Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Original_Korea_Chang_Myun_Handwritten_Letter_Assassination_Rare_Vintage_01_ovn Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage
Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage
A FANTASTICALLY RARE HANDWRITTEN LETTER ON REPUBLIC OF KOREA PAPER BY CHANG MYUN. ALSO ORIGINAL ARTICLE REFERENCING HIS ATTEMPTED ASSAINATION ATTEMPT. THE LETTER REFERENCES THE ATTEMPT ON HIS LIFE AND TO PROTECT HIM AND THE WELFARE OF HIS PEOPLE. Chang Myon (hangul: ; hanja: ; August 28, 1899 June 4, 1966) was a South Korean statesman, educator, diplomat, journalist and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the last Vice President of South Korea and the Prime Minister of the Second Republic. His styled name (ho) was Unseok (,). His English name was John Chang Myon (baptismal name, surname, given name). Under the Japanese rule, Chang worked as a teacher. From 191921, he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School and from 193136 at Dongsung Commerce High School. From 193744, he was principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten of the Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church. From 193645, he was principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. In 1948, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly. In 1949, he became the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In 1950, he successfully appealed to the United States and the UN to send troops to assist in the Korean War. On November 23, 1950, he was appointed the second prime minister of the First Republic of Korea. From 1956 to 1960, he served as the fourth vice president of the First Republic of Korea. When Syngman Rhee’s government was ousted by the student-led pro-democracy uprising of April 19 Movement, he was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic in 1960. After the country adopted a parliamentary system in response to Rhee’s abuse of presidential power, Chang became the head of government. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee led a successful military coup on May 16, 1961, which marked the end of the Second Republic and the nation’s brief experimentation with the cabinet form of government. Study in the United States. Religious belief and education movements. Prime Minister of the First Republic. Prime Minister of the Second Republic. Chang Myon was born in 1899 in Jeokseon-dong, Hansung. He was the first son of Chang Gi-bin and Lucia Hwang. His given name was Myon (;). [2] He was a member of the Indong Chang Family (;), and descended from Jukjong Chang Cham (;), a well-known Neo-Confucianism philosopher. Chang’s ninth-generation grandfather lived in South Pyongan Province Province but his father moved to Incheon. [3] The first Roman Catholic believer in his family was his great-grandmother, Lady Park. In 1906, he began studying at Incheon Parkmun Primary School (;), and graduated in 1912. He then went to Incheon Public Simsang Elementary School (,), graduating in 1914. He later attended Suwon Agriculture High School (,), and he graduated on May 25, 1917. In March 1916, he married Kim Ok-yun. They had six sons and three daughters. Manhattan College student, 1921. In September 1918, he was registered at the YMCA Village School, and from 191921 he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School (,). On March 1, 1919, he participated in the eponymous protests against Japanese occupation of Korea but escaped arrest. In January 1921, Chang Myon went to the United States with his younger brother Chang Bal to study. They were sponsored by the Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America. In September 1921, he entered Manhattan College and in 1924 took a one-year leave of absence from the college due to acute appendicitis. In August 1921, he entered the Secular Franciscan Order. After graduating from Manhattan College in July 1925, he left for Italy on July 30 to attend the beatification of 79 Korean Joseon Catholic martyrs. He was also received by Pope Pius XII. On December 2, 1925, he was appointed Maryknoll Center School’s professor of the Korean language and translation. At the same time, he served as the leader of the laity for the Pyongyang archdiocese. On February 11, 1927, he formally entered the service of the Pyongyang Catholic church. He translated religious terms for Catholic teaching into the Korean language and published The Summary of Religious Terms in November 1929. In 1930, he published Way of the seeker of truth (;) and on September 15 he published An Outline of Joseon Catholic History (,). On March 18, 1931, he resigned from the affairs of Pyongyang archdiocese (;) and moved to Seoul. Appointed as a teacher at Dongsung Commerce High School (;) on April 1, 1931, he took on the responsibility of teaching English and rhetorical subjects. On July 10th, along with Jeong Ji-yong, he published the first issue of Catholic Young Men’s News (;). In 1935, he became Manager of Affairs for Dongsung Commerce High School. On April 1, 1937, he became the lay leader of Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church and principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten (,). On November 19, 1936, he became principal of Dongsung Commerce High School (;). At the same time he took on the additional role of principal of Gyesong Elementary School (;) in Jongro, Seoul, in April 1939. That September, he was appointed chairman of the Seoul Catholic Young Men’s National Union (,). He translated James Gibbons’ The Faith of Our Fathers: A Plain Exposition and Vindication of the Church Founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ into the Korean language and published the hangul edition on July 4, 1944. Republic of Korea Ambassador to USA, 1949. The Third UN General Assembly, 1948. On February 11, 1946, he was appointed a member of the Democratic Conference (,) and a Representative of Emergency Peoples Conference (,). That August, Chang was elected to the South Korean Provisional National Assembly (,). By this time, he emerged as a major political figure in the Syngman Rhee administration of the First Republic of Korea. On May 10, 1948, he ran for a National Assembly seat from Jongro District of Seoul, and he was duly elected on May 30. On October 11 of the same year, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly and witnessed the recognition of the Republic of Korea as a sovereign nation by the UN on December 12, 1948. In 1949, he visited the Vatican to express his appreciation of the Vatican’s active support of his diplomatic endeavors. In December 1949, he was appointed the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In April 1950, he was designated a special envoy of the Republic of Korea to Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. Immediately after the outbreak of the Korean War, on June 25, 1950, he actively solicited urgent aide from the United States and the UN. The 6th UN General Assembly, 1952. In November 1950, Chang was appointed the second Prime Minister of the First Republic of Korea, a position he at first refused, but after an earnest request from Syngman Rhee, he accepted and went on to serve from October 1951 until April 29, 1952. He was sent to the sixth UN General Assembly held in Paris, France. The involvement of the Catholic Church with the democratic opposition to the Rhee administration first began in the 1950s. As the foremost leader of the opposition in the late 1950s, Chang Myon, a devout Catholic, already had a good relationship with Roh Ki-nam, the Bishop of Seoul, from the early 1940s. Roh soon came to be known as the “political bishop” because of his frequent critical statements on the dictatorial tendencies of Syngman Rhee. In the 1950s, the governing Liberal Party was led by President Syngman Rhee. In April 1952, opposition lawmakers and some Liberal Party lawmakers attempted a constitutional amendment but were branded enemies of the state by Syngman Rhee[5] When the assembly voted to have martial law lifted in Busan, Rhee had half of them arrested. After a staged assassination attempt on Rhee, police began to investigate alleged links to the opposition. Police claimed that Chang Myon was working with assassins paid by North Korea to depose Rhee. Under this type of pressure, the assembly voted 160 to zero for Rhee’s constitutional amendments. [5] By the late 1950s Chang Myon emerged as the major alternative to Rhee, and in 1960, when Rhee was overthrown by the April 19th Movement and a popular revolution, Chang Myon was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea and de facto chief executive. Chang’s campaign for vice-presidency (1956). On September 18, 1955, he was defeated by a narrow margin by Shin Ik-hee for the Democratic Party’s candidacy in the presidential election. Instead, he was nominated for the vice-presidency as the running mate of Shin Ik-hee, who died suddenly on May 5, 1956. On May 30, 1956, Chang was duly elected the fourth vice president of the Republic of Korea. On September 28, 1956, at the Democratic party’s national convention in the Sigong Building (,) in Jongno, Seoul, he was shot by a sniper in the September 28 Incident [ko] and received a penetrating wound to the wrist. The would-be assassin was immediately arrested. The assassination attempt was in all probability sponsored by the top echelon of the Liberal Party. During his vice presidency, Chang came into conflict with Lee Ki-poong, an influential Liberal Party member, who sent spies and placed him under surveillance. In 1959, he was appointed as a member of the Supreme Council of the Democratic Party of the Republic of Korea. In the same year, he became the Democratic Party’s candidate for the vice-presidency and the running mate of presidential candidate Cho Byong-ok. Chang had attempted to become a candidate for the presidency, but once again he lost by a narrow margin, this time to Cho. In November of the same year, he was reelected as a member of the supreme council of the Democratic Party. In the Republic of Korea’s vice-presidential election of March 15, 1960, Chang suffered defeat at the hands of Lee Ki-poong by such a suspiciously large margin that protesters took to the streets alleging fraud. [6] A thousand residents gathered in front of the opposition Democratic Party building in the southern city of Masan to protest. When the police started shooting, the protesters responded by throwing rocks. Following the suppression of the protests, the body of a young man, Kim Ju-yul, a student at Masan Commercial High School who had participated in the protests, was found on a nearby beach. [6] This tragic incident served as a catalyst for the April 19 Movement and the popular revolution that overthrew the Rhee regime in May 1960. In May 1960, Chang was a candidate in the election for a National Assembly seat. At the time, he was the leader of the New Group in the Democratic Party (,). On August 18, 1960, he was duly elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea under a parliamentary system. When Syngman Rhee was forced out of office in April 1960 because of the Rhee administration and Lee Ki-poong’s misgovernment of state affairs, compounded by the exposure of egregious corruption, the Republic of Korea found itself in serious disarray. Hence, the administration led by Prime Minister Chang Myon faced volatile political and grievous socioeconomic difficulties. In the midst of such difficulties, the Chang administration did not resort to dictatorship. After all, Chang Myon fought against the Rhee dictatorship for many years. He was a true believer in democracy. [7] Moreover, his administration had successfully designed the first five-year economic development plan that would have proven beneficial for all Koreans. And this five-year economic development plan was “borrowed” by the Park Chung-hee administration. Park used virtually the same Five-Year Economic Development Plan, originally designed and drafted by the Chang Myon administration, for his economic development after the May 16 military coup. In 1961, the Chang Myon administration attempted to resume talks on a treaty of relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea, and discussed eight of the proposed articles designed to normalize diplomatic ties. However, the talks came to a halt because of the military coup led by Park Chung-hee on May 16. On May 20, 1961, he was removed from the position of Prime Minister after less than one year in power. In January 2005, the government of the Republic of Korea uncovered 1,200 pages of diplomatic documents of the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea of 1965 that had been kept secret for forty years. These documents revealed that the Japanese government proposed to the government of the Republic of Korea, headed by Park Chung-hee, to directly compensate individual victims of Japanese colonization of Korea, but it was the Park administration that insisted it would handle the individual compensation to the victims, and took over the entire amount of the grant, 300 million dollars, (for 35 years of Japanese colonial rule in Korea), on behalf of the victims. The Park administration negotiated for a total of 360 million dollars in compensation for the 1.03 million Koreans conscripted into the forced labor and military service during the colonial period but received only 300 million dollars. [9] On March 30, 1962, the Park Military Government detained Chang and prohibited him from engaging in any further political activity. Initially, he was under the threat of the death penalty. However, in August 1962, he was released on bail. In 1962, he wrote an appeal to F. Remler, Why Must I suffer? On January 27, 1966, Chang was hospitalized with hepatitis at the Holy Mother Hospital (,) in Seoul, and on June 4, 1966, he died in Jongro at the age of 66. Chang was buried in the Hehwa Catholic Church burial site on Chonbo mountain (;) in Pocheon, Gyeonggi Province. On October 27, 1999, he was posthumously honored by President Kim Dae-jung of the Republic of Korea, with the first class rank of the Order of Merit for National Foundation. [10] On the occasion of the hundredth birthday of Chang Myon, Cardinal Kim Sou-hwan celebrated a memorial mass at Hehwa Catholic Parish Church in August 1999. He rhetorically asked: How is it possible for the leaders of the May 16 military coup to declare that the Chang Myon administration of the Second Republic was already corrupt and incompetent in less than a month of its inception? Their first two children died at an early age. The first child, Anna Chang Myeong-sook (baptismal name, surname, given name), died before age one, and the second child, Joseph Chang Young died at age two. Joseph Chang Jin, Ph. Was a professor of biology at Princeton University and Sogang University (deceased); Benedicta Chang Yi-sook, MFA, an artist and teacher, a member of the order of Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur; Andrew Chang Geon, MA, a successful architect; John Chang Yik, Catholic bishop of Chuncheon (deceased); Leo Chang Soon, Ph. A professor of political science; Matthew Chang Heung, Ph. A manager at the Bank of Paris; Teresa Chang Myong-ja, MA in Library Science, a librarian (deceased). Chang Myon had two younger brothers and three younger sisters. The older, Louis Chang Bal, was an artist and dean of the College of Fine Arts, Seoul National University (deceased); the younger, Paul Chang Geuk, Ph. Was a professor of physics and aerodynamics/space scientist at NASA, Catholic University, Washington, DC, and the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), (deceased); the eldest of the three younger sisters was Gunaegunda Chang Jeong-hae (deceased), the second, Agneta Chang Jeong-eun, was a Maryknoll Sister and the founder and the mother superior of a Korean order in North Korea, Sisters of Our Perpetual Help, (deceased under fateful duress, October 1950); and the third was Martha Chang Jeong-soon, deceased in 1937 at the age of 21, a senior at Sacred Heart University. Third UN General Assembly, 1948. Chang Myon championed liberal and democratic values. Therefore, he was strongly opposed to communism as practiced by the Soviet Union and fascism/Nazism as practiced by Nazi Germany. Likewise, he firmly opposed totalitarianism and authoritarianism in any shape or form. He believed in individualism in the context of common good. Thus, he abhorred endemic political and economic/financial corruption in the Republic of Korea. The word republic stands for res, things/affairs, and publica, public. In short, republic stands for things public, commonweal, public interest and/or common good. He led a modest and frugal life. He lived in a small, unpretentious house (Seoul, Jongro-gu, Myongreun-dong, 1 Ga, 36-1) where he and his spouse spent most of their life and raised seven children. Anyone who visits the old house, now renovated, can readily see his life style. This house is now designated a National Heritage site and converted to be a museum dedicated to him. It is open to the public. As a member of the National Assembly in the late 1940s, he initiated a legislation prohibiting concubinage and prostitution. It was duly passed. Throughout his life, he abstained from smoking and drinking. He had many good friends and enjoyed listening to classical music. He influenced the conversion of Kim Dae-jung to Catholicism and became his godfather. Kim later remarked that Chang was a devout Catholic who believed in Catholic action to rectify many evils in Korea. Democratic Party of Korea. The Second Republic of Korea was the government of South Korea from April 1960 to May 1961. The Second Republic was founded during the April Revolution mass protests against President Syngman Rhee, succeeding the First Republic and establishing a parliamentary government under President Yun Bo-seon and Prime Minister Chang Myon. The Second Republic ended Rhee’s authoritarianism and repression, formed a liberal democracy, and formulated the first Five-Year Plans to develop the neglected economy. The Second Republic’s failure to improve South Korea’s political and economic issues led to instability, and after thirteen months it was overthrown by the South Korean Army in the May 16 coup led by Park Chung-hee. The Second Republic was replaced by a provisional military government under the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, leading to the Third Republic of Korea. The short-lived Second Republic was the only government under a parliamentary system in the history of Korea. Proclamation of the Second Republic of Korea. From right: Chang Myon (Prime Minister), Yun Bo-seon (President), Paik Nak-jun (President of the House of Councillors) and Kwak Sang-hoon (President of the Chamber of Deputies). The First Republic of Korea had existed since 1948 under President Syngman Rhee, who was widely considered to be corrupt and a dictator who abused his presidential powers to maintain his rule and cronyism. Although the First Republic was officially a representative democracy, Rhee adopted a strongly anti-communist position and used the threat of communism to enact a policy of severe repression against all political opposition. Tolerance of Rhee and his Liberal Party-dominated government declined in the mid-to-late 1950s, as the South Korean public were increasingly discontent with the repression and the limited economic and social development. In April 1960, Rhee was overthrown by widespread protests known as the “April Revolution” in response to the discovery of a high school student murdered by police during demonstrations against Rhee and rigged election in March. After Rhee’s fall, power was briefly held by a caretaker government headed by Heo Jeong as Prime Minister until a new parliamentary election was held on 29 July 1960. The Second Republic operated under a parliamentary system, with the Prime Minister of South Korea as the head of government and the President of South Korea as the head of state. Due to Rhee’s numerous abuses of power, the President’s power was greatly reduced, to the point that he was effectively a figurehead. He was elected by both houses of the legislature. Real power was vested in the Prime Minister, who was elected by the National Assembly. The Second Republic was the first and the only instance of the South Korean government using a cabinet system instead of a presidential system. The Democratic Party, which had been in the opposition during the First Republic, easily gained power. And Rhee’s former opponent Chang Myon became Prime Minister. The new legislature was bicameral, with the House of Commons as the lower house and the Senate as the upper house. Yun Bo-seon was elected as the second President of South Korea on 13 August 1960. Real power now rested with the Prime Minister and cabinet, who were both elected by the National Assembly. Part of a series on the. History of South Korea. Preludes to Division 191048. People’s Republic of Korea. Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Assassination of Park Chung-hee. 1997 Asian financial crisis. Flag of South Korea. Svg South Korea portal. Much of this activity was from leftist and student groups, which had been instrumental in the overthrow of the First Republic. Membership of unions and activity grew rapidly during the later months of 1960. [2] Estimates suggest around 2,000 demonstrations were held during eight months of the Second Republic. Under pressure from the left-wing, the Chang government carried out a series of purges of military and police officials who had been involved in anti-democratic activities or corruption during the First Republic. A special law to this effect was passed on 31 October 1960. [4] Around 40,000 people were placed under investigation; of these, more than 2,200 government officials and 4,000 police officers were purged. [5] In addition, the government considered reducing the size of the South Korean Army by 100,000, although this plan was shelved. The Second Republic government was faced with mounting instability in economic terms as well, seeing unemployment and wholesale prices also rose during this period. The won lost half of its value against the US dollar between fall 1960 and spring 1961. [7] The government formulated a five-year economic plan based around agriculture and light industry to decrease unemployment, although it was unable to act on it prior to being overthrown. Chang’s government resumed negotiations for the normalization of diplomatic relations between Korea and Japan, which had not progressed under the Rhee regime that had existed since the end of Japanese rule. The Second Republic established diplomatic relations with many new countries, with Sohn Won-yil, the first ambassador to West Germany, attending the independence ceremonies of Cameroon, Togo, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Morocco. The Second Republic suffered from numerous political, economic, and social issues that were both new and inherited from the First Republic. Failure to properly address the issues caused a growth in political instability as factional fighting within the Democratic Party, combined with the increasing activity from opposition and activist groups, led to a breakdown in South Korean politics. Main article: May 16 coup. Many high-ranking figures of the South Korean military held animosity for so-called “liberation aristocrats” the ruling class of conservative politicians involved in the Korean independence movement and United States Army Military Government that they blamed for the stalling of development in South Korea. Military figures noted how South Korea had been intensively developed under the Japanese colonial system and the “economic miracle” occurring in Japan, in marked contrast to Rhee’s presidency which saw little significant effort to develop the economy, which remained stagnant, poor and largely agrarian. The lack of development under Rhee provoked a growing nationalistic intellectual reaction which called for a radical restructuring of society and a thorough political and economic reorganization, rejecting the model being pursued by the governing elite. Park Chung-hee, a Major General in the Republic of Korea Army with decidedly ambiguous political leanings, was heavily influenced by this unfolding intellectual reaction. Park became the leader of a reformist faction within the military that plotted a coup d’etat against the civilian government of the Second Republic on 12 May 1961. The plot was aborted after being leaked, however, the military attempted another coup four days later on 16 May which was successful, dissolving the Second Republic. They proceeded to broadcast a proclamation outlining the policy objectives of the coup, including anti-communism, strengthening of ties with the United States, the elimination of political corruption, the construction of an autonomous national economy, Korean reunification, and the removal of the present generation of politicians. Park and his supporters subsequently established the Military Revolutionary Committee as a military junta government, later renamed the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Park became the de facto dictator of South Korea as the Chairman of the Council, while Yun Bo-seon remained President as a figurehead. On one autumn day in 1969, when the Korean engineering design office of a Nevada Corporation was located within the U. Army Yongsan Garrison in central Seoul, a tall handsome man, dressed in a black suit with a small rectangular white window in the front part of the collar, visited my design office. He was Father Chang Ick. Somehow, I immediately liked his elegant and refined manner. I don’t remember why, but we spoke in English. He wanted us to design a Catholic church building in Seongbuk-dong, northeastern Seoul, and showed me a cadastral map. I asked him to give us the general concept and specifications of the proposed building. May I use your typewriter? I let him sit at my desk, and quickly replaced the old typewriter ribbon with a new one. The Father knew by heart every concept of his new church, and typed the design requirements rather quickly. He typed three pages of the specifications, without even making typographical errors. I glanced over the papers and said Give us two weeks and I’ll submit to you three different conceptual ideas showing the floor layouts and facades, before we enter into the detailed design. Then I checked the city planning regulations in the area around City Hall. There were no restrictions. Then, later we applied for a building permit. The answer came back a week later and we were told that there is a height restriction in the area by the Metropolitan Army Defense Command. We were told that the very area in Seongbuk-dong comes within the field vision of anti-aircraft artillery as the zone is within the range of protection for Cheong Wa Dae. We redesigned and lowered the height of the tower of the Roman Catholic church and finally we were able to receive the building permit. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee, a major-general, led a military coup on May 16, 1961. Over a cup of coffee in my office, Father Chang kept criticizing Park Chung-hee for taking over the country in a coup d’etat. Such anti-military government words were taboo and dangerous at the time. 20, 2011 this column carried an article Cryptography is the key to Information Age. ” A part of it reads, “When Chang Myon, vice president and prime minister of the First and the Second Republic, was assigned as South Korea’s first ambassador to the United States in 1949, he hid a Korean-English dictionary in his portfolio. The foreign ministry’s Seoul Office had the same copy. The dictionary was their code book. A word is picked up by indicating the page number and the column number from the same dictionaries in Washington, D. Bishop Chang Ick was my age, 87. I’m thinking of that wonderful gentleman in this time of sorrow. [Raw] Gwangmyeong 3 (1899). [Death] 1966.6.4. Graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After earning a doctorate in law and returning to Japan, engaged in Christian business. He was a member of the Constituent National Assembly in 1948 and became the first ambassador to the United States in 1949. 51 years Prime Minister became but Lee Sunman (Syngman Rhee) president and the collision to resign. In 1955, he organized the Democratic Party with Sin Ik-hui and became an opposition leader. In the third presidential election in 1981, he was elected vice president from the opposition party under President Lee Seung-man of the Liberal Party. Even after taking office, he blamed the Lee administration’s policies and resigned as vice president in the student revolution in April 1960. August Cabinet has been appointed to the responsibility system the second Prime Minister of the Republic, the following year of the five-sixteen military revolution can not respond quickly in, resulting in a successful revolution as a result. The Cabinet resigned altogether. Imprisoned for anti-revolution case in 1987Received a 10-year sentence , but was released from expulsion in 1965. SourceBritannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Information about. Commentary on Digital Daijisen. Became Prime Minister in 1950, but resigned in conflict with President Syngman Rhee. He formed the Democratic Party of Japan in 1955, and was reappointed as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April Revolution of 1960. 1961 Chung of the coup in the downfall. Chang Myon (Chang Myon). Commentary on the 2nd edition of the World Encyclopedia. The issue is Unishi. Born in Incheon, Gyeonggi Province. Graduated from the Catholic University of Manhattan in New York in 1925. Participated in the formation of the Democratic Party of the Conservative Opposition in 1955. He defeated Lee Ki-poong of the Liberal Party in 1981 and was elected Vice President, but there was no fundamental difference in his pro-American personality. Inaugurated as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April 1960 Revolution. In 1961, he signed the Korea-US Economic and Technical Assistance Agreement and endeavored to realize a new Korea-US relationship. But the president Yoonadministration, such as (in-failure) faction split is a weakness, not be able to respond effectively to the popular movements that hope the negative and unification also to North-South dialogue as a transient regime, 61 years Chung of He was banished from political activities in the 5/16 coup d’etat. SourceInformation about Heibonsha World Encyclopedia 2nd Edition. Commentary on the Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). A politician from South Korea. Born in Gyeonggi Province. After graduating from Suwon High School of Agriculture and Forestry, studied abroad in the United States and graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After returning to Japan, following the Catholic business, he became the principal of Tosei Commercial School from 1931 to 1945. After liberation, he entered politics and became a member of various parliament. 1951 Prime Minister, 1952 Presidential election and lost. He founded the Democratic Party in 1955 and confronted the ruling Liberal Party. After the student revolution in April 1960, he was elected Prime Minister under the new constitution and established the Democratic Party of Japan (a spokesman at the time was later President Kim Dae-Jung). However, he was dismissed by the military revolution in May 1961 and was temporarily charged with anti-revolutionary charges. He was released from exile in 1965, but died in June 1966 in disappointment. Mention of Chang Myon in the World Encyclopedia. From [Republic of Korea]. However, in order to perpetuate the administration, the people were forced to revise the constitution, such as changing the presidential election method from indirect elections by members of the Diet to direct elections by the people, and abolishing the three-election prohibition clause for the presidential term. The Lee administration collapsed due to the April revolution centered on students in 1960, against the backdrop of the economic crisis. In the Second Republic, which was established in its place, the criticism of Lee’s dictatorship was changed to a responsible cabinet system with significantly reduced presidential authority, and the Chang Myon administration (President Yun Posun) based on the opposition party (Democratic Party) during the Lee administration. However, the energy of the people who caused the April Revolution overcame the regulations of the Zhang administration, and the movement for democratization and unity showed unprecedented upsurge. [From the Park administration to all administrations] When. It seemed that a new phase would be opened in the North-South division situation, a military coup d’etat (May 16 coup d’etat) broke out on May 16, 1961, and mainly military personnel. Chung administration (third Republic) is satisfied. 1899 8 28 34. , · , 1948 5 10. 1961 5 16 809. 3 (79·) (76·) (41·). 4 (77· , , ,) 1994 ····· · ··. 5 (75·) (44·) (36). (40·)·(37·)·(35·) , (29·). 2 (81·,) , 3 (78) 3. Korea (or Korean peninsula) is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”) and South Korea (officially the “Republic of Korea”). Korea consists of the mainland Korean Peninsula (“Mainland Korea”), Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. It is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, together known as the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the second half of the 1st millennium, Silla defeated and conquered Baekje and Goguryeo, leading to the “Unified Silla” period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north, superseding former Goguryeo. Unified Silla eventually collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium, Goguryeo was resurrected as Goryeo, which defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as a single sovereign state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo. Goryeo (also spelled as Kory), whose name developed into the modern exonym “Korea”, was a highly cultured state that created the world’s first metal movable type in 1234. [3][4][5][6][7][8] However, multiple incursions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century greatly weakened the nation, which eventually agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin that ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, and Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 17 July 1392. The first 200 years of the Joseon era were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the later part of the dynasty, Korea’s isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the “Hermit Kingdom”. By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire’s effort to modernize, the country was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by it until the end of World War II in August 1945. In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. These circumstances became the basis for the division of Korea by the 2 superpowers with the 2 diffirent ideologies, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea’s division into two political entities in 1948: North Korea, and South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty. This status contributes to the high tensions that continue to divide the peninsula. Both governments of the two Koreas always claim to be the sole legitimate government of this region. Japanese occupation and Japan-Korea Annexation. List of heads of state (since 1897). Comparison of the two countries of Korea. Notable public holidays in South Korea. Independence Movement Day, March 1st. Memorial day, 6 June. National Liberation Day, 15 August. Hangul Day, 9 October. Main article: Names of Korea. See also: Korean romanization. “Korea” is the modern spelling of “Corea”, a name attested in English as early as 1614. [9][10] Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, [11] of the Chinese MCKawlej, [12] mod. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo (Korean: ; Hanja: ; MR: Kory), which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo’s time. Korea’s introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, [13] with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. [14] Goryeo’s name was a continuation of Goguryeo (Kogury) the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which was officially known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century. [15] The original name was a combination of the adjective go (“high, lofty”) with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either Guru (, “walled city, ” inferred from some toponyms in Chinese historical documents) or Gauri (, “center”). With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling “Korea” appeared and gradually grew in popularity;[9] its use in transcribing East Asian languages avoids the issues caused by the separate hard and soft Cs existing in English vocabulary derived from the Romance languages. The name Korea is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk , [hanuk], lit. “Country of the Han”. The name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. [16][17] Although written in Hanja as , , or , this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription (OC:Gar, MCHan[12] or Gan) of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning “big” or “great”, particularly in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria and Central Asia. In North Korea, Japan, China and Vietnam, Korea as a whole is referred to as , (Joseon, [tosn]), (Chsen), / (Cháoxin/Jusn), Triu Tiên lit. “[land of the] Morning Calm”. “Great Joseon” was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon , who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108BCE by China’s Han Empire. This go is the Hanja and simply means “ancient” or “old”; it is a modern usage to distinguish the ancient Joseon from the later dynasty. Joseon itself is the modern Korean pronunciation of the Hanja but it is unclear whether this was a transcription of a native Korean name (OCT[r]awser, MCTrjewsjen[12]) or a partial translation into Chinese of the Korean capital Asadal , [18] whose meaning has been reconstructed as “Morning Land” or “Mountain”. Main article: Geography of Korea. See also: Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea, and Provinces of Korea. A neighborhood in North Gyeongsang Province. A view of Mount Seorak. Daedongyeojido this 1861 map of Korea represents the peak of pre-modern mapmaking in the region. Korea consists of a peninsula and nearby islands located in East Asia. The peninsula extends southwards for about 1,100 km (680 mi) from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the east and the Yellow Sea (West Sea) to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water. [19][20] To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia. [21] Notable islands include Jeju Island, Ulleung Island, Dokdo. The southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu (2,744 m), through which runs the border with China. The southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter. To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan. Some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan (1,439 m), Mount Kumgang (1,638 m), Mount Seorak (1,708 m), Mount Taebaek (1,567 m), and Mount Jiri (1,915 m). There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is almost perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan. They are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are basically northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan (1950 m) is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of Japan, the composition of which is more felsic than Jeju-do. The volcanic islands tend to be younger, the more westward. Because the mountainous region is mostly on the eastern part of the peninsula, the main rivers tend to flow westwards. Two exceptions are the southward-flowing Nakdong River and Seomjin River. Important rivers running westward include the Amnok River, the Chongchon River, the Taedong River, the Han River, the Geum River, and the Yeongsan River. These rivers have vast flood plains and provide an ideal environment for wet-rice cultivation. The southern and southwestern coastlines of the peninsula form a well-developed ria coastline, known as Dadohae-jin in Korean. Its convoluted coastline provides mild seas, and the resulting calm environment allows for safe navigation, fishing, and seaweed farming. In addition to the complex coastline, the western coast of the Korean Peninsula has an extremely high tidal amplitude at Incheon, around the middle of the western coast. It can get as high as 9 m. Vast tidal flats have been developing on the south and west coastlines. Korea has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula’s position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west. The peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining. When these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with often cloudy days with rain, which is sometimes very heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer; temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) daily at this time of year. Usually, high pressure is heavily dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes relatively low. The weather becomes increasingly dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is relatively dry with some snow falling at times. Main article: Wildlife of Korea. Animal life of the Korean Peninsula includes a considerable number of bird species and native freshwater fish. Native or endemic species of the Korean Peninsula include Korean hare, Korean water deer, Korean field mouse, Korean brown frog, Korean pine and Korean spruce. The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) with its forest and natural wetlands is a unique biodiversity spot, which harbours eighty-two endangered species. Korea once hosted many Siberian tigers, but as the number of people affected by the tigers increased, the tigers were killed in the Joseon Dynasty and the Siberian tigers in the South Korea became extinct during the Japanese colonial era period. It has been confirmed that Siberian tigers are only on the side of North Korea now. There are also approximately 3,034 species of vascular plants. Main article: History of Korea. See also: History of North Korea and History of South Korea. Four Commanderies of Han. Northern and Southern States period. United Silla (Unified Silla). Later Three Kingdoms period. Unified Silla (Later Silla). ArtDivisionLanguageMilitary (Goguryeo)MonarchsNavalScience and technologyHistory of Jeju. Main articles: Prehistoric Korea and Gojoseon. The Korean Academy claimed ancient hominid fossils originating from about 100,000BCE in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. Fluorescent and high-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000BCE. [24] The best preserved Korean pottery goes back to the paleolithic times around 10,000BCE and the Neolithic period begins around 6000BCE. According to legend, Dangun, a descendant of Heaven, established Gojoseon in 2333BCE. In 108BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Gojoseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula. By 313, Goguryeo annexed all of the Chinese commanderies. Main article: ProtoThree Kingdoms of Korea. The ProtoThree Kingdoms period, sometimes called the Multiple States Period, is the earlier part of what is commonly called the Three Kingdoms Period, following the fall of Gojoseon but before Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla fully developed into kingdoms. This time period saw numerous states spring up from the former territories of Gojoseon, which encompassed northern Korea and southern Manchuria. With the fall of Gojoseon, southern Korea entered the Samhan period. Located in the southern part of Korea, Samhan referred to the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. Mahan was the largest and consisted of 54 states. Byeonhan and Jinhan both consisted of twelve states, bringing a total of 78 states within the Samhan. These three confederacies eventually developed into Baekje, Silla, and Gaya. Main articles: Three Kingdoms of Korea, Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. 7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea consisted of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje. Silla and Baekje controlled the southern half of the Korean Peninsula, maintaining the former Samhan territories, while Goguryeo controlled the northern half of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria and the Liaodong Peninsula, uniting Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and other states in the former Gojoseon territories. Goguryeo was a highly militaristic state;[26][27]self-published source? It was a powerful empire and one of the great powers in East Asia, [28][29][30][31]self-published source? Reaching its zenith in the 5th century when its territories expanded to encompass most of Manchuria to the north, parts of Inner Mongolia to the west, [32] parts of Russia to the east, [33] and the Seoul region to the south. [34] Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Jangsu, [35][36][37][38] who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power on the Korean Peninsula. [39][40] In addition to contesting for control of the Korean Peninsula, Goguryeo had many military conflicts with various Chinese dynasties, [41]self-published source? Most notably the GoguryeoSui War, in which Goguryeo defeated a huge force said to number over a million men. [42][43][44][45][46] In 642, the powerful general Yeon Gaesomun led a coup and gained complete control over Goguryeo. In response, Emperor Tang Taizong of China led a campaign against Goguryeo, but was defeated and retreated. [47][48]self-published source? After the death of Tang Taizong, his son Emperor Tang Gaozong allied with the Korean kingdom of Silla and invaded Goguryeo again, but was unable to overcome Goguryeo’s stalwart defenses and was defeated in 662. [49][50] However, Yeon Gaesomun died of a natural cause in 666 and Goguryeo was thrown into chaos and weakened by a succession struggle among his sons and younger brother, with his eldest son defecting to Tang and his younger brother defecting to Silla. [51][52] The Tang-Silla alliance finally conquered Goguryeo in 668. After the collapse of Goguryeo, Tang and Silla ended their alliance and fought over control of the Korean Peninsula. Silla succeeded in gaining control over most of the Korean Peninsula, while Tang gained control over Goguryeo’s northern territories. However, 30 years after the fall of Goguryeo, a Goguryeo general by the name of Dae Joyeong founded the Korean-Mohe state of Balhae and successfully expelled the Tang presence from much of the former Goguryeo territories. Seokguram Grotto from the Silla era, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The southwestern Korean kingdom of Baekje was founded around modern-day Seoul by a Goguryeo prince, a son of the founder of Goguryeo. [53][54]self-published source? [55] Baekje absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as parts of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralised government; during the expansion of its territory, Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through maritime contacts with the Southern Dynasties. Baekje was a great maritime power;[56] its nautical skill, which made it the Phoenicia of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan. [57][58] Historic evidence suggests that Japanese culture, art, and language were influenced by the kingdom of Baekje and Korea itself;[31][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69] Baekje also played an important role in transmitting advanced Chinese culture to the Japanese archipelago. Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, most notably in the 4th century during the rule of Geunchogo when its influence extended across the sea to Liaoxi and Shandong in China, taking advantage of the weakened state of Former Qin, and Kyushu in the Japanese archipelago;[70] however, Baekje was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined. The Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century. Although later records claim that Silla was the oldest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it is now believed to have been the last kingdom to develop. By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a large state in the southeast, occupying and influencing its neighboring city-states. In 562, Silla annexed the Gaya confederacy, which was located between Baekje and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea often warred with each other and Silla was often dominated by Baekje and Goguryeo. Silla was the smallest and weakest of the three, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage. [71][72] In 660, King Muyeol ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin, aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje after defeating General Gyebaek at the Battle of Hwangsanbeol. In 661, Silla and Tang attacked Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of General Kim Yu-shin, launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year. Main articles: NorthSouth States Period, Later Silla, and Balhae. Beginning in the 6th century, Silla’s power gradually extended across the Korean Peninsula. Silla first annexed the adjacent Gaya confederacy in 562. By the 640s, Silla formed an alliance with the Tang dynasty of China to conquer Baekje and later Goguryeo. After conquering Baekje and Goguryeo, Silla repulsed Tang China from the Korean peninsula in 676. Even though Silla unified most of the Korean Peninsula, most of the Goguryeo territories to the north of the Korean Peninsula were ruled by Balhae. Former Goguryeo general[73][74] or chief of Sumo Mohe[75][76][77] Dae Jo-yeong led a group of Goguryeo and Mohe refugees to the Jilin and founded the kingdom of Balhae, 30 years after the collapse of Goguryeo, as the successor to Goguryeo. At its height, Balhae’s territories extended from southern Manchuria down to the northern Korean peninsula. Balhae was called the “Prosperous Country in the East”. Unified Silla and Balhae in the 8th century CE. Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia, [79] and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River. [80][81][82][83] Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country, [84] and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju[85] was the fourth largest city in the world. [86][87][88][89] Later Silla was a golden age of art and culture, [90][91][92][93] as evidenced by the Hwangnyongsa, Seokguram, and Emille Bell. Buddhism flourished during this time, and many Korean Buddhists gained great fame among Chinese Buddhists[94] and contributed to Chinese Buddhism, [95] including: Woncheuk, Wonhyo, Uisang, Musang, [96][97][98][99] and Kim Gyo-gak, a Silla prince whose influence made Mount Jiuhua one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism. [100][101][102][103][104]. Later Silla fell apart in the late 9th century, giving way to the tumultuous Later Three Kingdoms period (892935), and Balhae was destroyed by the Khitans in 926. Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms and received the last crown prince and much of the ruling class of Balhae, thus bringing about a unification of the two successor nations of Goguryeo. Goryeo was founded in 918 and replaced Silla as the ruling dynasty of Korea. Goryeo’s land was at first what is now South Korea and about 1/3 of North Korea, but later on managed to recover most of the Korean peninsula. The name “Goryeo” is a short form of “Goguryeo” and was first used during the time of King Jangsu. Goryeo regarded itself as the successor of Goguryeo, hence its name and efforts to recover the former territories of Goguryeo. [106][107][108][109] Wang Geon, the founder of Goryeo, was of Goguryeo descent and traced his ancestry to a noble Goguryeo clan. [110] He made Kaesong, his hometown, the capital. During this period, laws were codified and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon industries flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. The publication of the Tripitaka Koreana onto more than 80,000 wooden blocks and the invention of the world’s first metal movable type in the 13th century attest to Goryeo’s cultural achievements. [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Goryeo had to defend frequently against attacks by nomadic empires, especially the Khitans and the Mongols. Goryeo had a hostile relationship with the Khitans, because the Khitan Empire had destroyed Balhae, also a successor state of Goguryeo. In 993, the Khitans, who had established the Liao dynasty in 907, invaded Goryeo, demanding that it make amity with them. Goryeo sent the diplomat Seo Hui to negotiate, who successfully persuaded the Khitans to let Goryeo expand to the banks of the Amnok (Yalu) River, citing that in the past the land belonged to Goguryeo, the predecessor of Goryeo. [111] During the GoryeoKhitan War, the Khitan Empire invaded Korea twice more in 1009 and 1018, but was defeated. After defeating the Khitan Empire, which was the most powerful empire of its time, [112][113] Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which the Tripitaka Koreana was completed, and there were great developments in printing and publishing, promoting learning and dispersing knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science; by 1100, there were 12 universities that produced famous scholars and scientists. Goryeo was invaded by the Mongols in seven major campaigns from the 1230s until the 1270s, but was never conquered. [116] Exhausted after decades of fighting, Goryeo sent its crown prince to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to the Mongols; Kublai Khan accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince, [116] and the dynastic line of Goryeo continued to survive under the overlordship of the Mongol Yuan dynasty as a semi-autonomous vassal state and compulsory ally. The two nations became intertwined for 80 years as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses, [116] and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess. In the 1350s, King Gongmin was free at last to reform the Goryeo government when the Yuan dynasty began to crumble. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, which included the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars. During this tumultuous period, Goryeo momentarily conquered Liaoyang in 1356, repulsed two large invasions by the Red Turbans in 1359 and 1360, and defeated the final attempt by the Yuan to dominate Goryeo when General Choe Yeong defeated a Mongol tumen in 1364. During the 1380s, Goryeo turned its attention to the Wokou threat and used naval artillery created by Choe Museon to annihilate hundreds of pirate ships. In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye overthrew the Goryeo dynasty after he staged a coup and defeated General Choe Yeong. Yi Seong-gye named his new dynasty Joseon and moved the capital from Kaesong to Hanseong (formerly Hanyang; modern-day Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung palace. [117] In 1394, he adopted Confucianism as the country’s official ideology, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy of the Joseon dynasty was Neo-Confucianism, which was epitomized by the seonbi class, scholars who passed up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity. Joseon was a nominal tributary state of China but exercised full sovereignty, [118][119] and maintained the highest position among China’s tributary states, [120][121] which also included countries such as the Ryukyu Kingdom, Vietnam, Burma, Brunei, Laos, Thailand, [122][123][124] and the Philippines, among others. [125][126] In addition, Joseon received tribute from Jurchens and Japanese until the 17th century, [127][128][129] and had a small enclave in the Ryukyu Kingdom that engaged in trade with Siam and Java. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Joseon enjoyed many benevolent rulers who promoted education and science. [131] Most notable among them was Sejong the Great r. 141850, who personally created and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet. [132] This golden age[131] saw great cultural and scientific advancements, [133] including in printing, meteorological observation, astronomy, calendar science, ceramics, military technology, geography, cartography, medicine, and agricultural technology, some of which were unrivaled elsewhere. [134] Joseon implemented a class system that consisted of yangban the noble class, jungin the middle class, yangin the common class, and cheonin the lowest class, which included occupations such as butchers, tanners, shamans, entertainers, and nobi, the equivalent of slaves, bondservants, or serfs. In 1592 and again in 1597, the Japanese invaded Korea; the Korean military at the time was unprepared and untrained, due to two centuries of peace on the Korean Peninsula. [137] Toyotomi Hideyoshi intended to conquer China and India[138] through the Korean Peninsula, but was defeated by strong resistance from the Righteous Army, the naval superiority of Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his turtle ships, and assistance from Wanli Emperor of Ming China. However, Joseon experienced great destruction, including a tremendous loss of cultural sites such as temples and palaces to Japanese pillaging, and the Japanese brought back to Japan an estimated 100,000200,000 noses cut from Korean victims. [139] Less than 30 years after the Japanese invasions, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon’s war-weakened state and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty. After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynasty, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century. In the 19th century, the royal in-law families gained control of the government, leading to mass corruption and weakening of the state, with severe poverty and peasant rebellions spreading throughout the country. Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname “the hermit kingdom”, but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders, beginning an era leading into Japanese imperial rule. Main article: Korean Empire. The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889. Beginning in 1871, Japan began to exert more influence in Korea, forcing it out of China’s traditional sphere of influence. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (189495), the Qing dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong of Korea was assassinated by Japanese agents. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty proclaimed the Korean Empire (18971910). King Gojong became emperor. During this brief period, Korea had some success in modernizing the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries. Russia, Japan, France, and the United States all invested in the country and sought to influence it politically. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on 26 October 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, It Hirobumi, for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation. Main article: Korea under Japanese rule. See also: Japanese war crimes. The memorial tablet for the March 1st Movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul. In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the JapanKorea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin. [143] There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes. Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation[144][145][146] was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military. [147] The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia. Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939, [148] and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan’s military. [149] Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died. [150] Approximately 200,000 girls and women, [151] mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. [152] In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named “comfort women”. During the Japanese annexation, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Sshi-kaimei. [155] Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed[156] or taken to Japan. [157] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections. [158] One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan. [157][159] Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date[157] this has not occurred. [159] Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Dokdo islets, located east of the Korean Peninsula. There was significant emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese occupation period, including Korea. [161] By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea. [162] After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan. Main articles: Division of Korea, Korean conflict, and Korean reunification. Flag of North Korea. In 1945, with the surrender of Japan, the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea. Satellite image of the Korean peninsula taken at night showing the extent of the division between the Koreas; note the difference in light emitted between the two countries. The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, North Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic was established in the north and South Korea; a Western-style regime, was established in the South. North Korea is a one-party state, now centred on Kim Il-sung’s Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history. Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957, South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana, [163] and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana’s. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987;[165] others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone. [166] Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008. [167] In South Korea, as guerrilla activities expanded, the South Korean government used strong measures against peasants, such as forcefully moving their families from guerrilla areas. According to one estimate, these measures resulted in 36,000 people killed, 11,000 people wounded, and 432,000 people displaced. Main article: Korean War. Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as U. Marines fight North Koreans holding the city. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remained divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states. In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (195053) more than 1.2 million people died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities. [169] The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line, but the two governments are officially at war. In 2018, the leaders of North Korea and South Korea officially signed the Panmunjom Declaration, announcing that they will work to end the conflict. Korean Empire (1897 1910). 12 October 1897 20 July 1907. 20 July 1907 29 August 1910. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1948). Chairman of the Standing Committee. Of the Supreme People’s Assembly. 9 September 1948 20 September 1957. 20 September 1957 28 December 1972. 28 December 1972 8 July 1994. President of the Presidium. 5 September 1998 11 April 2019. Chairman of the National Defence Commission. 9 April 2009 17 December 2011. First Chairman of the National Defence Commission/Chairman of the State Affairs Commission. Republic of Korea (1948). 24 July 1948 26 April 1960. 13 August 1960 23 March 1962. 17 December 1963 26 October 1979. 6 December 1979 16 August 1980. 1 September 1980 24 February 1988. 25 February 1988 24 February 1993. 25 February 1993 24 February 1998. 25 February 1998 24 February 2003. 25 February 2003 24 February 2008. 25 February 2008 24 February 2013. 25 February 2013 10 March 2017. The name “Korea” is written as it started from 1897. Main articles: Koreans, Demographics of South Korea, and Demographics of North Korea. The combined population of the Koreas is about 76 million (North Korea: 25 million, South Korea: 51 million). Korea is chiefly populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak the Korean language. [170] The number of foreigners living in Korea has also steadily increased since the late 20th century, particularly in South Korea, where more than 1 million foreigners reside. [171] It was estimated in 2006 that only 26,700 of the old Chinese community now remain in South Korea. [172] However, in recent years, immigration from mainland China has increased; 624,994 persons of Chinese nationality have immigrated to South Korea, including 443,566 of ethnic Korean descent. [173] Small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese are also found in North Korea. Main articles: Korean language and Korean Sign Language. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul. Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 25 million. Other large groups of Korean speakers through Korean diaspora are found in China, the United States, Japan, former Soviet Union and elsewhere. Modern Korean is written almost exclusively in the script of the Korean alphabet (known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosungul in China and North Korea), which was invented in the 15th century. Korean is sometimes written with the addition of some Chinese characters called Hanja; however, this is only occasionally seen nowadays. Main articles: Culture of Korea, Korean art, Korean pottery and porcelain, Korean martial arts, Korean dance, Korean bow, and Korean architecture. Location of World Heritage Sites in Korea. Note: Seoul is home to three separate properties; Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty locate throughout the country, only one site is shown on map. Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu). In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as “Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk” (,) and “Eastern Nation of Decorum” (,). [177] Individuals are regarded as one year old when they are born, as Koreans reckon the pregnancy period as one year of life for infants, and age increments increase on New Year’s Day rather than on the anniversary of birthdays. Thus, one born immediately before New Year’s Day may only be a few days old in western reckoning, but two years old in Korea. Accordingly, a Korean person’s stated age (at least among fellow Koreans) will be one or two years more than their age according to western reckoning. However, western reckoning is sometimes applied with regard to the concept of legal age; for example, the legal age for purchasing alcohol or cigarettes in the Republic of Korea is 19, which is measured according to western reckoning. Main article: Korean literature. Korean literature written before the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called “Classical” or Traditional. Literature, written in Chinese characters (hanja), was established at the same time as the Chinese script arrived on the peninsula. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the classical Korean style as early as the 2nd centuryBCE, reflecting Korean thoughts and experiences of that time. Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the peninsula, strongly influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Modern literature is often linked with the development of hangul, which helped spread literacy from the aristocracy to the common people. Hangul, however, only reached a dominant position in Korean literature in the second half of the 19th century, resulting in a major growth in Korean literature. Sinsoseol, for instance, are novels written in hangul. The Korean War led to the development of literature centered on the wounds and chaos of war. Much of the post-war literature in South Korea deals with the daily lives of ordinary people, and their struggles with national pain. The collapse of the traditional Korean value system is another common theme of the time. Main article: Music of Korea. Traditional Korean music includes combinations of the folk, vocal, religious and ritual music styles of the Korean people. Korean music has been practiced since prehistoric times. [178] Korean music falls into two broad categories. The first, Hyangak, literally means The local music or Music native to Korea, a famous example of which is Sujechon, a piece of instrumental music often claimed to be at least 1,300 years old. [179] The second, yangak, represents a more Western style. Main articles: Religion in Korea, Religion in South Korea, and Religion in North Korea. See also: Korean shamanism, Korean Confucianism, Korean Buddhism, Taoism in Korea, Christianity in Korea, and Islam in Korea. Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s. Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religious practice has been suppressed in North Korea. Throughout Korean history and culture, regardless of separation; the influence of traditional beliefs of Korean Shamanism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism have remained an underlying religion of the Korean people as well as a vital aspect of their culture; all these traditions have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years up to today despite strong Westernisation from Christian missionary conversions in the South[180][181][182] or the pressure from the Juche government in the North. According to 2005 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 29.2% of the population (of which are Protestants 18.3% and Catholics 10.9%) and Buddhists 22.8%. Islam in South Korea is practiced by about 45,000 natives (about 0.09% of the population) in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers from Muslim countries. Main article: Korean cuisine. See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean royal court cuisine. Tteokbokki, rice cakes with spicy gochujang sauce. Koreans traditionally believe that the taste and quality of food depend on its spices and sauces, the essential ingredients to making a delicious meal. Therefore, soybean paste, soy sauce, gochujang or red pepper paste and kimchi are some of the most important staples in a Korean household. Korean cuisine was greatly influenced by the geography and climate of the Korean Peninsula, which is known for its cold autumns and winters, therefore there are many fermented dishes and hot soups and stews. Bulgogi and side dishes. Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, a side dish which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables, most commonly cabbage. Kimchi is said to relieve the pores on the skin, thereby reducing wrinkles and providing nutrients to the skin naturally. It is also healthy, as it provides necessary vitamins and nutrients. Gochujang, a traditional Korean sauce made of red pepper is also commonly used, often as pepper (chilli) paste, earning the cuisine a reputation for spiciness. Bulgogi (roasted marinated meat, usually beef), galbi (marinated grilled short ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork belly) are popular meat entrees. Fish is also a popular commodity, as it is the traditional meat that Koreans eat. Meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, such as galbitang (stewed ribs) or doenjang jjigae (fermented bean paste soup). The center of the table is filled with a shared collection of sidedishes called banchan. Other popular dishes include bibimbap, which literally means “mixed rice” (rice mixed with meat, vegetables, and red pepper paste), and naengmyeon (cold noodles). Instant noodles, or ramyeon, is a popular snack food. Koreans also enjoy food from pojangmachas (street vendors), which serve tteokbokki, rice cake and fish cake with a spicy gochujang sauce; gimbap, made of steamed white rice wrapped in dried laver seaweed; fried squid; and glazed sweet potato. Soondae, a sausage made of cellophane noodles and pork blood, is widely eaten. Additionally, some other common snacks include “Choco Pie”, shrimp crackers, “bbeongtwigi” (puffed rice grains), and “nurungji” (slightly burnt rice). Nurungji can be eaten as it is or boiled with water to make a soup. Nurungji can also be eaten as a snack or a dessert. Korea is unique among Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks. Metal chopsticks have been discovered in archaeological sites belonging to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. Main articles: Education in North Korea and Education in South Korea. The modern South Korean school system consists of six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranks South Korea’s science education as the third best in the world and being significantly higher than the OECD average. South Korea ranks second on math and literature and first in problem solving[citation needed]. Although South Korean students often rank high on international comparative assessments, the education system is criticised for emphasising too much upon passive learning and memorization. The South Korean education system is rather notably strict and structured as compared to its counterparts in most Western societies. The North Korean education system consists primarily of universal and state funded schooling by the government. The national literacy rate for citizens 15 years of age and above is over 99 percent. [190][191] Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, and then on to universities. The most prestigious university in the DPRK is Kim Il-sung University. Other notable universities include Kim Chaek University of Technology, which focuses on computer science, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, which trains working level diplomats and trade officials, and Kim Hyong Jik University, which trains teachers. Main article: History of science and technology in Korea. See also: List of Korean inventions and discoveries. Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris. One of the best known artifacts of Korea’s history of science and technology is the Cheomseongdae (,), a 9.4-meter high observatory built in 634. The earliest known surviving Korean example of woodblock printing is the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra. [192] It is believed to have been printed in Korea in 75051, which if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. During the Goryeo Dynasty, metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in 1234. [193][5][194][195][8][3] This invention made printing easier, more efficient and also increased literacy, which observed by Chinese visitors was seen to be so important where it was considered to be shameful to not be able to read. [196] The Mongol Empire later adopted Korea’s movable type printing and spread as far as Central Asia. There is conjecture as to whether or not Choe’s invention had any influence on later printing inventions such as Gutenberg’s Printing press. [197] When the Mongols invaded Europe they inadvertently introduced different kinds of Asian technology. The Korean alphabet hangul was also invented during this time by King Sejong the Great. Main articles: Sport in South Korea and Sport in North Korea. North Korea and South Korea usually compete as two separate nations in international events. There are, however, a few examples of them having competed as one entity, under the name Korea. While association football remains one of the most popular sports in South Korea, the martial art of taekwondo is considered to be the national sport. Baseball and golf are also popular. Taekwon-Do is Korea’s most famous martial art and sport. It combines combat techniques, self-defence, sport and exercise. Taekwon-Do has become an official Olympic sport, starting as a demonstration event in 1988 (when South Korea hosted the Games in Seoul) and becoming an official medal event in 2000. The two major Taekwon-Do federations were founded in Korea. The two are the International Taekwon-Do Federation and the World Taekwondo Federation. Hapkido is a modern Korean martial art with a grappling focus that employs joint locks, throws, kicks, punches and other striking attacks like attacks against pressure points. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the pure use of strength against strength. Ssireum is a traditional form of wrestling that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years, with evidence discovered from Goguryeo of Korea’s Three Kingdoms Period (57BCE to 688). Ssireum is the traditional national sport of Korea. During a match, opponents grip each other by sash belts wrapped around the waist and the thigh, attempting to throw their competitor to the sandy ground of the ring. The first opponent to touch the ground with any body part above the knee or to lose hold of their opponent loses the round. Ssireum competitions are traditionally held twice a year, during the Dano Festival (the 5th day of the fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month). Competitions are also held throughout the year as a part of festivals and other events. Taekkyon is a traditional martial art, considered the oldest form of fighting technique of Korea. Practiced since centuries and especially popular during the Joseon dynasty, two forms co-existed: one for practical use, the other for sport. This form was usually practiced alongside Ssireum during festivals and competitions between villages. Nonetheless, Taekkyon almost disappeared during the Japanese Occupation and the Korean War. Though lost in North Korea, Taekkyon has enjoyed a spectacular revival from the 1980s in South Korea. It is the only martial art in the world (with Ssireum) recognized as a National Treasure of South Korea and a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Emblem of North Korea. Emblem of South Korea. GDP total 2011/2014 est. Korean People’s won (sign: , ISO: KPW). Korean Republic won (, KRW). Main article: List of public holidays in South Korea. Samiljeol, Independence Movement Day, commemorates Korea’s declaration of independence from Japanese occupation on 1 March 1919. The name is derived from Korean “sam”‘three’, “il”‘one,’ and “jeol”‘day’, the date of the uprising in 1919. Korea was annexed to the Empire of Japan on 29 August 1910 following the imposed Japan-Korea Treaty. On 1 March 1919, Korean presented their resistance towards Japan and Japanese occupation with a declaration of independence. Following the conclusion of World War II, Korea was liberated from Japan and its independence restored. The newly established Korean government set aside 1 March as a national holiday to commemorate the sacrifices borne in the long struggle for Korean independence. Hyunchoongil is the national holiday in Korea commemorating those who fought and died for the nation. In August 1948, only a few years after Korea achieved its independence from Japan, the Korean War, in Korea also known as the 6.25 war, broke out between North and South Korea. During this war, approximately 400,000 soldiers and some one million citizens were killed or injured. In 1953, North and South Korea agreed to a cease-fire, and three years later the Korean government established Hyungchoogil to commemorate the soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Subsequent to its establishment, Hyungchoogil was reinterpreted as a day of remembrance for those who died defending Korea in all conflicts, not only during the Korean War. Gwangbokjeol is the day for celebrating liberation of the country from Japan in 1945 as well as celebrating the establishment of Korean government in 1948. It was first declared to be national holiday in 1949 October 1. On this date every year, the president of Korea visits Independence Hall, and invites diplomatic envoys from many countries and all social standings in countries to Cheongwadae (the Blue House, the Korean presidential residence). Hangul Day (also spelled as Hangeul Day) is a day that celebrates the creation of the Hunminjeongeum (Hangul, Korean alphabet), which was inscribed to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 1997. [202] Hangul was created by Sejong the Great in 1443 and proclaimed in 1446. Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil. [203][204][205][206] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often didn’t have the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. [207] Hangul Day was founded in 1926 during the Japanese occupation by members of the Korean Language Society, whose goal was to preserve the Korean language during a time of rapid forced Japanization. [208] Today, both South Korea and North Korea celebrate Hangul Day as a national holiday. Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea. Index of Korea-related articles. List of Korean inventions and discoveries. List of people of Korean descent. National Treasures of North Korea. National Treasures of South Korea. North KoreaSouth Korea relations. The item “ORIGINAL KOREA CHANG MYUN HANDWRITTEN LETTER ASSASSINATION RARE VINTAGE” is in sale since Wednesday, September 1, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “collectiblecollectiblecollectible” and is located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, Japan, China, South Korea, Indonesia, South africa, Thailand, Hong Kong, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Jamaica, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Korea, Republic of
  • Original/Reproduction: Original

