee provoked a growing nationalistic intellectual reaction which called for a radical restructuring of society and a thorough political and economic reorganization, rejecting the model being pursued by the governing elite. Park Chung-hee, a Major General in the Republic of Korea Army with decidedly ambiguous political leanings, was heavily influenced by this unfolding intellectual reaction. Park became the leader of a reformist faction within the military that plotted a coup d’etat against the civilian government of the Second Republic on 12 May 1961. The plot was aborted after being leaked, however, the military attempted another coup four days later on 16 May which was successful, dissolving the Second Republic. They proceeded to broadcast a proclamation outlining the policy objectives of the coup, including anti-communism, strengthening of ties with the United States, the elimination of political corruption, the construction of an autonomous national economy, Korean reunification, and the removal of the present generation of politicians. Park and his supporters subsequently established the Military Revolutionary Committee as a military junta government, later renamed the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Park became the de facto dictator of South Korea as the Chairman of the Council, while Yun Bo-seon remained President as a figurehead. On one autumn day in 1969, when the Korean engineering design office of a Nevada Corporation was located within the U. Army Yongsan Garrison in central Seoul, a tall handsome man, dressed in a black suit with a small rectangular white window in the front part of the collar, visited my design office. He was Father Chang Ick. Somehow, I immediately liked his elegant and refined manner. I don’t remember why, but we spoke in English. He wanted us to design a Catholic church building in Seongbuk-dong, northeastern Seoul, and showed me a cadastral map. I asked him to give us the general concept and specifications of the proposed building. May I use your typewriter? I let him sit at my desk, and quickly replaced the old typewriter ribbon with a new one. The Father knew by heart every concept of his new church, and typed the design requirements rather quickly. He typed three pages of the specifications, without even making typographical errors. I glanced over the papers and said Give us two weeks and I’ll submit to you three different conceptual ideas showing the floor layouts and facades, before we enter into the detailed design. Then I checked the city planning regulations in the area around City Hall. There were no restrictions. Then, later we applied for a building permit. The answer came back a week later and we were told that there is a height restriction in the area by the Metropolitan Army Defense Command. We were told that the very area in Seongbuk-dong comes within the field vision of anti-aircraft artillery as the zone is within the range of protection for Cheong Wa Dae. We redesigned and lowered the height of the tower of the Roman Catholic church and finally we were able to receive the building permit. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee, a major-general, led a military coup on May 16, 1961. Over a cup of coffee in my office, Father Chang kept criticizing Park Chung-hee for taking over the country in a coup d’etat. Such anti-military government words were taboo and dangerous at the time. 20, 2011 this column carried an article Cryptography is the key to Information Age. ” A part of it reads, “When Chang Myon, vice president and prime minister of the First and the Second Republic, was assigned as South Korea’s first ambassador to the United States in 1949, he hid a Korean-English dictionary in his portfolio. The foreign ministry’s Seoul Office had the same copy. The dictionary was their code book. A word is picked up by indicating the page number and the column number from the same dictionaries in Washington, D. Bishop Chang Ick was my age, 87. I’m thinking of that wonderful gentleman in this time of sorrow. [Raw] Gwangmyeong 3 (1899). [Death] 1966.6.4. Graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After earning a doctorate in law and returning to Japan, engaged in Christian business. He was a member of the Constituent National Assembly in 1948 and became the first ambassador to the United States in 1949. 51 years Prime Minister became but Lee Sunman (Syngman Rhee) president and the collision to resign. In 1955, he organized the Democratic Party with Sin Ik-hui and became an opposition leader. In the third presidential election in 1981, he was elected vice president from the opposition party under President Lee Seung-man of the Liberal Party. Even after taking office, he blamed the Lee administration’s policies and resigned as vice president in the student revolution in April 1960. August Cabinet has been appointed to the responsibility system the second Prime Minister of the Republic, the following year of the five-sixteen military revolution can not respond quickly in, resulting in a successful revolution as a result. The Cabinet resigned altogether. Imprisoned for anti-revolution case in 1987Received a 10-year sentence, but was released from expulsion in 1965. Source Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Information about. Commentary on Digital Daijisen. Became Prime Minister in 1950, but resigned in conflict with President Syngman Rhee. He formed the Democratic Party of Japan in 1955, and was reappointed as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April Revolution of 1960. 1961 Chung of the coup in the downfall. Chang Myon (Chang Myon). Commentary on the 2nd edition of the World Encyclopedia. The issue is Unishi. Born in Incheon, Gyeonggi Province. Graduated from the Catholic University of Manhattan in New York in 1925. Participated in the formation of the Democratic Party of the Conservative Opposition in 1955. He defeated Lee Ki-poong of the Liberal Party in 1981 and was elected Vice President, but there was no fundamental difference in his pro-American personality. Inaugurated as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April 1960 Revolution. In 1961, he signed the Korea-US Economic and Technical Assistance Agreement and endeavored to realize a new Korea-US relationship. But the president Yoon?? Administration, such as (in-failure) faction split is a weakness, not be able to respond effectively to the popular movements that hope the negative and unification also to North-South dialogue as a transient regime, 61 years Chung of He was banished from political activities in the 5/16 coup d’etat. Source Information about Heibonsha World Encyclopedia 2nd Edition. Commentary on the Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). A politician from South Korea. Born in Gyeonggi Province. After graduating from Suwon High School of Agriculture and Forestry, studied abroad in the United States and graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After returning to Japan, following the Catholic business, he became the principal of Tosei Commercial School from 1931 to 1945. After liberation, he entered politics and became a member of various parliament. 1951 Prime Minister, 1952 Presidential election and lost. He founded the Democratic Party in 1955 and confronted the ruling Liberal Party. After the student revolution in April 1960, he was elected Prime Minister under the new constitution and established the Democratic Party of Japan (a spokesman at the time was later President Kim Dae-Jung). However, he was dismissed by the military revolution in May 1961 and was temporarily charged with anti-revolutionary charges. He was released from exile in 1965, but died in June 1966 in disappointment. Mention of Chang Myon in the World Encyclopedia. From [Republic of Korea]. However, in order to perpetuate the administration, the people were forced to revise the constitution, such as changing the presidential election method from indirect elections by members of the Diet to direct elections by the people, and abolishing the three-election prohibition clause for the presidential term. The Lee administration collapsed due to the April revolution centered on students in 1960, against the backdrop of the economic crisis. In the Second Republic, which was established in its place, the criticism of Lee’s dictatorship was changed to a responsible cabinet system with significantly reduced presidential authority, and the Chang Myon administration (President Yun Posun) based on the opposition party (Democratic Party) during the Lee administration. However, the energy of the people who caused the April Revolution overcame the regulations of the Zhang administration, and the movement for democratization and unity showed unprecedented upsurge. [From the Park administration to all administrations] When. It seemed that a new phase would be opened in the North-South division situation, a military coup d’etat (May 16 coup d’etat) broke out on May 16, 1961, and mainly military personnel. Chung administration (third Republic) is satisfied. Korea (or Korean peninsula) is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”) and South Korea (officially the “Republic of Korea”). Korea consists of the mainland Korean Peninsula (“Mainland Korea”), Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. It is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, together known as the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the