Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James

Dolley_Madison_BAS_Beckett_Slabbed_Autograph_Handwritten_Letter_Signed_James_01_ispq Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James
Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James
Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James
Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James
Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James
Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James

Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James
Beloved First Lady and wife of James Madison DOLLEY MADISON lengthy handwritten note signed in text as Mrs. Dolley writes to the first Governor of Ohio Edward Tiffin recommending a friend for employment. Tiffin was notably appointed by Madison to become the first chief commissioner of the General Land Office and countersigned many land grants currently on the market. This autograph has been certified authentic and slabbed by the industry experts at BAS (Beckett Authentication Services). Madison presents her best respects to Governor Tiffin & begs him to pardon her agency, in giving him trouble, this early/in his avocations at Washington! -The enclosed letter will explain the cause and in justice to the writer, she must say (word missing) every way worthy to be employed. Note is mounted to cardstock, overall foxing to document and paper loss to bottom left corner, as shown. Own a remarkable piece of American history! The perfect gift for the Revolutionary War collector, autograph enthusiast, or History buff. A must-have addition to the Executive Office, den, or “Man Cave”. The item “Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James” is in sale since Friday, June 18, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “signaturist-ink” and is located in Wayne, New Jersey. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Jamaica, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Viet nam, Uruguay.
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Signed by: Dolley Madisno
  • Autograph Authentication: Beckett (BAS)
  • Signed: Yes

Dolley Madison BAS Beckett Slabbed Autograph Handwritten Letter Signed James

ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed

ABRAHAM_LINCOLN_PSA_DNA_Slabbed_Early_Handwritten_Autograph_Letter_Signed_01_vc ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed

ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed
One of the HOLY GRAILS of Presidential Autograph Collecting! Legendary 16th President of the United States, ABRAHAM LINCOLN, entirely handwritten legal document in the Presidents distinctive hand signed at the conclusion A. LINCOLN and dated the 19th of September, 1838. The letter is in fantastic condition and entirely legible, all the handwriting on the front panel. Is in Lincolns hand comprising of almost 90 words. The handwriting on the back is in an unknown hand. CERTIFIED AUTHENTIC BY PSA/DNA EXPERT EXAMINATION. Sale includes original PSA/DNA Letter of Authenticity. Item is encapsulated inside PSA/DNA’s sonically-sealed, tamper-evident holder. This is one of the finest legal briefs we have ever seen from Lincoln before in our 40+ years of collecting. Lincoln would usually sign briefs with his partners last name and his last name such as “Stuart&Lincoln”, this is one of the only briefs we have seen where Lincoln signs with his own personal and much more sought after signature. Jacob Baum & John G. Shelton trading and doing business under the name style and firm of Baum & Shelton vs Peter Van Bergen, Sangamon Circuit Court. I do hereby enter myself security for costs in this case, and acknowledge myself bound to pay or cause to be paid all costs which may occur in this action, either to the opposite party or to any of the officers of this court in pursuance of the laws of this state. Dated this 19th day of September A. Baum and Shelton were St. Louis merchants who retained the law firm run by fellow Kentuckians John Stuart and Abraham Lincoln and sued Peter Van Bergen for breach of contract. The document is in excellent condition for its 182 year old age. Some wrinkling and toning to the document as expected with its age. The document has been archivally and professionally reinforced along the horizontal fold to ensure it lasts for generations to come. The item “ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed” is in sale since Thursday, December 10, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Political\Presidential”. The seller is “signaturist-ink” and is located in Wayne, New Jersey. This item can be shipped to United States.
  • President: Abraham Lincoln
  • Autograph Authentication: Professional Sports (PSA/DNA)
  • Signed by: Abraham Lincoln
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Signed: Yes
  • Industry: Presidential

ABRAHAM LINCOLN PSA/DNA Slabbed Early Handwritten Autograph Letter Signed

President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed

President_Richard_Nixon_Signed_Hand_Written_Letter_To_Joe_Garagiola_Psa_Slabbed_01_bedu President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed
President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed