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Elisabeth Sladen (Sarah Jane) Doctor Who original hand written letter autograph

Elisabeth_Sladen_Sarah_Jane_Doctor_Who_original_hand_written_letter_autograph_01_eppy Elisabeth Sladen (Sarah Jane) Doctor Who original hand written letter autograph

Elisabeth Sladen (Sarah Jane) Doctor Who original hand written letter autograph
An original hand written letter, signed by actress Elisabeth Sladen who played companion Sarah Jane Smith in the BBC Television series Doctor Who. Guaranteed genuine signature, obtained personally in response to a convention invitation. On a single A5 sheet of paper. (Scan has been marked to obliterate some personal details and to prevent a copy being made of signature). The item “Elisabeth Sladen (Sarah Jane) Doctor Who original hand written letter autograph” is in sale since Friday, August 20, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectables\Autographs\Certified Original Autographs\TV”. The seller is “roxnodrog” and is located in Carshalton, Surrey. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Surname Initial: H
  • Modified Item: No
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom
  • Certification: Certified: Obtained Personally
  • Type: Television
  • Sub-Type: Dr Who
  • Object: Signed letter

Elisabeth Sladen (Sarah Jane) Doctor Who original hand written letter autograph

Original Autograph Signature BARRY SHEENE handwritten letter 1971 Suzuki

Original_Autograph_Signature_BARRY_SHEENE_handwritten_letter_1971_Suzuki_01_ffah Original Autograph Signature BARRY SHEENE handwritten letter 1971 Suzuki
Original Autograph Signature BARRY SHEENE handwritten letter 1971 Suzuki
Original Autograph Signature BARRY SHEENE handwritten letter 1971 Suzuki
Original Autograph Signature BARRY SHEENE handwritten letter 1971 Suzuki

Original Autograph Signature BARRY SHEENE handwritten letter 1971 Suzuki
Original Autograph Handwritten letter (two sided) by the motorbike-legend. BARRY SHEENE (1950 – 2003) The letter is dated 16th November 1971. Sheene wrote it to Rolf, a Swiss journalist friend. He describes what has happened since they last saw each other. Size: 21 x 29.8 cm Perfect collectors condition. Out of a private Swiss motorsport collection. More Sheene documents and signatures at my other auctions. The item “Original Autograph Signature BARRY SHEENE handwritten letter 1971 Suzuki” is in sale since Friday, August 20, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectables\Autographs\Uncertified Originals\Sport”. The seller is “polyglas” and is located in Binningen. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Type: Sport
  • Signed: Yes

Original Autograph Signature BARRY SHEENE handwritten letter 1971 Suzuki

Reg Kray Original Handwritten / Signed Letter From Prison

Reg_Kray_Original_Handwritten_Signed_Letter_From_Prison_01_fkk Reg Kray Original Handwritten / Signed Letter From Prison