second half of the 1st millennium, Silla defeated and conquered Baekje and Goguryeo, leading to the “Unified Silla” period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north, superseding former Goguryeo. Unified Silla eventually collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium, Goguryeo was resurrected as Goryeo, which defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as a single sovereign state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo. Goryeo (also spelled as Koryo), whose name developed into the modern exonym “Korea”, was a highly cultured state that created the world’s first metal movable type in 1234. [3][4][5][6][7][8] However, multiple incursions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century greatly weakened the nation, which eventually agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin that ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, and Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 17 July 1392. The first 200 years of the Joseon era were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the later part of the dynasty, Korea’s isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the “Hermit Kingdom”. By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire’s effort to modernize, the country was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by it until the end of World War II in August 1945. In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. These circumstances became the basis for the division of Korea by the 2 superpowers with the 2 diffirent ideologies, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea’s division into two political entities in 1948: North Korea, and South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty. This status contributes to the high tensions that continue to divide the peninsula. Both governments of the two Koreas always claim to be the sole legitimate government of this region. Japanese occupation and Japan-Korea Annexation. List of heads of state (since 1897). Comparison of the two countries of Korea. Notable public holidays in South Korea. Independence Movement Day, March 1st. Memorial day, 6 June. National Liberation Day, 15 August. Hangul Day, 9 October. Main article: Names of Korea. See also: Korean romanization. “Korea” is the modern spelling of “Corea”, a name attested in English as early as 1614. [9][10] Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, [11] of the Chinese?? This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo Korean:?? MR: Koryo, which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo’s time. Korea’s introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, [13] with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. [14] Goryeo’s name was a continuation of Goguryeo (Koguryo) the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which was officially known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century. [15] The original name was a combination of the adjective go (“high, lofty”) with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either Guru?? “Walled city, ” inferred from some toponyms in Chinese historical documents or Gauri??? With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling “Korea” appeared and gradually grew in popularity;[9] its use in transcribing East Asian languages avoids the issues caused by the separate hard and soft Cs existing in English vocabulary derived from the Romance languages. The name Korea is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk?? “Country of the Han”. The name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. [16][17] Although written in Hanja as? This Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription OC:? Han[12] or Gan of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning “big” or “great”, particularly in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria and Central Asia. In North Korea, Japan, China and Vietnam, Korea as a whole is referred to as?? “[land of the] Morning Calm”. “Great Joseon” was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon??? , who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108? BCE by China’s Han Empire. This go is the Hanja? And simply means “ancient” or “old”; it is a modern usage to distinguish the ancient Joseon from the later dynasty. Joseon itself is the modern Korean pronunciation of the Hanja?? But it is unclear whether this was a transcription of a native Korean name OC? T[r]awser, MC? Trjewsjen[12] or a partial translation into Chinese of the Korean capital Asadal??? , [18] whose meaning has been reconstructed as “Morning Land” or “Mountain”. Main article: Geography of Korea. See also: Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea, and Provinces of Korea. A neighborhood in North Gyeongsang Province. A view of Mount Seorak. Daedongyeojido – this 1861 map of Korea represents the peak of pre-modern mapmaking in the region. Korea consists of a peninsula and nearby islands located in East Asia. The peninsula extends southwards for about 1,100 km (680 mi) from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the east and the Yellow Sea (West Sea) to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water. [19][20] To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia. [21] Notable islands include Jeju Island, Ulleung Island, Dokdo. The southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu (2,744 m), through which runs the border with China. The southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter. To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan. Some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan (1,439 m), Mount Kumgang (1,638 m), Mount Seorak (1,708 m), Mount Taebaek (1,567 m), and Mount Jiri (1,915 m). There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is almost perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan. They are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are basically northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan (1950 m) is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of Japan, the composition of which is more felsic than Jeju-do. The volcanic islands tend to be younger, the more westward. Because the mountainous region is mostly on the eastern part of the peninsula, the main rivers tend to flow westwards. Two exceptions are the southward-flowing Nakdong River and Seomjin River. Important rivers running westward include the Amnok River, the Chongchon River, the Taedong River, the Han River, the Geum River, and the Yeongsan River. These rivers have vast flood plains and provide an ideal environment for wet-rice cultivation. The southern and southwestern coastlines of the peninsula form a well-developed ria coastline, known as Dadohae-jin in Korean. Its convoluted coastline provides mild seas, and the resulting calm environment allows for safe navigation, fishing, and seaweed farming. In addition to the complex coastline, the western coast of the Korean Peninsula has an extremely high tidal amplitude at Incheon, around the middle of the western coast. It can get as high as 9 m. Vast tidal flats have been developing on the south and west coastlines. Korea has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula’s position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west. The peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining. When these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with often cloudy days with rain, which is sometimes very heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer; temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) daily at this time of year. Usually, high pressure is heavily dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes relatively low. The weather becomes increasingly dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is relatively dry with some snow falling at times. Main article: Wildlife of Korea. Animal life of the Korean Peninsula includes a considerable number of bird species and native freshwater fish. Native or endemic species of the Korean Peninsula include Korean hare, Korean water deer, Korean field mouse, Korean brown frog, Korean pine and Korean spruce. The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) with its forest and natural wetlands is a unique biodiversity spot, which harbours eighty-two endangered species. Korea once hosted many Siberian tigers, but as the number of people affected by the tigers increased, the tigers were killed in the Joseon Dynasty and the Siberian tigers in the South Korea became extinct during the Japanese colonial era period. It has been confirmed that Siberian tigers are only on the side of North Korea now. There are also approximately 3,034 species of vascular plants. Main article: History of Korea. See also: History of North Korea and History of South Korea. Four Commanderies of Han. Northern and Southern States period. United Silla (Unified Silla). Later Three Kingdoms period. Unified Silla (Later Silla). ArtDivisionLanguageMilitary (Goguryeo)MonarchsNavalScience and technologyHistory of Jeju. Main articles: Prehistoric Korea and Gojoseon. The Korean Academy claimed ancient hominid fossils originating from about 100,000? BCE in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. Fluorescent and high-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000? [24] The best preserved Korean pottery goes back to the paleolithic times around 10,000? BCE and the Neolithic period begins around 6000? According to legend, Dangun, a descendant of Heaven, established Gojoseon in 2333? BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Gojoseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula. By 313, Goguryeo annexed all of the Chinese commanderies. Main article: Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea. The Proto-Three Kingdoms period, sometimes called the Multiple States Period, is the earlier part of what is commonly called the Three Kingdoms Period, following the fall of Gojoseon but before Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla fully developed into kingdoms. This time period saw numerous states spring up from the former territories of Gojoseon, which encompassed northern Korea and southern Manchuria. With the fall of Gojoseon, southern Korea entered the Samhan period. Located in the southern part of Korea, Samhan referred to the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. Mahan was the largest and consisted of 54 states. Byeonhan and Jinhan both consisted of twelve states, bringing a total of 78 states within the Samhan. These three confederacies eventually developed into Baekje, Silla, and Gaya. Main articles: Three Kingdoms of Korea, Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. 