President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed
HAND WRITTEN LETTER TO JOE GARAGIOLA. RICHARD NIXON HAND WRITTEN LETTER TO BASEBALL HALL OF FAME BROADCASTER AND TV PERSONALITY JOE GARAGIOLA. THIS RICHARD NIXON LETTERHEAD MEASURES 7.25″ X 10.5″ AND IS DATED 7-15-88. THE ORIGINAL ENVELOPE IS INCLUDED (NOT SLABBED). THE FRONT OF THE ENVELOPE IS BLANK. THE LETTER IS IN NEAR MINT CONDITION WITH TWO FOLDS. NICE BASEBALL CONTENT AS NIXON THANKS JOE FOR SENDING HIM HIS BOOK. I WAS DELIGHTED TO RECEIVE YOUR BOOK WITH IT’S GRACIOUS INSCRIPTION. I SHALL READ IT BETWEEN INNINGS OF THE GAME OF THE WEEK! YOU & YOUR COLLEAGUES DO A SUPERB JOB. I NEVER MISS IT & I LIKE THE COMMENTARY AS MUCH AS THE GAME. THE LETTER HAS BEEN AUTHENTICATED AND ENCAPSULATED BY PSA/DNA. We appreciate your business. The item “PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON SIGNED HAND WRITTEN LETTER TO JOE GARAGIOLA PSA SLABBED” is in sale since Friday, September 18, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Political\Presidential”. The seller is “sportscelebrity” and is located in Temecula, California. This item can be shipped to United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Jamaica, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Viet nam, Uruguay, Canada, Taiwan.
  • President: Richard Nixon
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Autograph Authentication: Professional Sports (PSA/DNA)

President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed

Claude Monet Authentic Signed 4.5×6.75 1922 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed

Claude_Monet_Authentic_Signed_4_5x6_75_1922_Handwritten_Letter_BAS_Slabbed_01_ixg Claude Monet Authentic Signed 4.5x6.75 1922 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed

Claude Monet Authentic Signed 4.5x6.75 1922 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed
This Autographed Dated Oct 2nd 1922 4.5×6.75 Handwritten Letter has been Personally Signed by Claude Monet. This item is 100% Authentic, it comes slabbed and authenticated by Beckett Authentication Services. The authenticity can be verified on Beckett Authentication Services website. The note reads in french: (translated): The only interesting autographs, are those that are discovered, and not those that we ask for, Claude Monet. A collector’s notation in the lower left dates the piece to October 2, 1922. Our items are sourced from PPC autograph signings or direct from leading suppliers of authentic memorabilia. The companies that authenticate these items include Beckett Authentication Services (BAS), Professional Sports Authenticator (PSA/DNA), James Spence Authentication (JSA), Steiner Sports, Upper Deck, Fanatics, Mounted Memories, and Tri-Star Productions. All autographed items come with a Certificate of Authenticity (COA) from these suppliers that includes a tamper proof hologram affixed to the item. Press Pass Collectibles has exclusive autograph relationships with over 50 professional athletes and celebrities including Magic Johnson, Chevy Chase, Travis Kelce, Nick Bosa, Randy Moss, Kyler Murray, Adrian Peterson, George Kittle, Dak Prescott, Jerome Bettis, Deion Sanders, Jack Lambert, Mean Joe Greene, T. Watt, Tony Dorsett, Tony Gonzalez, Michael Irvin, Jason Witten and more! Shop our entire collection. The item “Claude Monet Authentic Signed 4.5×6.75 1922 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed” is in sale since Thursday, June 4, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “presspasscollectibles” and is located in Scottsdale, Arizona. This item can be shipped to North, South, or Latin America, all countries in Europe, all countries in continental Asia, Australia.
  • Autograph Authentication: BAS
  • PRODUCT_COA: BAS
  • PRODUCT_SIGNED_BY_NAME: Claude Monet

Claude Monet Authentic Signed 4.5x6.75 1922 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed

Martin Sheen Signed Hand Written Letter The Departed Badlands PSA Slabbed

Martin_Sheen_Signed_Hand_Written_Letter_The_Departed_Badlands_PSA_Slabbed_01_gxk Martin Sheen Signed Hand Written Letter The Departed Badlands PSA Slabbed
Martin Sheen Signed Hand Written Letter The Departed Badlands PSA Slabbed

Martin Sheen Signed Hand Written Letter The Departed Badlands PSA Slabbed
For Sale Is A Martin Sheen. Autographed Hand Written Letter. This Item Has Been Signed In Blue Ink. We Do Our Best To Explain Condition With Pictures And Description. Please Read Carefully And Inspect Photos Thoroughly. This Item Has Been Professionally Examined and Slabbed By PSA. The item “Martin Sheen Signed Hand Written Letter The Departed Badlands PSA Slabbed” is in sale since Thursday, July 2, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Movies”. The seller is “sportsauthenticsusa” and is located in Chino, California. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Signed by: Martin Sheen
  • Autograph Authentication: Professional Sports (PSA/DNA)

Martin Sheen Signed Hand Written Letter The Departed Badlands PSA Slabbed

President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed

President_Richard_Nixon_Signed_Hand_Written_Letter_To_Joe_Garagiola_Psa_Slabbed_01_ty President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed
President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed

President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed
HAND WRITTEN LETTER TO JOE GARAGIOLA. RICHARD NIXON HAND WRITTEN LETTER TO BASEBALL HALL OF FAME BROADCASTER AND TV PERSONALITY JOE GARAGIOLA. THIS RICHARD NIXON LETTERHEAD MEASURES 7.25″ X 10.5″ AND IS DATED 7-15-88. THE ORIGINAL ENVELOPE IS INCLUDED (NOT SLABBED). THE FRONT OF THE ENVELOPE IS BLANK. THE LETTER IS IN NEAR MINT CONDITION WITH TWO FOLDS. NICE BASEBALL CONTENT AS NIXON THANKS JOE FOR SENDING HIM HIS BOOK. I WAS DELIGHTED TO RECEIVE YOUR BOOK WITH IT’S GRACIOUS INSCRIPTION. I SHALL READ IT BETWEEN INNINGS OF THE GAME OF THE WEEK! YOU & YOUR COLLEAGUES DO A SUPERB JOB. I NEVER MISS IT & I LIKE THE COMMENTARY AS MUCH AS THE GAME. THE LETTER HAS BEEN AUTHENTICATED AND ENCAPSULATED BY PSA/DNA. We appreciate your business. The item “PRESIDENT RICHARD NIXON SIGNED HAND WRITTEN LETTER TO JOE GARAGIOLA PSA SLABBED” is in sale since Thursday, April 30, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Political\Presidential”. The seller is “sportscelebrity” and is located in Temecula, California. This item can be shipped to United States, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Panama, Jamaica, Bangladesh, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Nicaragua, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Viet nam, Uruguay.
  • President: Richard Nixon
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Autograph Authentication: Professional Sports (PSA/DNA)

President Richard Nixon Signed Hand Written Letter To Joe Garagiola Psa Slabbed

George H. W. Bush Authentic Signed 4.5X6 Hand Written Letter PSA/DNA Slabbed

George_H_W_Bush_Authentic_Signed_4_5X6_Hand_Written_Letter_PSA_DNA_Slabbed_01_dlw George H. W. Bush Authentic Signed 4.5X6 Hand Written Letter PSA/DNA Slabbed

George H. W. Bush Authentic Signed 4.5X6 Hand Written Letter PSA/DNA Slabbed
BUSH AUTHENTIC SIGNED 4.5X6 HAND WRITTEN LETTER PSA/DNA SLABBED has been certified authentic. It comes slabbed and authenticated by PSA/DNA. You can also see the authentication on the PSA/DNA website, PSAcard. BUSH – Signed – Autographed Memorabilia. We offer autographed memorabilia only from the top, reputable, leading suppliers of authentic sports memorabilia. The companies that authenticate these items include Professional Sports Authenticator (PSA/DNA), James Spence Authentication (JSA), Steiner Sports, Upper Deck, Mounted Memories, and Tri-Star Productions. All autographed items come with a Certificate Of Authenticity (COA) from these suppliers that include a hologram on the item. The item “George H. W. Bush Authentic Signed 4.5X6 Hand Written Letter PSA/DNA Slabbed” is in sale since Monday, March 30, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Political\Presidential”. The seller is “presspasscollectibles” and is located in Scottsdale, Arizona. This item can be shipped to North, South, or Latin America, all countries in Europe, all countries in continental Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Egypt.
  • Autograph Authentication: PSA/DNA SLABBED
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • PRODUCT_COA: PSA/DNA SLABBED
  • PRODUCT_SIGNED_BY_NAME: GEORGE H.W. BUSH
  • PRODUCT_SIGNED_BY_BRAND: GEORGE H.W. BUSH

George H. W. Bush Authentic Signed 4.5X6 Hand Written Letter PSA/DNA Slabbed

Grover Cleveland Authentic Signed 4.5×6.75 1892 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed

Grover_Cleveland_Authentic_Signed_4_5x6_75_1892_Handwritten_Letter_BAS_Slabbed_01_hmp Grover Cleveland Authentic Signed 4.5x6.75 1892 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed
Grover Cleveland Authentic Signed 4.5x6.75 1892 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed

Grover Cleveland Authentic Signed 4.5x6.75 1892 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed
This Autographed Dated June 30, 1892 4.5×6.75 Handwritten Letter has been Personally Signed by Grover Cleveland. This item is 100% Authentic, it comes slabbed and authenticated by Beckett Authentication Services. The authenticity can be verified on Beckett Authentication Services website. We offer autographed memorabilia only from the top, reputable, leading suppliers of authentic sports memorabilia. The companies that authenticate these items include Professional Sports Authenticator (PSA/DNA), James Spence Authentication (JSA), Steiner Sports, Upper Deck, Mounted Memories, and Tri-Star Productions. All autographed items come with a Certificate Of Authenticity (COA) from these suppliers that include a hologram on the item. The item “Grover Cleveland Authentic Signed 4.5×6.75 1892 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed” is in sale since Thursday, March 5, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Political\Presidential”. The seller is “presspasscollectibles” and is located in Scottsdale, Arizona. This item can be shipped to North, South, or Latin America, all countries in Europe, all countries in continental Asia, Australia, South africa, New Zealand, Egypt, Reunion.
  • Autograph Authentication: Beckett
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • PRODUCT_COA: Beckett
  • PRODUCT_SIGNED_BY_NAME: Grover Cleveland

Grover Cleveland Authentic Signed 4.5x6.75 1892 Handwritten Letter BAS Slabbed

William Cody Buffalo Bill Signed 5.75×9 1902 Hand Written Letter BAS Slabbed

William_Cody_Buffalo_Bill_Signed_5_75x9_1902_Hand_Written_Letter_BAS_Slabbed_01_yj William Cody Buffalo Bill Signed 5.75x9 1902 Hand Written Letter BAS Slabbed
William Cody Buffalo Bill Signed 5.75x9 1902 Hand Written Letter BAS Slabbed
William Cody Buffalo Bill Signed 5.75x9 1902 Hand Written Letter BAS Slabbed
William Cody Buffalo Bill Signed 5.75x9 1902 Hand Written Letter BAS Slabbed

William Cody Buffalo Bill Signed 5.75x9 1902 Hand Written Letter BAS Slabbed
This Autographed Dated May 25, 1902 on New Hoffman House Hotel Stationary 5.75×9 Hand Written Letter has been Personally Signed by William Cody “Buffalo Bill”. This item is 100% Authentic, it comes slabbed and authenticated by Beckett Authentication Services. The authenticity can be verified on Beckett Authentication Services website. Hand written by Cody to his construction manager, George T. Beck, reads: I hope you have settled with Kelsey in full. He is after me about his balance. William Cody “Buffalo Bill”. We offer autographed memorabilia only from the top, reputable, leading suppliers of authentic sports memorabilia. The companies that authenticate these items include Professional Sports Authenticator (PSA/DNA), James Spence Authentication (JSA), Steiner Sports, Upper Deck, Mounted Memories, and Tri-Star Productions. All autographed items come with a Certificate Of Authenticity (COA) from these suppliers that include a hologram on the item. The item “William Cody Buffalo Bill Signed 5.75×9 1902 Hand Written Letter BAS Slabbed” is in sale since Wednesday, March 4, 2020. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “presspasscollectibles” and is located in Scottsdale, Arizona. This item can be shipped to North, South, or Latin America, all countries in Europe, all countries in continental Asia, Australia.
  • Autograph Authentication: BAS
  • PRODUCT_COA: BAS
  • PRODUCT_SIGNED_BY_NAME: William Cody “Buffalo Bill”

William Cody Buffalo Bill Signed 5.75x9 1902 Hand Written Letter BAS Slabbed

Thomas Edison Signed Hand Written Letter BGS BAS Beckett Slabbed Autographed

Thomas_Edison_Signed_Hand_Written_Letter_BGS_BAS_Beckett_Slabbed_Autographed_01_ny Thomas Edison Signed Hand Written Letter BGS BAS Beckett Slabbed Autographed
Thomas Edison Signed Hand Written Letter BGS BAS Beckett Slabbed Autographed

Thomas Edison Signed Hand Written Letter BGS BAS Beckett Slabbed Autographed
Thomas Edison Signed Hand Written Letter BGS BAS Beckett Slabbed Autographed. Thank you for checking out our store! Up for sale is a slabbed hand written letter signed by famous inventor Thomas Edison. The hand written letter of Thomas was authenticated by a team of experts at Beckett Grading Services (BGS) and encapsulated so you can rest assured you are purchasing the real deal. Wed like to encourage you, our customer, to reach out to us if you come across any questions. We always take the time to respond to a message from our customers and were happy to hear from you! Listing and template services provided by inkFrog. The item “Thomas Edison Signed Hand Written Letter BGS BAS Beckett Slabbed Autographed” is in sale since Thursday, February 6, 2020. This item is in the category “Entertainment Memorabilia\Autographs-Original\Music\Jazz & Big Band”. The seller is “gs-memorabilia” and is located in Berkeley, California. This item can be shipped to United States.
  • Industry: Music
  • Original/Reproduction: Original

Thomas Edison Signed Hand Written Letter BGS BAS Beckett Slabbed Autographed