Reg Kray Original Handwritten / Signed Letter From Prison
Reg Kray Original Handwritten / Signed Letter From Prison. The item “Reg Kray Original Handwritten / Signed Letter From Prison” is in sale since Monday, August 9, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectables\Autographs\Certified Original Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “duftbarp” and is located in Baldock. This item can be shipped to United Kingdom, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Australia, United States, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, China, Israel, Hong Kong, Norway, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Bolivia, Barbados, Brunei darussalam, Cayman islands, Egypt, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, French guiana, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Macao, Monaco, Maldives, Martinique, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Saudi arabia, South africa, United arab emirates, Chile, Bahamas, Colombia, Costa rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Kuwait, Panama, Philippines, Qatar, Trinidad and tobago, Uruguay.
  • Type: Historical

Reg Kray Original Handwritten / Signed Letter From Prison
in kray | 158 Words

The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Signed Letter Autograph London Gangster

The_Krays_Reg_Kray_Original_hand_Written_Signed_Letter_Autograph_London_Gangster_01_hsn The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Signed Letter Autograph London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Signed Letter Autograph London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Signed Letter Autograph London Gangster

The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Signed Letter Autograph London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Signed Letter Autograph London Gangster. Stunning large framed original reg kray hand written and signed letter. This item looks amzing. About 20 inches wide. Opportunity not to be missed. Own an authentic piece of British criminal history. The item “The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Signed Letter Autograph London Gangster” is in sale since Monday, July 12, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectables\Autographs\Certified Original Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “msmyth87″ and is located in Craigavon. This item can be shipped to United Kingdom, Antigua and barbuda, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Australia, United States, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, China, Israel, Hong Kong, Norway, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Barbados, Brunei darussalam, Cayman islands, Dominica, Egypt, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Grenada, French guiana, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Saint kitts and nevis, Saint lucia, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Macao, Monaco, Maldives, Montserrat, Martinique, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Turks and caicos islands, Aruba, Saudi arabia, South africa, United arab emirates, Chile, Bahamas, Colombia, Costa rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Kuwait, Panama, Philippines, Qatar, Trinidad and tobago, Uruguay.
  • Type: Historical

The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Signed Letter Autograph London Gangster