7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea consisted of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje. Silla and Baekje controlled the southern half of the Korean Peninsula, maintaining the former Samhan territories, while Goguryeo controlled the northern half of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria and the Liaodong Peninsula, uniting Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and other states in the former Gojoseon territories. Goguryeo was a highly militaristic state;[26][27]self-published source? It was a powerful empire and one of the great powers in East Asia, [28][29][30][31]self-published source? Reaching its zenith in the 5th century when its territories expanded to encompass most of Manchuria to the north, parts of Inner Mongolia to the west, [32] parts of Russia to the east, [33] and the Seoul region to the south. [34] Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Jangsu, [35][36][37][38] who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power on the Korean Peninsula. [39][40] In addition to contesting for control of the Korean Peninsula, Goguryeo had many military conflicts with various Chinese dynasties, [41]self-published source? Most notably the Goguryeo-Sui War, in which Goguryeo defeated a huge force said to number over a million men. [42][43][44][45][46] In 642, the powerful general Yeon Gaesomun led a coup and gained complete control over Goguryeo. In response, Emperor Tang Taizong of China led a campaign against Goguryeo, but was defeated and retreated. [47][48]self-published source? After the death of Tang Taizong, his son Emperor Tang Gaozong allied with the Korean kingdom of Silla and invaded Goguryeo again, but was unable to overcome Goguryeo’s stalwart defenses and was defeated in 662. [49][50] However, Yeon Gaesomun died of a natural cause in 666 and Goguryeo was thrown into chaos and weakened by a succession struggle among his sons and younger brother, with his eldest son defecting to Tang and his younger brother defecting to Silla. [51][52] The Tang-Silla alliance finally conquered Goguryeo in 668. After the collapse of Goguryeo, Tang and Silla ended their alliance and fought over control of the Korean Peninsula. Silla succeeded in gaining control over most of the Korean Peninsula, while Tang gained control over Goguryeo’s northern territories. However, 30 years after the fall of Goguryeo, a Goguryeo general by the name of Dae Joyeong founded the Korean-Mohe state of Balhae and successfully expelled the Tang presence from much of the former Goguryeo territories. Seokguram Grotto from the Silla era, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The southwestern Korean kingdom of Baekje was founded around modern-day Seoul by a Goguryeo prince, a son of the founder of Goguryeo. [53][54]self-published source? [55] Baekje absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as parts of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralised government; during the expansion of its territory, Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through maritime contacts with the Southern Dynasties. Baekje was a great maritime power;[56] its nautical skill, which made it the Phoenicia of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan. [57][58] Historic evidence suggests that Japanese culture, art, and language were influenced by the kingdom of Baekje and Korea itself;[31][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69] Baekje also played an important role in transmitting advanced Chinese culture to the Japanese archipelago. Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, most notably in the 4th century during the rule of Geunchogo when its influence extended across the sea to Liaoxi and Shandong in China, taking advantage of the weakened state of Former Qin, and Kyushu in the Japanese archipelago;[70] however, Baekje was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined. The Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century. Although later records claim that Silla was the oldest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it is now believed to have been the last kingdom to develop. By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a large state in the southeast, occupying and influencing its neighboring city-states. In 562, Silla annexed the Gaya confederacy, which was located between Baekje and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea often warred with each other and Silla was often dominated by Baekje and Goguryeo. Silla was the smallest and weakest of the three, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage. [71][72] In 660, King Muyeol ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin, aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje after defeating General Gyebaek at the Battle of Hwangsanbeol. In 661, Silla and Tang attacked Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of General Kim Yu-shin, launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year. Main articles: North-South States Period, Later Silla, and Balhae. Beginning in the 6th century, Silla’s power gradually extended across the Korean Peninsula. Silla first annexed the adjacent Gaya confederacy in 562. By the 640s, Silla formed an alliance with the Tang dynasty of China to conquer Baekje and later Goguryeo. After conquering Baekje and Goguryeo, Silla repulsed Tang China from the Korean peninsula in 676. Even though Silla unified most of the Korean Peninsula, most of the Goguryeo territories to the north of the Korean Peninsula were ruled by Balhae. Former Goguryeo general[73][74] or chief of Sumo Mohe[75][76][77] Dae Jo-yeong led a group of Goguryeo and Mohe refugees to the Jilin and founded the kingdom of Balhae, 30 years after the collapse of Goguryeo, as the successor to Goguryeo. At its height, Balhae’s territories extended from southern Manchuria down to the northern Korean peninsula. Balhae was called the “Prosperous Country in the East”. Unified Silla and Balhae in the 8th century CE. Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia, [79] and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River. [80][81][82][83] Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country, [84] and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju[85] was the fourth largest city in the world. [86][87][88][89] Later Silla was a golden age of art and culture, [90][91][92][93] as evidenced by the Hwangnyongsa, Seokguram, and Emille Bell. Buddhism flourished during this time, and many Korean Buddhists gained great fame among Chinese Buddhists[94] and contributed to Chinese Buddhism, [95] including: Woncheuk, Wonhyo, Uisang, Musang, [96][97][98][99] and Kim Gyo-gak, a Silla prince whose influence made Mount Jiuhua one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism. [100][101][102][103][104]. Later Silla fell apart in the late 9th century, giving way to the tumultuous Later Three Kingdoms period (892-935), and Balhae was destroyed by the Khitans in 926. Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms and received the last crown prince and much of the ruling class of Balhae, thus bringing about a unification of the two successor nations of Goguryeo. Goryeo was founded in 918 and replaced Silla as the ruling dynasty of Korea. Goryeo’s land was at first what is now South Korea and about 1/3 of North Korea, but later on managed to recover most of the Korean peninsula. Is a short form of “Goguryeo”??? And was first used during the time of King Jangsu. Goryeo regarded itself as the successor of Goguryeo, hence its name and efforts to recover the former territories of Goguryeo. [106][107][108][109] Wang Geon, the founder of Goryeo, was of Goguryeo descent and traced his ancestry to a noble Goguryeo clan. [110] He made Kaesong, his hometown, the capital. During this period, laws were codified and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon industries flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. The publication of the Tripitaka Koreana onto more than 80,000 wooden blocks and the invention of the world’s first metal movable type in the 13th century attest to Goryeo’s cultural achievements. [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Goryeo had to defend frequently against attacks by nomadic empires, especially the Khitans and the Mongols. Goryeo had a hostile relationship with the Khitans, because the Khitan Empire had destroyed Balhae, also a successor state of Goguryeo. In 993, the Khitans, who had established the Liao dynasty in 907, invaded Goryeo, demanding that it make amity with them. Goryeo sent the diplomat Seo Hui to negotiate, who successfully persuaded the Khitans to let Goryeo expand to the banks of the Amnok (Yalu) River, citing that in the past the land belonged to Goguryeo, the predecessor of Goryeo. [111] During the Goryeo-Khitan War, the Khitan Empire invaded Korea twice more in 1009 and 1018, but was defeated. After defeating the Khitan Empire, which was the most powerful empire of its time, [112][113] Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which the Tripitaka Koreana was completed, and there were great developments in printing and publishing, promoting learning and dispersing knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science; by 1100, there were 12 universities that produced famous scholars and scientists. Goryeo was invaded by the Mongols in seven major campaigns from the 1230s until the 1270s, but was never conquered. [116] Exhausted after decades of fighting, Goryeo sent its crown prince to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to the Mongols; Kublai Khan accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince, [116] and the dynastic line of Goryeo continued to survive under the overlordship of the Mongol Yuan dynasty as a semi-autonomous vassal state and compulsory ally. The two nations became intertwined for 80 years as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses, [116] and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess. In the 1350s, King Gongmin was free at last to reform the Goryeo government when the Yuan dynasty began to crumble. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, which included the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars. During this tumultuous period, Goryeo momentarily conquered Liaoyang in 1356, repulsed two large invasions by the Red Turbans in 1359 and 1360, and defeated the final attempt by the Yuan to dominate Goryeo when General Choe Yeong defeated a Mongol tumen in 1364. In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye overthrew the Goryeo dynasty after he staged a coup and defeated General Choe Yeong. Yi Seong-gye named his new dynasty Joseon and moved the capital from Kaesong to Hanseong (formerly Hanyang; modern-day Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung palace. [117] In 1394, he adopted Confucianism as the country’s official ideology, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy of the Joseon dynasty was Neo-Confucianism, which was epitomized by the seonbi class, scholars who passed up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity. Joseon was a nominal tributary state of China but exercised full sovereignty, [118][119] and maintained the highest position among China’s tributary states, [120][121] which also included countries such as the Ryukyu Kingdom, Vietnam, Burma, Brunei, Laos, Thailand, [122][123][124] and the Philippines, among others. [125][126] In addition, Joseon received tribute from Jurchens and Japanese until the 17th century, [127][128][129] and had a small enclave in the Ryukyu Kingdom that engaged in trade with Siam and Java. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Joseon enjoyed many benevolent rulers who promoted education and science. [131] Most notable among them was Sejong the Great r. 1418-50, who personally created and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet. [132] This golden age[131] saw great cultural and scientific advancements, [133] including in printing, meteorological observation, astronomy, calendar science, ceramics, military technology, geography, cartography, medicine, and agricultural technology, some of which were unrivaled elsewhere. [134] Joseon implemented a class system that consisted of yangban the noble class, jungin the middle class, yangin the common class, and cheonin the lowest class, which included occupations such as butchers, tanners, shamans, entertainers, and nobi, the equivalent of slaves, bondservants, or serfs. In 1592 and again in 1597, the Japanese invaded Korea; the Korean military at the time was unprepared and untrained, due to two centuries of peace on the Korean Peninsula. However, Joseon experienced great destruction, including a tremendous loss of cultural sites such as temples and palaces to Japanese pillaging, and the Japanese brought back to Japan an estimated 100,000-200,000 noses cut from Korean victims. [139] Less than 30 years after the Japanese invasions, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon’s war-weakened state and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty. After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynasty, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century. In the 19th century, the royal in-law families gained control of the government, leading to mass corruption and weakening of the state, with severe poverty and peasant rebellions spreading throughout the country. Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname “the hermit kingdom”, but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders, beginning an era leading into Japanese imperial rule. Main article: Korean Empire. The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889. Beginning in 1871, Japan began to exert more influence in Korea, forcing it out of China’s traditional sphere of influence. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), the Qing dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong of Korea was assassinated by Japanese agents. King Gojong became emperor. During this brief period, Korea had some success in modernizing the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries. Russia, Japan, France, and the United States all invested in the country and sought to influence it politically. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on 26 October 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, Ito Hirobumi, for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation. Main article: Korea under Japanese rule. See also: Japanese war crimes. The memorial tablet for the March 1st Movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul. In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin. [143] There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes. Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation[144][145][146] was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military. [147] The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia. Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939, [148] and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan’s military. [149] Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died. [150] Approximately 200,000 girls and women, [151] mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. [152] In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named “comfort women”. During the Japanese annexation, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Soshi-kaimei. [155] Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed[156] or taken to Japan. [157] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections. [158] One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan. [157][159] Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date[157] this has not occurred. [159] Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Dokdo islets, located east of the Korean Peninsula. There was significant emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese occupation period, including Korea. [161] By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea. [162] After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan. Main articles: Division of Korea, Korean conflict, and Korean reunification. Flag of North Korea. In 1945, with the surrender of Japan, the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea. Satellite image of the Korean peninsula taken at night showing the extent of the division between the Koreas; note the difference in light emitted between the two countries. The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, North Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic was established in the north and South Korea; a Western-style regime, was established in the South. North Korea is a one-party state, now centred on Kim Il-sung’s Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history. Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957, South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana, [163] and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana’s. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987;[165] others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone. [166] Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008. [167] In South Korea, as guerrilla activities expanded, the South Korean government used strong measures against peasants, such as forcefully moving their families from guerrilla areas. According to one estimate, these measures resulted in 36,000 people killed, 11,000 people wounded, and 432,000 people displaced. Main article: Korean War. Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as U. Marines fight North Koreans holding the city. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remained divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states. In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (1950-53) more than 1.2 million people died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities. [169] The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line, but the two governments are officially at war. In 2018, the leaders of North Korea and South Korea officially signed the Panmunjom Declaration, announcing that they will work to end the conflict. Korean Empire (1897 1910). 12 October 1897 20 July 1907. 20 July 1907 29 August 1910. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1948). Chairman of the Standing Committee. Of the Supreme People’s Assembly. 9 September 1948 20 September 1957. 20 September 1957 28 December 1972. 28 December 1972 8 July 1994. President of the Presidium. 5 September 1998 11 April 2019. Chairman of the National Defence Commission. 9 April 2009 17 December 2011. First Chairman of the National Defence Commission/Chairman of the State Affairs Commission. Republic of Korea (1948). 24 July 1948 26 April 1960. 13 August 1960 23 March 1962. 17 December 1963 26 October 1979. 6 December 1979 16 August 1980. 1 September 1980 24 February 1988. 25 February 1988 24 February 1993. 25 February 1993 24 February 1998. 25 February 1998 24 February 2003. 25 February 2003 24 February 2008. 25 February 2008 24 February 2013. 25 February 2013 10 March 2017. The name “Korea” is written as it started from 1897. Main articles: Koreans, Demographics of South Korea, and Demographics of North Korea. The combined population of the Koreas is about 76 million (North Korea: 25 million, South Korea: 51 million). Korea is chiefly populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak the Korean language. [170] The number of foreigners living in Korea has also steadily increased since the late 20th century, particularly in South Korea, where more than 1 million foreigners reside. [171] It was estimated in 2006 that only 26,700 of the old Chinese community now remain in South Korea. [172] However, in recent years, immigration from mainland China has increased; 624,994 persons of Chinese nationality have immigrated to South Korea, including 443,566 of ethnic Korean descent. [173] Small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese are also found in North Korea. Main articles: Korean language and Korean Sign Language. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul. Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 25 million. Other large groups of Korean speakers through Korean diaspora are found in China, the United States, Japan, former Soviet Union and elsewhere. Modern Korean is written almost exclusively in the script of the Korean alphabet (known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosungul in China and North Korea), which was invented in the 15th century. Korean is sometimes written with the addition of some Chinese characters called Hanja; however, this is only occasionally seen nowadays. Main articles: Culture of Korea, Korean art, Korean pottery and porcelain, Korean martial arts, Korean dance, Korean bow, and Korean architecture. Location of World Heritage Sites in Korea. Note: Seoul is home to three separate properties; Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty locate throughout the country, only one site is shown on map. Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu). In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as “Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk”???? And “Eastern Nation of Decorum”?????? [177] Individuals are regarded as one year old when they are born, as Koreans reckon the pregnancy period as one year of life for infants, and age increments increase on New Year’s Day rather than on the anniversary of birthdays. Thus, one born immediately before New Year’s Day may only be a few days old in western reckoning, but two years old in Korea. Accordingly, a Korean person’s stated age (at least among fellow Koreans) will be one or two years more than their age according to western reckoning. However, western reckoning is sometimes applied with regard to the concept of legal age; for example, the legal age for purchasing alcohol or cigarettes in the Republic of Korea is 19, which is measured according to western reckoning. Main article: Korean literature. Korean literature written before the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called “Classical” or Traditional. Literature, written in Chinese characters (hanja), was established at the same time as the Chinese script arrived on the peninsula. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the classical Korean style as early as the 2nd century? BCE, reflecting Korean thoughts and experiences of that time. Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the peninsula, strongly influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Modern literature is often linked with the development of hangul, which helped spread literacy from the aristocracy to the common people. Hangul, however, only reached a dominant position in Korean literature in the second half of the 19th century, resulting in a major growth in Korean literature. Sinsoseol, for instance, are novels written in hangul. The Korean War led to the development of literature centered on the wounds and chaos of war. Much of the post-war literature in South Korea deals with the daily lives of ordinary people, and their struggles with national pain. The collapse of the traditional Korean value system is another common theme of the time. Main article: Music of Korea. Traditional Korean music includes combinations of the folk, vocal, religious and ritual music styles of the Korean people. Korean music has been practiced since prehistoric times. [178] Korean music falls into two broad categories. The first, Hyangak, literally means The local music or Music native to Korea, a famous example of which is Sujechon, a piece of instrumental music often claimed to be at least 1,300 years old. [179] The second, yangak, represents a more Western style. Main articles: Religion in Korea, Religion in South Korea, and Religion in North Korea. See also: Korean shamanism, Korean Confucianism, Korean Buddhism, Taoism in Korea, Christianity in Korea, and Islam in Korea. Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s. Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religious practice has been suppressed in North Korea. Throughout Korean history and culture, regardless of separation; the influence of traditional beliefs of Korean Shamanism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism have remained an underlying religion of the Korean people as well as a vital aspect of their culture; all these traditions have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years up to today despite strong Westernisation from Christian missionary conversions in the South[180][181][182] or the pressure from the Juche government in the North. According to 2005 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 29.2% of the population (of which are Protestants 18.3% and Catholics 10.9%) and Buddhists 22.8%. Islam in South Korea is practiced by about 45,000 natives (about 0.09% of the population) in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers from Muslim countries. Main article: Korean cuisine. See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean royal court cuisine. Tteokbokki, rice cakes with spicy gochujang sauce. Koreans traditionally believe that the taste and quality of food depend on its spices and sauces, the essential ingredients to making a delicious meal. Therefore, soybean paste, soy sauce, gochujang or red pepper paste and kimchi are some of the most important staples in a Korean household. Korean cuisine was greatly influenced by the geography and climate of the Korean Peninsula, which is known for its cold autumns and winters, therefore there are many fermented dishes and hot soups and stews. Bulgogi and side dishes. Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, a side dish which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables, most commonly cabbage. Kimchi is said to relieve the pores on the skin, thereby reducing wrinkles and providing nutrients to the skin naturally. It is also healthy, as it provides necessary vitamins and nutrients. Gochujang, a traditional Korean sauce made of red pepper is also commonly used, often as pepper (chilli) paste, earning the cuisine a reputation for spiciness. Bulgogi (roasted marinated meat, usually beef), galbi (marinated grilled short ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork belly) are popular meat entrees. Fish is also a popular commodity, as it is the traditional meat that Koreans eat. Meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, such as galbitang (stewed ribs) or doenjang jjigae (fermented bean paste soup). The center of the table is filled with a shared collection of sidedishes called banchan. Other popular dishes include bibimbap, which literally means “mixed rice” (rice mixed with meat, vegetables, and red pepper paste), and naengmyeon (cold noodles). Instant noodles, or ramyeon, is a popular snack food. Koreans also enjoy food from pojangmachas (street vendors), which serve tteokbokki, rice cake and fish cake with a spicy gochujang sauce; gimbap, made of steamed white rice wrapped in dried laver seaweed; fried squid; and glazed sweet potato. Soondae, a sausage made of cellophane noodles and pork blood, is widely eaten. Additionally, some other common snacks include “Choco Pie”, shrimp crackers, “bbeongtwigi” (puffed rice grains), and “nurungji” (slightly burnt rice). Nurungji can be eaten as it is or boiled with water to make a soup. Nurungji can also be eaten as a snack or a dessert. Korea is unique among Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks. Metal chopsticks have been discovered in archaeological sites belonging to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. Main articles: Education in North Korea and Education in South Korea. The modern South Korean school system consists of six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranks South Korea’s science education as the third best in the world and being significantly higher than the OECD average. South Korea ranks second on math and literature and first in problem solving[citation needed]. Although South Korean students often rank high on international comparative assessments, the education system is criticised for emphasising too much upon passive learning and memorization. The South Korean education system is rather notably strict and structured as compared to its counterparts in most Western societies. The North Korean education system consists primarily of universal and state funded schooling by the government. The national literacy rate for citizens 15 years of age and above is over 99 percent. [190][191] Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, and then on to universities. The most prestigious university in the DPRK is Kim Il-sung University. Other notable universities include Kim Chaek University of Technology, which focuses on computer science, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, which trains working level diplomats and trade officials, and Kim Hyong Jik University, which trains teachers. Main article: History of science and technology in Korea. See also: List of Korean inventions and discoveries. Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris. One of the best known artifacts of Korea’s history of science and technology is the Cheomseongdae??? , a 9.4-meter high observatory built in 634. The earliest known surviving Korean example of woodblock printing is the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra. [192] It is believed to have been printed in Korea in 750-51, which if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. During the Goryeo Dynasty, metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in 1234. [193][5][194][195][8][3] This invention made printing easier, more efficient and also increased literacy, which observed by Chinese visitors was seen to be so important where it was considered to be shameful to not be able to read. [196] The Mongol Empire later adopted Korea’s movable type printing and spread as far as Central Asia. There is conjecture as to whether or not Choe’s invention had any influence on later printing inventions such as Gutenberg’s Printing press. [197] When the Mongols invaded Europe they inadvertently introduced different kinds of Asian technology. The Korean alphabet hangul was also invented during this time by King Sejong the Great. Main articles: Sport in South Korea and Sport in North Korea. North Korea and South Korea usually compete as two separate nations in international events. There are, however, a few examples of them having competed as one entity, under the name Korea. While association football remains one of the most popular sports in South Korea, the martial art of taekwondo is considered to be the national sport. Baseball and golf are also popular. Taekwon-Do is Korea’s most famous martial art and sport. It combines combat techniques, self-defence, sport and exercise. Taekwon-Do has become an official Olympic sport, starting as a demonstration event in 1988 (when South Korea hosted the Games in Seoul) and becoming an official medal event in 2000. The two major Taekwon-Do federations were founded in Korea. The two are the International Taekwon-Do Federation and the World Taekwondo Federation. Hapkido is a modern Korean martial art with a grappling focus that employs joint locks, throws, kicks, punches and other striking attacks like attacks against pressure points. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the pure use of strength against strength. Ssireum is a traditional form of wrestling that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years, with evidence discovered from Goguryeo of Korea’s Three Kingdoms Period 57? Ssireum is the traditional national sport of Korea. During a match, opponents grip each other by sash belts wrapped around the waist and the thigh, attempting to throw their competitor to the sandy ground of the ring. The first opponent to touch the ground with any body part above the knee or to lose hold of their opponent loses the round. Ssireum competitions are traditionally held twice a year, during the Dano Festival (the 5th day of the fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month). Competitions are also held throughout the year as a part of festivals and other events. Taekkyon is a traditional martial art, considered the oldest form of fighting technique of Korea. Practiced since centuries and especially popular during the Joseon dynasty, two forms co-existed: one for practical use, the other for sport. This form was usually practiced alongside Ssireum during festivals and competitions between villages. Nonetheless, Taekkyon almost disappeared during the Japanese Occupation and the Korean War. Though lost in North Korea, Taekkyon has enjoyed a spectacular revival from the 1980s in South Korea. It is the only martial art in the world (with Ssireum) recognized as a National Treasure of South Korea and a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Emblem of North Korea. Emblem of South Korea. GDP total 2011/2014 est. Korean People’s won sign:? Main article: List of public holidays in South Korea. Samiljeol, Independence Movement Day, commemorates Korea’s declaration of independence from Japanese occupation on 1 March 1919. The name is derived from Korean? “Jeol”‘day’, the date of the uprising in 1919. Korea was annexed to the Empire of Japan on 29 August 1910 following the imposed Japan-Korea Treaty. On 1 March 1919, Korean presented their resistance towards Japan and Japanese occupation with a declaration of independence. Following the conclusion of World War II, Korea was liberated from Japan and its independence restored. The newly established Korean government set aside 1 March as a national holiday to commemorate the sacrifices borne in the long struggle for Korean independence. Hyunchoongil is the national holiday in Korea commemorating those who fought and died for the nation. In August 1948, only a few years after Korea achieved its independence from Japan, the Korean War, in Korea also known as the 6.25 war, broke out between North and South Korea. During this war, approximately 400,000 soldiers and some one million citizens were killed or injured. In 1953, North and South Korea agreed to a cease-fire, and three years later the Korean government established Hyungchoogil to commemorate the soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Subsequent to its establishment, Hyungchoogil was reinterpreted as a day of remembrance for those who died defending Korea in all conflicts, not only during the Korean War. Gwangbokjeol is the day for celebrating liberation of the country from Japan in 1945 as well as celebrating the establishment of Korean government in 1948. It was first declared to be national holiday in 1949 October 1. On this date every year, the president of Korea visits Independence Hall, and invites diplomatic envoys from many countries and all social standings in countries to Cheongwadae (the Blue House, the Korean presidential residence). Hangul Day (also spelled as Hangeul Day) is a day that celebrates the creation of the Hunminjeongeum (Hangul, Korean alphabet), which was inscribed to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 1997. [202] Hangul was created by Sejong the Great in 1443 and proclaimed in 1446. Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil. [203][204][205][206] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often didn’t have the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. [207] Hangul Day was founded in 1926 during the Japanese occupation by members of the Korean Language Society, whose goal was to preserve the Korean language during a time of rapid forced Japanization. [208] Today, both South Korea and North Korea celebrate Hangul Day as a national holiday. Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea. Index of Korea-related articles. List of Korean inventions and discoveries. List of people of Korean descent. National Treasures of North Korea. National Treasures of South Korea. North Korea-South Korea relations. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Political\Other Political Autographs”. The seller is “memorabilia111″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada.
Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Signed Vintage? Korean
in korea | 13,421 Words

1965 Jacqueline Kennedy Autographed Signed Handwritten Letter JSA LOA Vintage

1965_Jacqueline_Kennedy_Autographed_Signed_Handwritten_Letter_JSA_LOA_Vintage_01_ihu 1965 Jacqueline Kennedy Autographed Signed Handwritten Letter JSA LOA Vintage
1965 Jacqueline Kennedy Autographed Signed Handwritten Letter JSA LOA Vintage
1965 Jacqueline Kennedy Autographed Signed Handwritten Letter JSA LOA Vintage
1965 Jacqueline Kennedy Autographed Signed Handwritten Letter JSA LOA Vintage

1965 Jacqueline Kennedy Autographed Signed Handwritten Letter JSA LOA Vintage
May 1965 Jacqueline “Jackie” Kennedy Autographed Handwritten Letter. Jackie wrote the note while in London thanking Danny for making her children so happy. Letter of Authenticity from JSA included; Certification #XX28834. Great condition; light crease in bottom right corner, and some very minor soiling near the bottom edge. Autograph and handwriting present very well with no smudging, bleeding or fading. Mounted on a thick card stock with minimal edgewear. Dimensions: 3.75″ x 5.25″. Follow us on Instagram and Facebook (glorydayscollectibles) to keep yourself updated on our upcoming auctions and events. Glory Days Collectibles is Canada’s Largest Private Collection Ensemble That Hosts an Impressive Variety. Of Vintage Sports, Rock & Roll, Hollywood, Advertising and Political Memorabilia. Newly Staffed By Knowledgeable Hobby Veterans – Bringing First Class Service To All Collectors. BE SURE TO BOOKMARK OUR SITE AS WE ARE CONSTANTLY ACQUIRING NEW & INTERESTING COLLECTIBLES WEEKLY. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “glorydayscollectibles” and is located in this country: CA. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Autograph Authentication: James Spence (JSA)
  • Signed: Yes
  • Industry: Historical
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Signed by: Jackie Kennedy

1965 Jacqueline Kennedy Autographed Signed Handwritten Letter JSA LOA Vintage

AILEEN PRINGLE Vintage Original AUTOGRAPH Handwritten Letter/Envelope RARE 1965

AILEEN_PRINGLE_Vintage_Original_AUTOGRAPH_Handwritten_Letter_Envelope_RARE_1965_01_ot AILEEN PRINGLE Vintage Original AUTOGRAPH Handwritten Letter/Envelope RARE 1965
AILEEN PRINGLE Vintage Original AUTOGRAPH Handwritten Letter/Envelope RARE 1965
AILEEN PRINGLE Vintage Original AUTOGRAPH Handwritten Letter/Envelope RARE 1965

AILEEN PRINGLE Vintage Original AUTOGRAPH Handwritten Letter/Envelope RARE 1965
Ink on cream stationary AUTHENTIC Handwritten Letter from Aileen Pringle. She wrote the letter and addressed the envelope using a fine black pen. Along the top of the front of the letter is the embossed letterhead of Aileen Pringle. The letter is dated NOV 20, 1965. It is extremely rare to get a signature from this silent film star, but a handwritten letter is a rare gem to even be offered for sale. The letter is written to RICHARD SISSON, movie memorabilia collector. Also included is the matching envelope that the letter was mailed in. On the front, you can see the postmark for NOV 21, 1965 and mailed in New York City. There is a five cent USA stamp on the envelope. On the back, you can see the personal address for Aileen Pringle. This is a VINTAGE ORIGINAL Autograph Letter with Envelope and NOT a Reproduction Restrike. There is no Photo with this listing. I have reduced the price from 399.99 to 199.99. This item is in the category “Entertainment Memorabilia\Autographs-Original\Movies\Cards & Papers”. The seller is “edi2004″ and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Object Type: Cards & Paper
  • Industry: Movies

AILEEN PRINGLE Vintage Original AUTOGRAPH Handwritten Letter/Envelope RARE 1965

Gerald P. Nye North Dakota Senator Vintage Hand Written Letter Signed

Gerald_P_Nye_North_Dakota_Senator_Vintage_Hand_Written_Letter_Signed_01_aos Gerald P. Nye North Dakota Senator Vintage Hand Written Letter Signed
Gerald P. Nye North Dakota Senator Vintage Hand Written Letter Signed
Gerald P. Nye North Dakota Senator Vintage Hand Written Letter Signed

Gerald P. Nye North Dakota Senator Vintage Hand Written Letter Signed
Track Page Views With. Auctiva’s FREE Counter. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “humanityinneedcharity” and is located in this country: US. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, Korea, South, Indonesia, Taiwan, South Africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Republic of, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Lucia, Montserrat, Turks and Caicos Islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei Darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French Guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman Islands, Liechtenstein, Sri Lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macau, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay, Russian Federation.
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Signed by: GERALD P. NYE NORTH DAKOTA SENATOR VINTAGE HAND WR
  • Autograph Authentication: GERALD P. NYE NORTH DAKOTA SENATOR VINTAGE HAND WR

Gerald P. Nye North Dakota Senator Vintage Hand Written Letter Signed

RARE VINTAGE JOE DIMAGGIO HAND WRITTEN & AUTOGRAPHED LETTER With GREAT CONTENT JSA

RARE_VINTAGE_JOE_DIMAGGIO_HAND_WRITTEN_AUTOGRAPHED_LETTER_With_GREAT_CONTENT_JSA_01_nr RARE VINTAGE JOE DIMAGGIO HAND WRITTEN & AUTOGRAPHED LETTER With GREAT CONTENT JSA

RARE VINTAGE JOE DIMAGGIO HAND WRITTEN & AUTOGRAPHED LETTER With GREAT CONTENT JSA
Extremely rare Joe DiMaggio handwritten and signed letter with choice baseball content including talk of Lou Gehrig.. Sheet of 8.5″13″ legal pad paper has a fan letter written to DiMaggio on the lined side which mentions Chief Hogsett and how proud he was to have been the first pitcher to face DiMaggio. DiMaggio replies in part, +tell Chief Hogsett that I was asking about him… I did not deserve to hit him as well as I did because he truly had good stuff… He made up his success against great hitters like Gehrig and Dickey. I can still see Gehrig – a truly great hitter – waving the bat at Chief’s sweeping curve. Light general wear to letter with a few small tears at upper left… SCARCE & HIGHLY DESIRABLE DIMAGGIO COLLECTIBLE. The item “RARE VINTAGE JOE DIMAGGIO HAND WRITTEN & AUTOGRAPHED LETTER With GREAT CONTENT JSA” is in sale since Thursday, December 16, 2021. This item is in the category “Sports Mem, Cards & Fan Shop\Autographs-Original\Baseball-MLB\Other Autographed MLB Items”. The seller is “truckeemeadows” and is located in Reno, Nevada. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada.
  • Sport: Baseball-MLB
  • Player: Joe DiMaggio
  • Original/Reprint: Original
  • Product: LETTER

RARE VINTAGE JOE DIMAGGIO HAND WRITTEN & AUTOGRAPHED LETTER With GREAT CONTENT JSA
in rare | 196 Words

Vintage 1985 hand written letter by Marjorie Henderson Buell about LITTLE LULU

Vintage_1985_hand_written_letter_by_Marjorie_Henderson_Buell_about_LITTLE_LULU_01_jxl Vintage 1985 hand written letter by Marjorie Henderson Buell about LITTLE LULU
Vintage 1985 hand written letter by Marjorie Henderson Buell about LITTLE LULU
Vintage 1985 hand written letter by Marjorie Henderson Buell about LITTLE LULU
Vintage 1985 hand written letter by Marjorie Henderson Buell about LITTLE LULU

Vintage 1985 hand written letter by Marjorie Henderson Buell about LITTLE LULU
Is a comic strip created in 1935 by. Moppet, debuted in The Saturday Evening Post on 23 February 1935 in a single panel, appearing as a flower girl at a wedding and mischievously strewing the aisle with banana peels. Vintage 1985 original two page hand written letter to Bruce Hamilton from Marjorie Henderson Buell and signed by her as Marge. The letter was written to answer questions asked by Bruce in a two page letter he wrote to her (photocopy of that letter enclosed as the original was sent to Marjorie). The two page hand written letter is 8″ x 10″ and in excellent condition (shown above). The two page photocopy letter from Bruce Hamilton is 8 1/2 x 11 and also shown above. Vintage original correspondence from. Marjorie Henderson Buell is quite rare and this entire letter deals with Little Lulu. The item “Vintage 1985 hand written letter by Marjorie Henderson Buell about LITTLE LULU” is in sale since Monday, November 15, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Other Collectible Autographs”. The seller is “jimvanhise” and is located in Yucca Valley, California. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Signed by: Marjorie Henderson Buell
  • Signed: Yes

Vintage 1985 hand written letter by Marjorie Henderson Buell about LITTLE LULU