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Original_Korea_Chang_Myun_Handwritten_Letter_Assassination_Rare_Vintage_01_ero Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage
Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage
A FANTASTICALLY RARE HANDWRITTEN LETTER ON REPUBLIC OF KOREA PAPER BY CHANG MYUN. ALSO ORIGINAL ARTICLE REFERENCING HIS ATTEMPTED ASSAINATION ATTEMPT. THE LETTER REFERENCES THE ATTEMPT ON HIS LIFE AND TO PROTECT HIM AND THE WELFARE OF HIS PEOPLE. Chang Myon (hangul: ; hanja: ; August 28, 1899 June 4, 1966) was a South Korean statesman, educator, diplomat, journalist and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the last Vice President of South Korea and the Prime Minister of the Second Republic. His styled name (ho) was Unseok (,). His English name was John Chang Myon (baptismal name, surname, given name). Under the Japanese rule, Chang worked as a teacher. From 191921, he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School and from 193136 at Dongsung Commerce High School. From 193744, he was principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten of the Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church. From 193645, he was principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. In 1948, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly. In 1949, he became the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In 1950, he successfully appealed to the United States and the UN to send troops to assist in the Korean War. On November 23, 1950, he was appointed the second prime minister of the First Republic of Korea. From 1956 to 1960, he served as the fourth vice president of the First Republic of Korea. When Syngman Rhee’s government was ousted by the student-led pro-democracy uprising of April 19 Movement, he was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic in 1960. After the country adopted a parliamentary system in response to Rhee’s abuse of presidential power, Chang became the head of government. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee led a successful military coup on May 16, 1961, which marked the end of the Second Republic and the nation’s brief experimentation with the cabinet form of government. Study in the United States. Religious belief and education movements. Prime Minister of the First Republic. Prime Minister of the Second Republic. Chang Myon was born in 1899 in Jeokseon-dong, Hansung. He was the first son of Chang Gi-bin and Lucia Hwang. His given name was Myon (;). [2] He was a member of the Indong Chang Family (;), and descended from Jukjong Chang Cham (;), a well-known Neo-Confucianism philosopher. Chang’s ninth-generation grandfather lived in South Pyongan Province Province but his father moved to Incheon. [3] The first Roman Catholic believer in his family was his great-grandmother, Lady Park. In 1906, he began studying at Incheon Parkmun Primary School (;), and graduated in 1912. He then went to Incheon Public Simsang Elementary School (,), graduating in 1914. He later attended Suwon Agriculture High School (,), and he graduated on May 25, 1917. In March 1916, he married Kim Ok-yun. They had six sons and three daughters. Manhattan College student, 1921. In September 1918, he was registered at the YMCA Village School, and from 191921 he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School (,). On March 1, 1919, he participated in the eponymous protests against Japanese occupation of Korea but escaped arrest. In January 1921, Chang Myon went to the United States with his younger brother Chang Bal to study. They were sponsored by the Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America. In September 1921, he entered Manhattan College and in 1924 took a one-year leave of absence from the college due to acute appendicitis. In August 1921, he entered the Secular Franciscan Order. After graduating from Manhattan College in July 1925, he left for Italy on July 30 to attend the beatification of 79 Korean Joseon Catholic martyrs. He was also received by Pope Pius XII. On December 2, 1925, he was appointed Maryknoll Center School’s professor of the Korean language and translation. At the same time, he served as the leader of the laity for the Pyongyang archdiocese. On February 11, 1927, he formally entered the service of the Pyongyang Catholic church. He translated religious terms for Catholic teaching into the Korean language and published The Summary of Religious Terms in November 1929. In 1930, he published Way of the seeker of truth (;) and on September 15 he published An Outline of Joseon Catholic History (,). On March 18, 1931, he resigned from the affairs of Pyongyang archdiocese (;) and moved to Seoul. Appointed as a teacher at Dongsung Commerce High School (;) on April 1, 1931, he took on the responsibility of teaching English and rhetorical subjects. On July 10th, along with Jeong Ji-yong, he published the first issue of Catholic Young Men’s News (;). In 1935, he became Manager of Affairs for Dongsung Commerce High School. On April 1, 1937, he became the lay leader of Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church and principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten (,). On November 19, 1936, he became principal of Dongsung Commerce High School (;). At the same time he took on the additional role of principal of Gyesong Elementary School (;) in Jongro, Seoul, in April 1939. That September, he was appointed chairman of the Seoul Catholic Young Men’s National Union (,). He translated James Gibbons’ The Faith of Our Fathers: A Plain Exposition and Vindication of the Church Founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ into the Korean language and published the hangul edition on July 4, 1944. Republic of Korea Ambassador to USA, 1949. The Third UN General Assembly, 1948. On February 11, 1946, he was appointed a member of the Democratic Conference (,) and a Representative of Emergency Peoples Conference (,). That August, Chang was elected to the South Korean Provisional National Assembly (,). By this time, he emerged as a major political figure in the Syngman Rhee administration of the First Republic of Korea. On May 10, 1948, he ran for a National Assembly seat from Jongro District of Seoul, and he was duly elected on May 30. On October 11 of the same year, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly and witnessed the recognition of the Republic of Korea as a sovereign nation by the UN on December 12, 1948. In 1949, he visited the Vatican to express his appreciation of the Vatican’s active support of his diplomatic endeavors. In December 1949, he was appointed the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In April 1950, he was designated a special envoy of the Republic of Korea to Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. Immediately after the outbreak of the Korean War, on June 25, 1950, he actively solicited urgent aide from the United States and the UN. The 6th UN General Assembly, 1952. In November 1950, Chang was appointed the second Prime Minister of the First Republic of Korea, a position he at first refused, but after an earnest request from Syngman Rhee, he accepted and went on to serve from October 1951 until April 29, 1952. He was sent to the sixth UN General Assembly held in Paris, France. The involvement of the Catholic Church with the democratic opposition to the Rhee administration first began in the 1950s. As the foremost leader of the opposition in the late 1950s, Chang Myon, a devout Catholic, already had a good relationship with Roh Ki-nam, the Bishop of Seoul, from the early 1940s. Roh soon came to be known as the “political bishop” because of his frequent critical statements on the dictatorial tendencies of Syngman Rhee. In the 1950s, the governing Liberal Party was led by President Syngman Rhee. In April 1952, opposition lawmakers and some Liberal Party lawmakers attempted a constitutional amendment but were branded enemies of the state by Syngman Rhee[5] When the assembly voted to have martial law lifted in Busan, Rhee had half of them arrested. After a staged assassination attempt on Rhee, police began to investigate alleged links to the opposition. Police claimed that Chang Myon was working with assassins paid by North Korea to depose Rhee. Under this type of pressure, the assembly voted 160 to zero for Rhee’s constitutional amendments. [5] By the late 1950s Chang Myon emerged as the major alternative to Rhee, and in 1960, when Rhee was overthrown by the April 19th Movement and a popular revolution, Chang Myon was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea and de facto chief executive. Chang’s campaign for vice-presidency (1956). On September 18, 1955, he was defeated by a narrow margin by Shin Ik-hee for the Democratic Party’s candidacy in the presidential election. Instead, he was nominated for the vice-presidency as the running mate of Shin Ik-hee, who died suddenly on May 5, 1956. On May 30, 1956, Chang was duly elected the fourth vice president of the Republic of Korea. On September 28, 1956, at the Democratic party’s national convention in the Sigong Building (,) in Jongno, Seoul, he was shot by a sniper in the September 28 Incident [ko] and received a penetrating wound to the wrist. The would-be assassin was immediately arrested. The assassination attempt was in all probability sponsored by the top echelon of the Liberal Party. During his vice presidency, Chang came into conflict with Lee Ki-poong, an influential Liberal Party member, who sent spies and placed him under surveillance. In 1959, he was appointed as a member of the Supreme Council of the Democratic Party of the Republic of Korea. In the same year, he became the Democratic Party’s candidate for the vice-presidency and the running mate of presidential candidate Cho Byong-ok. Chang had attempted to become a candidate for the presidency, but once again he lost by a narrow margin, this time to Cho. In November of the same year, he was reelected as a member of the supreme council of the Democratic Party. In the Republic of Korea’s vice-presidential election of March 15, 1960, Chang suffered defeat at the hands of Lee Ki-poong by such a suspiciously large margin that protesters took to the streets alleging fraud. [6] A thousand residents gathered in front of the opposition Democratic Party building in the southern city of Masan to protest. When the police started shooting, the protesters responded by throwing rocks. Following the suppression of the protests, the body of a young man, Kim Ju-yul, a student at Masan Commercial High School who had participated in the protests, was found on a nearby beach. [6] This tragic incident served as a catalyst for the April 19 Movement and the popular revolution that overthrew the Rhee regime in May 1960. In May 1960, Chang was a candidate in the election for a National Assembly seat. At the time, he was the leader of the New Group in the Democratic Party (,). On August 18, 1960, he was duly elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea under a parliamentary system. When Syngman Rhee was forced out of office in April 1960 because of the Rhee administration and Lee Ki-poong’s misgovernment of state affairs, compounded by the exposure of egregious corruption, the Republic of Korea found itself in serious disarray. Hence, the administration led by Prime Minister Chang Myon faced volatile political and grievous socioeconomic difficulties. In the midst of such difficulties, the Chang administration did not resort to dictatorship. After all, Chang Myon fought against the Rhee dictatorship for many years. He was a true believer in democracy. [7] Moreover, his administration had successfully designed the first five-year economic development plan that would have proven beneficial for all Koreans. And this five-year economic development plan was “borrowed” by the Park Chung-hee administration. Park used virtually the same Five-Year Economic Development Plan, originally designed and drafted by the Chang Myon administration, for his economic development after the May 16 military coup. In 1961, the Chang Myon administration attempted to resume talks on a treaty of relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea, and discussed eight of the proposed articles designed to normalize diplomatic ties. However, the talks came to a halt because of the military coup led by Park Chung-hee on May 16. On May 20, 1961, he was removed from the position of Prime Minister after less than one year in power. In January 2005, the government of the Republic of Korea uncovered 1,200 pages of diplomatic documents of the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea of 1965 that had been kept secret for forty years. These documents revealed that the Japanese government proposed to the government of the Republic of Korea, headed by Park Chung-hee, to directly compensate individual victims of Japanese colonization of Korea, but it was the Park administration that insisted it would handle the individual compensation to the victims, and took over the entire amount of the grant, 300 million dollars, (for 35 years of Japanese colonial rule in Korea), on behalf of the victims. The Park administration negotiated for a total of 360 million dollars in compensation for the 1.03 million Koreans conscripted into the forced labor and military service during the colonial period but received only 300 million dollars. [9] On March 30, 1962, the Park Military Government detained Chang and prohibited him from engaging in any further political activity. Initially, he was under the threat of the death penalty. However, in August 1962, he was released on bail. In 1962, he wrote an appeal to F. Remler, Why Must I suffer? On January 27, 1966, Chang was hospitalized with hepatitis at the Holy Mother Hospital (,) in Seoul, and on June 4, 1966, he died in Jongro at the age of 66. Chang was buried in the Hehwa Catholic Church burial site on Chonbo mountain (;) in Pocheon, Gyeonggi Province. On October 27, 1999, he was posthumously honored by President Kim Dae-jung of the Republic of Korea, with the first class rank of the Order of Merit for National Foundation. [10] On the occasion of the hundredth birthday of Chang Myon, Cardinal Kim Sou-hwan celebrated a memorial mass at Hehwa Catholic Parish Church in August 1999. He rhetorically asked: How is it possible for the leaders of the May 16 military coup to declare that the Chang Myon administration of the Second Republic was already corrupt and incompetent in less than a month of its inception? Their first two children died at an early age. The first child, Anna Chang Myeong-sook (baptismal name, surname, given name), died before age one, and the second child, Joseph Chang Young died at age two. Joseph Chang Jin, Ph. Was a professor of biology at Princeton University and Sogang University (deceased); Benedicta Chang Yi-sook, MFA, an artist and teacher, a member of the order of Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur; Andrew Chang Geon, MA, a successful architect; John Chang Yik, Catholic bishop of Chuncheon (deceased); Leo Chang Soon, Ph. A professor of political science; Matthew Chang Heung, Ph. A manager at the Bank of Paris; Teresa Chang Myong-ja, MA in Library Science, a librarian (deceased). Chang Myon had two younger brothers and three younger sisters. The older, Louis Chang Bal, was an artist and dean of the College of Fine Arts, Seoul National University (deceased); the younger, Paul Chang Geuk, Ph. Was a professor of physics and aerodynamics/space scientist at NASA, Catholic University, Washington, DC, and the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), (deceased); the eldest of the three younger sisters was Gunaegunda Chang Jeong-hae (deceased), the second, Agneta Chang Jeong-eun, was a Maryknoll Sister and the founder and the mother superior of a Korean order in North Korea, Sisters of Our Perpetual Help, (deceased under fateful duress, October 1950); and the third was Martha Chang Jeong-soon, deceased in 1937 at the age of 21, a senior at Sacred Heart University. Third UN General Assembly, 1948. Chang Myon championed liberal and democratic values. Therefore, he was strongly opposed to communism as practiced by the Soviet Union and fascism/Nazism as practiced by Nazi Germany. Likewise, he firmly opposed totalitarianism and authoritarianism in any shape or form. He believed in individualism in the context of common good. Thus, he abhorred endemic political and economic/financial corruption in the Republic of Korea. The word republic stands for res, things/affairs, and publica, public. In short, republic stands for things public, commonweal, public interest and/or common good. He led a modest and frugal life. He lived in a small, unpretentious house (Seoul, Jongro-gu, Myongreun-dong, 1 Ga, 36-1) where he and his spouse spent most of their life and raised seven children. Anyone who visits the old house, now renovated, can readily see his life style. This house is now designated a National Heritage site and converted to be a museum dedicated to him. It is open to the public. As a member of the National Assembly in the late 1940s, he initiated a legislation prohibiting concubinage and prostitution. It was duly passed. Throughout his life, he abstained from smoking and drinking. He had many good friends and enjoyed listening to classical music. He influenced the conversion of Kim Dae-jung to Catholicism and became his godfather. Kim later remarked that Chang was a devout Catholic who believed in Catholic action to rectify many evils in Korea. Democratic Party of Korea. The Second Republic of Korea was the government of South Korea from April 1960 to May 1961. The Second Republic was founded during the April Revolution mass protests against President Syngman Rhee, succeeding the First Republic and establishing a parliamentary government under President Yun Bo-seon and Prime Minister Chang Myon. The Second Republic ended Rhee’s authoritarianism and repression, formed a liberal democracy, and formulated the first Five-Year Plans to develop the neglected economy. The Second Republic’s failure to improve South Korea’s political and economic issues led to instability, and after thirteen months it was overthrown by the South Korean Army in the May 16 coup led by Park Chung-hee. The Second Republic was replaced by a provisional military government under the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, leading to the Third Republic of Korea. The short-lived Second Republic was the only government under a parliamentary system in the history of Korea. Proclamation of the Second Republic of Korea. From right: Chang Myon (Prime Minister), Yun Bo-seon (President), Paik Nak-jun (President of the House of Councillors) and Kwak Sang-hoon (President of the Chamber of Deputies). The First Republic of Korea had existed since 1948 under President Syngman Rhee, who was widely considered to be corrupt and a dictator who abused his presidential powers to maintain his rule and cronyism. Although the First Republic was officially a representative democracy, Rhee adopted a strongly anti-communist position and used the threat of communism to enact a policy of severe repression against all political opposition. Tolerance of Rhee and his Liberal Party-dominated government declined in the mid-to-late 1950s, as the South Korean public were increasingly discontent with the repression and the limited economic and social development. In April 1960, Rhee was overthrown by widespread protests known as the “April Revolution” in response to the discovery of a high school student murdered by police during demonstrations against Rhee and rigged election in March. After Rhee’s fall, power was briefly held by a caretaker government headed by Heo Jeong as Prime Minister until a new parliamentary election was held on 29 July 1960. The Second Republic operated under a parliamentary system, with the Prime Minister of South Korea as the head of government and the President of South Korea as the head of state. Due to Rhee’s numerous abuses of power, the President’s power was greatly reduced, to the point that he was effectively a figurehead. He was elected by both houses of the legislature. Real power was vested in the Prime Minister, who was elected by the National Assembly. The Second Republic was the first and the only instance of the South Korean government using a cabinet system instead of a presidential system. The Democratic Party, which had been in the opposition during the First Republic, easily gained power. And Rhee’s former opponent Chang Myon became Prime Minister. The new legislature was bicameral, with the House of Commons as the lower house and the Senate as the upper house. Yun Bo-seon was elected as the second President of South Korea on 13 August 1960. Real power now rested with the Prime Minister and cabinet, who were both elected by the National Assembly. Part of a series on the. History of South Korea. Preludes to Division 191048. People’s Republic of Korea. Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Assassination of Park Chung-hee. 1997 Asian financial crisis. Flag of South Korea. Svg South Korea portal. Much of this activity was from leftist and student groups, which had been instrumental in the overthrow of the First Republic. Membership of unions and activity grew rapidly during the later months of 1960. [2] Estimates suggest around 2,000 demonstrations were held during eight months of the Second Republic. Under pressure from the left-wing, the Chang government carried out a series of purges of military and police officials who had been involved in anti-democratic activities or corruption during the First Republic. A special law to this effect was passed on 31 October 1960. [4] Around 40,000 people were placed under investigation; of these, more than 2,200 government officials and 4,000 police officers were purged. [5] In addition, the government considered reducing the size of the South Korean Army by 100,000, although this plan was shelved. The Second Republic government was faced with mounting instability in economic terms as well, seeing unemployment and wholesale prices also rose during this period. The won lost half of its value against the US dollar between fall 1960 and spring 1961. [7] The government formulated a five-year economic plan based around agriculture and light industry to decrease unemployment, although it was unable to act on it prior to being overthrown. Chang’s government resumed negotiations for the normalization of diplomatic relations between Korea and Japan, which had not progressed under the Rhee regime that had existed since the end of Japanese rule. The Second Republic established diplomatic relations with many new countries, with Sohn Won-yil, the first ambassador to West Germany, attending the independence ceremonies of Cameroon, Togo, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Morocco. The Second Republic suffered from numerous political, economic, and social issues that were both new and inherited from the First Republic. Failure to properly address the issues caused a growth in political instability as factional fighting within the Democratic Party, combined with the increasing activity from opposition and activist groups, led to a breakdown in South Korean politics. Main article: May 16 coup. Many high-ranking figures of the South Korean military held animosity for so-called “liberation aristocrats” the ruling class of conservative politicians involved in the Korean independence movement and United States Army Military Government that they blamed for the stalling of development in South Korea. Military figures noted how South Korea had been intensively developed under the Japanese colonial system and the “economic miracle” occurring in Japan, in marked contrast to Rhee’s presidency which saw little significant effort to develop the economy, which remained stagnant, poor and largely agrarian. The lack of development under Rhee provoked a growing nationalistic intellectual reaction which called for a radical restructuring of society and a thorough political and economic reorganization, rejecting the model being pursued by the governing elite. Park Chung-hee, a Major General in the Republic of Korea Army with decidedly ambiguous political leanings, was heavily influenced by this unfolding intellectual reaction. Park became the leader of a reformist faction within the military that plotted a coup d’etat against the civilian government of the Second Republic on 12 May 1961. The plot was aborted after being leaked, however, the military attempted another coup four days later on 16 May which was successful, dissolving the Second Republic. They proceeded to broadcast a proclamation outlining the policy objectives of the coup, including anti-communism, strengthening of ties with the United States, the elimination of political corruption, the construction of an autonomous national economy, Korean reunification, and the removal of the present generation of politicians. Park and his supporters subsequently established the Military Revolutionary Committee as a military junta government, later renamed the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Park became the de facto dictator of South Korea as the Chairman of the Council, while Yun Bo-seon remained President as a figurehead. On one autumn day in 1969, when the Korean engineering design office of a Nevada Corporation was located within the U. Army Yongsan Garrison in central Seoul, a tall handsome man, dressed in a black suit with a small rectangular white window in the front part of the collar, visited my design office. He was Father Chang Ick. Somehow, I immediately liked his elegant and refined manner. I don’t remember why, but we spoke in English. He wanted us to design a Catholic church building in Seongbuk-dong, northeastern Seoul, and showed me a cadastral map. I asked him to give us the general concept and specifications of the proposed building. May I use your typewriter? I let him sit at my desk, and quickly replaced the old typewriter ribbon with a new one. The Father knew by heart every concept of his new church, and typed the design requirements rather quickly. He typed three pages of the specifications, without even making typographical errors. I glanced over the papers and said Give us two weeks and I’ll submit to you three different conceptual ideas showing the floor layouts and facades, before we enter into the detailed design. Then I checked the city planning regulations in the area around City Hall. There were no restrictions. Then, later we applied for a building permit. The answer came back a week later and we were told that there is a height restriction in the area by the Metropolitan Army Defense Command. We were told that the very area in Seongbuk-dong comes within the field vision of anti-aircraft artillery as the zone is within the range of protection for Cheong Wa Dae. We redesigned and lowered the height of the tower of the Roman Catholic church and finally we were able to receive the building permit. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee, a major-general, led a military coup on May 16, 1961. Over a cup of coffee in my office, Father Chang kept criticizing Park Chung-hee for taking over the country in a coup d’etat. Such anti-military government words were taboo and dangerous at the time. 20, 2011 this column carried an article Cryptography is the key to Information Age. ” A part of it reads, “When Chang Myon, vice president and prime minister of the First and the Second Republic, was assigned as South Korea’s first ambassador to the United States in 1949, he hid a Korean-English dictionary in his portfolio. The foreign ministry’s Seoul Office had the same copy. The dictionary was their code book. A word is picked up by indicating the page number and the column number from the same dictionaries in Washington, D. Bishop Chang Ick was my age, 87. I’m thinking of that wonderful gentleman in this time of sorrow. [Raw] Gwangmyeong 3 (1899). [Death] 1966.6.4. Graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After earning a doctorate in law and returning to Japan, engaged in Christian business. He was a member of the Constituent National Assembly in 1948 and became the first ambassador to the United States in 1949. 51 years Prime Minister became but Lee Sunman (Syngman Rhee) president and the collision to resign. In 1955, he organized the Democratic Party with Sin Ik-hui and became an opposition leader. In the third presidential election in 1981, he was elected vice president from the opposition party under President Lee Seung-man of the Liberal Party. Even after taking office, he blamed the Lee administration’s policies and resigned as vice president in the student revolution in April 1960. August Cabinet has been appointed to the responsibility system the second Prime Minister of the Republic, the following year of the five-sixteen military revolution can not respond quickly in, resulting in a successful revolution as a result. The Cabinet resigned altogether. Imprisoned for anti-revolution case in 1987Received a 10-year sentence , but was released from expulsion in 1965. SourceBritannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Information about. Commentary on Digital Daijisen. Became Prime Minister in 1950, but resigned in conflict with President Syngman Rhee. He formed the Democratic Party of Japan in 1955, and was reappointed as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April Revolution of 1960. 1961 Chung of the coup in the downfall. Chang Myon (Chang Myon). Commentary on the 2nd edition of the World Encyclopedia. The issue is Unishi. Born in Incheon, Gyeonggi Province. Graduated from the Catholic University of Manhattan in New York in 1925. Participated in the formation of the Democratic Party of the Conservative Opposition in 1955. He defeated Lee Ki-poong of the Liberal Party in 1981 and was elected Vice President, but there was no fundamental difference in his pro-American personality. Inaugurated as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April 1960 Revolution. In 1961, he signed the Korea-US Economic and Technical Assistance Agreement and endeavored to realize a new Korea-US relationship. But the president Yoonadministration, such as (in-failure) faction split is a weakness, not be able to respond effectively to the popular movements that hope the negative and unification also to North-South dialogue as a transient regime, 61 years Chung of He was banished from political activities in the 5/16 coup d’etat. SourceInformation about Heibonsha World Encyclopedia 2nd Edition. Commentary on the Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). A politician from South Korea. Born in Gyeonggi Province. After graduating from Suwon High School of Agriculture and Forestry, studied abroad in the United States and graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After returning to Japan, following the Catholic business, he became the principal of Tosei Commercial School from 1931 to 1945. After liberation, he entered politics and became a member of various parliament. 1951 Prime Minister, 1952 Presidential election and lost. He founded the Democratic Party in 1955 and confronted the ruling Liberal Party. After the student revolution in April 1960, he was elected Prime Minister under the new constitution and established the Democratic Party of Japan (a spokesman at the time was later President Kim Dae-Jung). However, he was dismissed by the military revolution in May 1961 and was temporarily charged with anti-revolutionary charges. He was released from exile in 1965, but died in June 1966 in disappointment. Mention of Chang Myon in the World Encyclopedia. From [Republic of Korea]. However, in order to perpetuate the administration, the people were forced to revise the constitution, such as changing the presidential election method from indirect elections by members of the Diet to direct elections by the people, and abolishing the three-election prohibition clause for the presidential term. The Lee administration collapsed due to the April revolution centered on students in 1960, against the backdrop of the economic crisis. In the Second Republic, which was established in its place, the criticism of Lee’s dictatorship was changed to a responsible cabinet system with significantly reduced presidential authority, and the Chang Myon administration (President Yun Posun) based on the opposition party (Democratic Party) during the Lee administration. However, the energy of the people who caused the April Revolution overcame the regulations of the Zhang administration, and the movement for democratization and unity showed unprecedented upsurge. [From the Park administration to all administrations] When. It seemed that a new phase would be opened in the North-South division situation, a military coup d’etat (May 16 coup d’etat) broke out on May 16, 1961, and mainly military personnel. Chung administration (third Republic) is satisfied. 1899 8 28 34. , · , 1948 5 10. 1961 5 16 809. 3 (79·) (76·) (41·). 4 (77· , , ,) 1994 ····· · ··. 5 (75·) (44·) (36). (40·)·(37·)·(35·) , (29·). 2 (81·,) , 3 (78) 3. Korea (or Korean peninsula) is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”) and South Korea (officially the “Republic of Korea”). Korea consists of the mainland Korean Peninsula (“Mainland Korea”), Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. It is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, together known as the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the second half of the 1st millennium, Silla defeated and conquered Baekje and Goguryeo, leading to the “Unified Silla” period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north, superseding former Goguryeo. Unified Silla eventually collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium, Goguryeo was resurrected as Goryeo, which defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as a single sovereign state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo. Goryeo (also spelled as Kory), whose name developed into the modern exonym “Korea”, was a highly cultured state that created the world’s first metal movable type in 1234. [3][4][5][6][7][8] However, multiple incursions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century greatly weakened the nation, which eventually agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin that ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, and Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 17 July 1392. The first 200 years of the Joseon era were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the later part of the dynasty, Korea’s isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the “Hermit Kingdom”. By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire’s effort to modernize, the country was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by it until the end of World War II in August 1945. In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. These circumstances became the basis for the division of Korea by the 2 superpowers with the 2 diffirent ideologies, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea’s division into two political entities in 1948: North Korea, and South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty. This status contributes to the high tensions that continue to divide the peninsula. Both governments of the two Koreas always claim to be the sole legitimate government of this region. Japanese occupation and Japan-Korea Annexation. List of heads of state (since 1897). Comparison of the two countries of Korea. Notable public holidays in South Korea. Independence Movement Day, March 1st. Memorial day, 6 June. National Liberation Day, 15 August. Hangul Day, 9 October. Main article: Names of Korea. See also: Korean romanization. “Korea” is the modern spelling of “Corea”, a name attested in English as early as 1614. [9][10] Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, [11] of the Chinese MCKawlej, [12] mod. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo (Korean: ; Hanja: ; MR: Kory), which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo’s time. Korea’s introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, [13] with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. [14] Goryeo’s name was a continuation of Goguryeo (Kogury) the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which was officially known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century. [15] The original name was a combination of the adjective go (“high, lofty”) with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either Guru (, “walled city, ” inferred from some toponyms in Chinese historical documents) or Gauri (, “center”). With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling “Korea” appeared and gradually grew in popularity;[9] its use in transcribing East Asian languages avoids the issues caused by the separate hard and soft Cs existing in English vocabulary derived from the Romance languages. The name Korea is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk , [hanuk], lit. “Country of the Han”. The name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. [16][17] Although written in Hanja as , , or , this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription (OC:Gar, MCHan[12] or Gan) of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning “big” or “great”, particularly in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria and Central Asia. In North Korea, Japan, China and Vietnam, Korea as a whole is referred to as , (Joseon, [tosn]), (Chsen), / (Cháoxin/Jusn), Triu Tiên lit. “[land of the] Morning Calm”. “Great Joseon” was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon , who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108BCE by China’s Han Empire. This go is the Hanja and simply means “ancient” or “old”; it is a modern usage to distinguish the ancient Joseon from the later dynasty. Joseon itself is the modern Korean pronunciation of the Hanja but it is unclear whether this was a transcription of a native Korean name (OCT[r]awser, MCTrjewsjen[12]) or a partial translation into Chinese of the Korean capital Asadal , [18] whose meaning has been reconstructed as “Morning Land” or “Mountain”. Main article: Geography of Korea. See also: Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea, and Provinces of Korea. A neighborhood in North Gyeongsang Province. A view of Mount Seorak. Daedongyeojido this 1861 map of Korea represents the peak of pre-modern mapmaking in the region. Korea consists of a peninsula and nearby islands located in East Asia. The peninsula extends southwards for about 1,100 km (680 mi) from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the east and the Yellow Sea (West Sea) to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water. [19][20] To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia. [21] Notable islands include Jeju Island, Ulleung Island, Dokdo. The southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu (2,744 m), through which runs the border with China. The southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter. To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan. Some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan (1,439 m), Mount Kumgang (1,638 m), Mount Seorak (1,708 m), Mount Taebaek (1,567 m), and Mount Jiri (1,915 m). There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is almost perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan. They are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are basically northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan (1950 m) is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of Japan, the composition of which is more felsic than Jeju-do. The volcanic islands tend to be younger, the more westward. Because the mountainous region is mostly on the eastern part of the peninsula, the main rivers tend to flow westwards. Two exceptions are the southward-flowing Nakdong River and Seomjin River. Important rivers running westward include the Amnok River, the Chongchon River, the Taedong River, the Han River, the Geum River, and the Yeongsan River. These rivers have vast flood plains and provide an ideal environment for wet-rice cultivation. The southern and southwestern coastlines of the peninsula form a well-developed ria coastline, known as Dadohae-jin in Korean. Its convoluted coastline provides mild seas, and the resulting calm environment allows for safe navigation, fishing, and seaweed farming. In addition to the complex coastline, the western coast of the Korean Peninsula has an extremely high tidal amplitude at Incheon, around the middle of the western coast. It can get as high as 9 m. Vast tidal flats have been developing on the south and west coastlines. Korea has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula’s position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west. The peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining. When these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with often cloudy days with rain, which is sometimes very heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer; temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) daily at this time of year. Usually, high pressure is heavily dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes relatively low. The weather becomes increasingly dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is relatively dry with some snow falling at times. Main article: Wildlife of Korea. Animal life of the Korean Peninsula includes a considerable number of bird species and native freshwater fish. Native or endemic species of the Korean Peninsula include Korean hare, Korean water deer, Korean field mouse, Korean brown frog, Korean pine and Korean spruce. The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) with its forest and natural wetlands is a unique biodiversity spot, which harbours eighty-two endangered species. Korea once hosted many Siberian tigers, but as the number of people affected by the tigers increased, the tigers were killed in the Joseon Dynasty and the Siberian tigers in the South Korea became extinct during the Japanese colonial era period. It has been confirmed that Siberian tigers are only on the side of North Korea now. There are also approximately 3,034 species of vascular plants. Main article: History of Korea. See also: History of North Korea and History of South Korea. Four Commanderies of Han. Northern and Southern States period. United Silla (Unified Silla). Later Three Kingdoms period. Unified Silla (Later Silla). ArtDivisionLanguageMilitary (Goguryeo)MonarchsNavalScience and technologyHistory of Jeju. Main articles: Prehistoric Korea and Gojoseon. The Korean Academy claimed ancient hominid fossils originating from about 100,000BCE in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. Fluorescent and high-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000BCE. [24] The best preserved Korean pottery goes back to the paleolithic times around 10,000BCE and the Neolithic period begins around 6000BCE. According to legend, Dangun, a descendant of Heaven, established Gojoseon in 2333BCE. In 108BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Gojoseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula. By 313, Goguryeo annexed all of the Chinese commanderies. Main article: ProtoThree Kingdoms of Korea. The ProtoThree Kingdoms period, sometimes called the Multiple States Period, is the earlier part of what is commonly called the Three Kingdoms Period, following the fall of Gojoseon but before Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla fully developed into kingdoms. This time period saw numerous states spring up from the former territories of Gojoseon, which encompassed northern Korea and southern Manchuria. With the fall of Gojoseon, southern Korea entered the Samhan period. Located in the southern part of Korea, Samhan referred to the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. Mahan was the largest and consisted of 54 states. Byeonhan and Jinhan both consisted of twelve states, bringing a total of 78 states within the Samhan. These three confederacies eventually developed into Baekje, Silla, and Gaya. Main articles: Three Kingdoms of Korea, Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. 7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea consisted of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje. Silla and Baekje controlled the southern half of the Korean Peninsula, maintaining the former Samhan territories, while Goguryeo controlled the northern half of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria and the Liaodong Peninsula, uniting Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and other states in the former Gojoseon territories. Goguryeo was a highly militaristic state;[26][27]self-published source? It was a powerful empire and one of the great powers in East Asia, [28][29][30][31]self-published source? Reaching its zenith in the 5th century when its territories expanded to encompass most of Manchuria to the north, parts of Inner Mongolia to the west, [32] parts of Russia to the east, [33] and the Seoul region to the south. [34] Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Jangsu, [35][36][37][38] who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power on the Korean Peninsula. [39][40] In addition to contesting for control of the Korean Peninsula, Goguryeo had many military conflicts with various Chinese dynasties, [41]self-published source? Most notably the GoguryeoSui War, in which Goguryeo defeated a huge force said to number over a million men. [42][43][44][45][46] In 642, the powerful general Yeon Gaesomun led a coup and gained complete control over Goguryeo. In response, Emperor Tang Taizong of China led a campaign against Goguryeo, but was defeated and retreated. [47][48]self-published source? After the death of Tang Taizong, his son Emperor Tang Gaozong allied with the Korean kingdom of Silla and invaded Goguryeo again, but was unable to overcome Goguryeo’s stalwart defenses and was defeated in 662. [49][50] However, Yeon Gaesomun died of a natural cause in 666 and Goguryeo was thrown into chaos and weakened by a succession struggle among his sons and younger brother, with his eldest son defecting to Tang and his younger brother defecting to Silla. [51][52] The Tang-Silla alliance finally conquered Goguryeo in 668. After the collapse of Goguryeo, Tang and Silla ended their alliance and fought over control of the Korean Peninsula. Silla succeeded in gaining control over most of the Korean Peninsula, while Tang gained control over Goguryeo’s northern territories. However, 30 years after the fall of Goguryeo, a Goguryeo general by the name of Dae Joyeong founded the Korean-Mohe state of Balhae and successfully expelled the Tang presence from much of the former Goguryeo territories. Seokguram Grotto from the Silla era, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The southwestern Korean kingdom of Baekje was founded around modern-day Seoul by a Goguryeo prince, a son of the founder of Goguryeo. [53][54]self-published source? [55] Baekje absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as parts of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralised government; during the expansion of its territory, Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through maritime contacts with the Southern Dynasties. Baekje was a great maritime power;[56] its nautical skill, which made it the Phoenicia of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan. [57][58] Historic evidence suggests that Japanese culture, art, and language were influenced by the kingdom of Baekje and Korea itself;[31][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69] Baekje also played an important role in transmitting advanced Chinese culture to the Japanese archipelago. Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, most notably in the 4th century during the rule of Geunchogo when its influence extended across the sea to Liaoxi and Shandong in China, taking advantage of the weakened state of Former Qin, and Kyushu in the Japanese archipelago;[70] however, Baekje was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined. The Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century. Although later records claim that Silla was the oldest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it is now believed to have been the last kingdom to develop. By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a large state in the southeast, occupying and influencing its neighboring city-states. In 562, Silla annexed the Gaya confederacy, which was located between Baekje and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea often warred with each other and Silla was often dominated by Baekje and Goguryeo. Silla was the smallest and weakest of the three, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage. [71][72] In 660, King Muyeol ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin, aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje after defeating General Gyebaek at the Battle of Hwangsanbeol. In 661, Silla and Tang attacked Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of General Kim Yu-shin, launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year. Main articles: NorthSouth States Period, Later Silla, and Balhae. Beginning in the 6th century, Silla’s power gradually extended across the Korean Peninsula. Silla first annexed the adjacent Gaya confederacy in 562. By the 640s, Silla formed an alliance with the Tang dynasty of China to conquer Baekje and later Goguryeo. After conquering Baekje and Goguryeo, Silla repulsed Tang China from the Korean peninsula in 676. Even though Silla unified most of the Korean Peninsula, most of the Goguryeo territories to the north of the Korean Peninsula were ruled by Balhae. Former Goguryeo general[73][74] or chief of Sumo Mohe[75][76][77] Dae Jo-yeong led a group of Goguryeo and Mohe refugees to the Jilin and founded the kingdom of Balhae, 30 years after the collapse of Goguryeo, as the successor to Goguryeo. At its height, Balhae’s territories extended from southern Manchuria down to the northern Korean peninsula. Balhae was called the “Prosperous Country in the East”. Unified Silla and Balhae in the 8th century CE. Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia, [79] and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River. [80][81][82][83] Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country, [84] and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju[85] was the fourth largest city in the world. [86][87][88][89] Later Silla was a golden age of art and culture, [90][91][92][93] as evidenced by the Hwangnyongsa, Seokguram, and Emille Bell. Buddhism flourished during this time, and many Korean Buddhists gained great fame among Chinese Buddhists[94] and contributed to Chinese Buddhism, [95] including: Woncheuk, Wonhyo, Uisang, Musang, [96][97][98][99] and Kim Gyo-gak, a Silla prince whose influence made Mount Jiuhua one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism. [100][101][102][103][104]. Later Silla fell apart in the late 9th century, giving way to the tumultuous Later Three Kingdoms period (892935), and Balhae was destroyed by the Khitans in 926. Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms and received the last crown prince and much of the ruling class of Balhae, thus bringing about a unification of the two successor nations of Goguryeo. Goryeo was founded in 918 and replaced Silla as the ruling dynasty of Korea. Goryeo’s land was at first what is now South Korea and about 1/3 of North Korea, but later on managed to recover most of the Korean peninsula. The name “Goryeo” is a short form of “Goguryeo” and was first used during the time of King Jangsu. Goryeo regarded itself as the successor of Goguryeo, hence its name and efforts to recover the former territories of Goguryeo. [106][107][108][109] Wang Geon, the founder of Goryeo, was of Goguryeo descent and traced his ancestry to a noble Goguryeo clan. [110] He made Kaesong, his hometown, the capital. During this period, laws were codified and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon industries flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. The publication of the Tripitaka Koreana onto more than 80,000 wooden blocks and the invention of the world’s first metal movable type in the 13th century attest to Goryeo’s cultural achievements. [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Goryeo had to defend frequently against attacks by nomadic empires, especially the Khitans and the Mongols. Goryeo had a hostile relationship with the Khitans, because the Khitan Empire had destroyed Balhae, also a successor state of Goguryeo. In 993, the Khitans, who had established the Liao dynasty in 907, invaded Goryeo, demanding that it make amity with them. Goryeo sent the diplomat Seo Hui to negotiate, who successfully persuaded the Khitans to let Goryeo expand to the banks of the Amnok (Yalu) River, citing that in the past the land belonged to Goguryeo, the predecessor of Goryeo. [111] During the GoryeoKhitan War, the Khitan Empire invaded Korea twice more in 1009 and 1018, but was defeated. After defeating the Khitan Empire, which was the most powerful empire of its time, [112][113] Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which the Tripitaka Koreana was completed, and there were great developments in printing and publishing, promoting learning and dispersing knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science; by 1100, there were 12 universities that produced famous scholars and scientists. Goryeo was invaded by the Mongols in seven major campaigns from the 1230s until the 1270s, but was never conquered. [116] Exhausted after decades of fighting, Goryeo sent its crown prince to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to the Mongols; Kublai Khan accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince, [116] and the dynastic line of Goryeo continued to survive under the overlordship of the Mongol Yuan dynasty as a semi-autonomous vassal state and compulsory ally. The two nations became intertwined for 80 years as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses, [116] and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess. In the 1350s, King Gongmin was free at last to reform the Goryeo government when the Yuan dynasty began to crumble. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, which included the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars. During this tumultuous period, Goryeo momentarily conquered Liaoyang in 1356, repulsed two large invasions by the Red Turbans in 1359 and 1360, and defeated the final attempt by the Yuan to dominate Goryeo when General Choe Yeong defeated a Mongol tumen in 1364. During the 1380s, Goryeo turned its attention to the Wokou threat and used naval artillery created by Choe Museon to annihilate hundreds of pirate ships. In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye overthrew the Goryeo dynasty after he staged a coup and defeated General Choe Yeong. Yi Seong-gye named his new dynasty Joseon and moved the capital from Kaesong to Hanseong (formerly Hanyang; modern-day Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung palace. [117] In 1394, he adopted Confucianism as the country’s official ideology, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy of the Joseon dynasty was Neo-Confucianism, which was epitomized by the seonbi class, scholars who passed up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity. Joseon was a nominal tributary state of China but exercised full sovereignty, [118][119] and maintained the highest position among China’s tributary states, [120][121] which also included countries such as the Ryukyu Kingdom, Vietnam, Burma, Brunei, Laos, Thailand, [122][123][124] and the Philippines, among others. [125][126] In addition, Joseon received tribute from Jurchens and Japanese until the 17th century, [127][128][129] and had a small enclave in the Ryukyu Kingdom that engaged in trade with Siam and Java. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Joseon enjoyed many benevolent rulers who promoted education and science. [131] Most notable among them was Sejong the Great r. 141850, who personally created and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet. [132] This golden age[131] saw great cultural and scientific advancements, [133] including in printing, meteorological observation, astronomy, calendar science, ceramics, military technology, geography, cartography, medicine, and agricultural technology, some of which were unrivaled elsewhere. [134] Joseon implemented a class system that consisted of yangban the noble class, jungin the middle class, yangin the common class, and cheonin the lowest class, which included occupations such as butchers, tanners, shamans, entertainers, and nobi, the equivalent of slaves, bondservants, or serfs. In 1592 and again in 1597, the Japanese invaded Korea; the Korean military at the time was unprepared and untrained, due to two centuries of peace on the Korean Peninsula. [137] Toyotomi Hideyoshi intended to conquer China and India[138] through the Korean Peninsula, but was defeated by strong resistance from the Righteous Army, the naval superiority of Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his turtle ships, and assistance from Wanli Emperor of Ming China. However, Joseon experienced great destruction, including a tremendous loss of cultural sites such as temples and palaces to Japanese pillaging, and the Japanese brought back to Japan an estimated 100,000200,000 noses cut from Korean victims. [139] Less than 30 years after the Japanese invasions, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon’s war-weakened state and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty. After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynasty, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century. In the 19th century, the royal in-law families gained control of the government, leading to mass corruption and weakening of the state, with severe poverty and peasant rebellions spreading throughout the country. Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname “the hermit kingdom”, but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders, beginning an era leading into Japanese imperial rule. Main article: Korean Empire. The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889. Beginning in 1871, Japan began to exert more influence in Korea, forcing it out of China’s traditional sphere of influence. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (189495), the Qing dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong of Korea was assassinated by Japanese agents. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty proclaimed the Korean Empire (18971910). King Gojong became emperor. During this brief period, Korea had some success in modernizing the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries. Russia, Japan, France, and the United States all invested in the country and sought to influence it politically. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on 26 October 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, It Hirobumi, for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation. Main article: Korea under Japanese rule. See also: Japanese war crimes. The memorial tablet for the March 1st Movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul. In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the JapanKorea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin. [143] There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes. Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation[144][145][146] was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military. [147] The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia. Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939, [148] and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan’s military. [149] Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died. [150] Approximately 200,000 girls and women, [151] mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. [152] In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named “comfort women”. During the Japanese annexation, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Sshi-kaimei. [155] Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed[156] or taken to Japan. [157] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections. [158] One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan. [157][159] Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date[157] this has not occurred. [159] Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Dokdo islets, located east of the Korean Peninsula. There was significant emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese occupation period, including Korea. [161] By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea. [162] After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan. Main articles: Division of Korea, Korean conflict, and Korean reunification. Flag of North Korea. In 1945, with the surrender of Japan, the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea. Satellite image of the Korean peninsula taken at night showing the extent of the division between the Koreas; note the difference in light emitted between the two countries. The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, North Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic was established in the north and South Korea; a Western-style regime, was established in the South. North Korea is a one-party state, now centred on Kim Il-sung’s Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history. Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957, South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana, [163] and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana’s. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987;[165] others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone. [166] Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008. [167] In South Korea, as guerrilla activities expanded, the South Korean government used strong measures against peasants, such as forcefully moving their families from guerrilla areas. According to one estimate, these measures resulted in 36,000 people killed, 11,000 people wounded, and 432,000 people displaced. Main article: Korean War. Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as U. Marines fight North Koreans holding the city. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remained divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states. In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (195053) more than 1.2 million people died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities. [169] The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line, but the two governments are officially at war. In 2018, the leaders of North Korea and South Korea officially signed the Panmunjom Declaration, announcing that they will work to end the conflict. Korean Empire (1897 1910). 12 October 1897 20 July 1907. 20 July 1907 29 August 1910. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1948). Chairman of the Standing Committee. Of the Supreme People’s Assembly. 9 September 1948 20 September 1957. 20 September 1957 28 December 1972. 28 December 1972 8 July 1994. President of the Presidium. 5 September 1998 11 April 2019. Chairman of the National Defence Commission. 9 April 2009 17 December 2011. First Chairman of the National Defence Commission/Chairman of the State Affairs Commission. Republic of Korea (1948). 24 July 1948 26 April 1960. 13 August 1960 23 March 1962. 17 December 1963 26 October 1979. 6 December 1979 16 August 1980. 1 September 1980 24 February 1988. 25 February 1988 24 February 1993. 25 February 1993 24 February 1998. 25 February 1998 24 February 2003. 25 February 2003 24 February 2008. 25 February 2008 24 February 2013. 25 February 2013 10 March 2017. The name “Korea” is written as it started from 1897. Main articles: Koreans, Demographics of South Korea, and Demographics of North Korea. The combined population of the Koreas is about 76 million (North Korea: 25 million, South Korea: 51 million). Korea is chiefly populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak the Korean language. [170] The number of foreigners living in Korea has also steadily increased since the late 20th century, particularly in South Korea, where more than 1 million foreigners reside. [171] It was estimated in 2006 that only 26,700 of the old Chinese community now remain in South Korea. [172] However, in recent years, immigration from mainland China has increased; 624,994 persons of Chinese nationality have immigrated to South Korea, including 443,566 of ethnic Korean descent. [173] Small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese are also found in North Korea. Main articles: Korean language and Korean Sign Language. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul. Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 25 million. Other large groups of Korean speakers through Korean diaspora are found in China, the United States, Japan, former Soviet Union and elsewhere. Modern Korean is written almost exclusively in the script of the Korean alphabet (known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosungul in China and North Korea), which was invented in the 15th century. Korean is sometimes written with the addition of some Chinese characters called Hanja; however, this is only occasionally seen nowadays. Main articles: Culture of Korea, Korean art, Korean pottery and porcelain, Korean martial arts, Korean dance, Korean bow, and Korean architecture. Location of World Heritage Sites in Korea. Note: Seoul is home to three separate properties; Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty locate throughout the country, only one site is shown on map. Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu). In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as “Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk” (,) and “Eastern Nation of Decorum” (,). [177] Individuals are regarded as one year old when they are born, as Koreans reckon the pregnancy period as one year of life for infants, and age increments increase on New Year’s Day rather than on the anniversary of birthdays. Thus, one born immediately before New Year’s Day may only be a few days old in western reckoning, but two years old in Korea. Accordingly, a Korean person’s stated age (at least among fellow Koreans) will be one or two years more than their age according to western reckoning. However, western reckoning is sometimes applied with regard to the concept of legal age; for example, the legal age for purchasing alcohol or cigarettes in the Republic of Korea is 19, which is measured according to western reckoning. Main article: Korean literature. Korean literature written before the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called “Classical” or Traditional. Literature, written in Chinese characters (hanja), was established at the same time as the Chinese script arrived on the peninsula. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the classical Korean style as early as the 2nd centuryBCE, reflecting Korean thoughts and experiences of that time. Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the peninsula, strongly influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Modern literature is often linked with the development of hangul, which helped spread literacy from the aristocracy to the common people. Hangul, however, only reached a dominant position in Korean literature in the second half of the 19th century, resulting in a major growth in Korean literature. Sinsoseol, for instance, are novels written in hangul. The Korean War led to the development of literature centered on the wounds and chaos of war. Much of the post-war literature in South Korea deals with the daily lives of ordinary people, and their struggles with national pain. The collapse of the traditional Korean value system is another common theme of the time. Main article: Music of Korea. Traditional Korean music includes combinations of the folk, vocal, religious and ritual music styles of the Korean people. Korean music has been practiced since prehistoric times. [178] Korean music falls into two broad categories. The first, Hyangak, literally means The local music or Music native to Korea, a famous example of which is Sujechon, a piece of instrumental music often claimed to be at least 1,300 years old. [179] The second, yangak, represents a more Western style. Main articles: Religion in Korea, Religion in South Korea, and Religion in North Korea. See also: Korean shamanism, Korean Confucianism, Korean Buddhism, Taoism in Korea, Christianity in Korea, and Islam in Korea. Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s. Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religious practice has been suppressed in North Korea. Throughout Korean history and culture, regardless of separation; the influence of traditional beliefs of Korean Shamanism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism have remained an underlying religion of the Korean people as well as a vital aspect of their culture; all these traditions have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years up to today despite strong Westernisation from Christian missionary conversions in the South[180][181][182] or the pressure from the Juche government in the North. According to 2005 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 29.2% of the population (of which are Protestants 18.3% and Catholics 10.9%) and Buddhists 22.8%. Islam in South Korea is practiced by about 45,000 natives (about 0.09% of the population) in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers from Muslim countries. Main article: Korean cuisine. See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean royal court cuisine. Tteokbokki, rice cakes with spicy gochujang sauce. Koreans traditionally believe that the taste and quality of food depend on its spices and sauces, the essential ingredients to making a delicious meal. Therefore, soybean paste, soy sauce, gochujang or red pepper paste and kimchi are some of the most important staples in a Korean household. Korean cuisine was greatly influenced by the geography and climate of the Korean Peninsula, which is known for its cold autumns and winters, therefore there are many fermented dishes and hot soups and stews. Bulgogi and side dishes. Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, a side dish which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables, most commonly cabbage. Kimchi is said to relieve the pores on the skin, thereby reducing wrinkles and providing nutrients to the skin naturally. It is also healthy, as it provides necessary vitamins and nutrients. Gochujang, a traditional Korean sauce made of red pepper is also commonly used, often as pepper (chilli) paste, earning the cuisine a reputation for spiciness. Bulgogi (roasted marinated meat, usually beef), galbi (marinated grilled short ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork belly) are popular meat entrees. Fish is also a popular commodity, as it is the traditional meat that Koreans eat. Meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, such as galbitang (stewed ribs) or doenjang jjigae (fermented bean paste soup). The center of the table is filled with a shared collection of sidedishes called banchan. Other popular dishes include bibimbap, which literally means “mixed rice” (rice mixed with meat, vegetables, and red pepper paste), and naengmyeon (cold noodles). Instant noodles, or ramyeon, is a popular snack food. Koreans also enjoy food from pojangmachas (street vendors), which serve tteokbokki, rice cake and fish cake with a spicy gochujang sauce; gimbap, made of steamed white rice wrapped in dried laver seaweed; fried squid; and glazed sweet potato. Soondae, a sausage made of cellophane noodles and pork blood, is widely eaten. Additionally, some other common snacks include “Choco Pie”, shrimp crackers, “bbeongtwigi” (puffed rice grains), and “nurungji” (slightly burnt rice). Nurungji can be eaten as it is or boiled with water to make a soup. Nurungji can also be eaten as a snack or a dessert. Korea is unique among Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks. Metal chopsticks have been discovered in archaeological sites belonging to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. Main articles: Education in North Korea and Education in South Korea. The modern South Korean school system consists of six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranks South Korea’s science education as the third best in the world and being significantly higher than the OECD average. South Korea ranks second on math and literature and first in problem solving[citation needed]. Although South Korean students often rank high on international comparative assessments, the education system is criticised for emphasising too much upon passive learning and memorization. The South Korean education system is rather notably strict and structured as compared to its counterparts in most Western societies. The North Korean education system consists primarily of universal and state funded schooling by the government. The national literacy rate for citizens 15 years of age and above is over 99 percent. [190][191] Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, and then on to universities. The most prestigious university in the DPRK is Kim Il-sung University. Other notable universities include Kim Chaek University of Technology, which focuses on computer science, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, which trains working level diplomats and trade officials, and Kim Hyong Jik University, which trains teachers. Main article: History of science and technology in Korea. See also: List of Korean inventions and discoveries. Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris. One of the best known artifacts of Korea’s history of science and technology is the Cheomseongdae (,), a 9.4-meter high observatory built in 634. The earliest known surviving Korean example of woodblock printing is the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra. [192] It is believed to have been printed in Korea in 75051, which if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. During the Goryeo Dynasty, metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in 1234. [193][5][194][195][8][3] This invention made printing easier, more efficient and also increased literacy, which observed by Chinese visitors was seen to be so important where it was considered to be shameful to not be able to read. [196] The Mongol Empire later adopted Korea’s movable type printing and spread as far as Central Asia. There is conjecture as to whether or not Choe’s invention had any influence on later printing inventions such as Gutenberg’s Printing press. [197] When the Mongols invaded Europe they inadvertently introduced different kinds of Asian technology. The Korean alphabet hangul was also invented during this time by King Sejong the Great. Main articles: Sport in South Korea and Sport in North Korea. North Korea and South Korea usually compete as two separate nations in international events. There are, however, a few examples of them having competed as one entity, under the name Korea. While association football remains one of the most popular sports in South Korea, the martial art of taekwondo is considered to be the national sport. Baseball and golf are also popular. Taekwon-Do is Korea’s most famous martial art and sport. It combines combat techniques, self-defence, sport and exercise. Taekwon-Do has become an official Olympic sport, starting as a demonstration event in 1988 (when South Korea hosted the Games in Seoul) and becoming an official medal event in 2000. The two major Taekwon-Do federations were founded in Korea. The two are the International Taekwon-Do Federation and the World Taekwondo Federation. Hapkido is a modern Korean martial art with a grappling focus that employs joint locks, throws, kicks, punches and other striking attacks like attacks against pressure points. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the pure use of strength against strength. Ssireum is a traditional form of wrestling that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years, with evidence discovered from Goguryeo of Korea’s Three Kingdoms Period (57BCE to 688). Ssireum is the traditional national sport of Korea. During a match, opponents grip each other by sash belts wrapped around the waist and the thigh, attempting to throw their competitor to the sandy ground of the ring. The first opponent to touch the ground with any body part above the knee or to lose hold of their opponent loses the round. Ssireum competitions are traditionally held twice a year, during the Dano Festival (the 5th day of the fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month). Competitions are also held throughout the year as a part of festivals and other events. Taekkyon is a traditional martial art, considered the oldest form of fighting technique of Korea. Practiced since centuries and especially popular during the Joseon dynasty, two forms co-existed: one for practical use, the other for sport. This form was usually practiced alongside Ssireum during festivals and competitions between villages. Nonetheless, Taekkyon almost disappeared during the Japanese Occupation and the Korean War. Though lost in North Korea, Taekkyon has enjoyed a spectacular revival from the 1980s in South Korea. It is the only martial art in the world (with Ssireum) recognized as a National Treasure of South Korea and a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Emblem of North Korea. Emblem of South Korea. GDP total 2011/2014 est. Korean People’s won (sign: , ISO: KPW). Korean Republic won (, KRW). Main article: List of public holidays in South Korea. Samiljeol, Independence Movement Day, commemorates Korea’s declaration of independence from Japanese occupation on 1 March 1919. The name is derived from Korean “sam”‘three’, “il”‘one,’ and “jeol”‘day’, the date of the uprising in 1919. Korea was annexed to the Empire of Japan on 29 August 1910 following the imposed Japan-Korea Treaty. On 1 March 1919, Korean presented their resistance towards Japan and Japanese occupation with a declaration of independence. Following the conclusion of World War II, Korea was liberated from Japan and its independence restored. The newly established Korean government set aside 1 March as a national holiday to commemorate the sacrifices borne in the long struggle for Korean independence. Hyunchoongil is the national holiday in Korea commemorating those who fought and died for the nation. In August 1948, only a few years after Korea achieved its independence from Japan, the Korean War, in Korea also known as the 6.25 war, broke out between North and South Korea. During this war, approximately 400,000 soldiers and some one million citizens were killed or injured. In 1953, North and South Korea agreed to a cease-fire, and three years later the Korean government established Hyungchoogil to commemorate the soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Subsequent to its establishment, Hyungchoogil was reinterpreted as a day of remembrance for those who died defending Korea in all conflicts, not only during the Korean War. Gwangbokjeol is the day for celebrating liberation of the country from Japan in 1945 as well as celebrating the establishment of Korean government in 1948. It was first declared to be national holiday in 1949 October 1. On this date every year, the president of Korea visits Independence Hall, and invites diplomatic envoys from many countries and all social standings in countries to Cheongwadae (the Blue House, the Korean presidential residence). Hangul Day (also spelled as Hangeul Day) is a day that celebrates the creation of the Hunminjeongeum (Hangul, Korean alphabet), which was inscribed to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 1997. [202] Hangul was created by Sejong the Great in 1443 and proclaimed in 1446. Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil. [203][204][205][206] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often didn’t have the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. [207] Hangul Day was founded in 1926 during the Japanese occupation by members of the Korean Language Society, whose goal was to preserve the Korean language during a time of rapid forced Japanization. [208] Today, both South Korea and North Korea celebrate Hangul Day as a national holiday. Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea. Index of Korea-related articles. List of Korean inventions and discoveries. List of people of Korean descent. National Treasures of North Korea. National Treasures of South Korea. North KoreaSouth Korea relations. The item “ORIGINAL KOREA CHANG MYUN HANDWRITTEN LETTER ASSASSINATION RARE VINTAGE” is in sale since Monday, August 2, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “collectiblecollectiblecollectible” and is located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. 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  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Korea, Republic of
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Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Original_Korea_Chang_Myun_Handwritten_Letter_Assassination_Rare_Vintage_01_ucv Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage
Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage
A FANTASTICALLY RARE HANDWRITTEN LETTER ON REPUBLIC OF KOREA PAPER BY CHANG MYUN. ALSO ORIGINAL ARTICLE REFERENCING HIS ATTEMPTED ASSAINATION ATTEMPT. THE LETTER REFERENCES THE ATTEMPT ON HIS LIFE AND TO PROTECT HIM AND THE WELFARE OF HIS PEOPLE. Chang Myon (hangul: ; hanja: ; August 28, 1899 June 4, 1966) was a South Korean statesman, educator, diplomat, journalist and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the last Vice President of South Korea and the Prime Minister of the Second Republic. His styled name (ho) was Unseok (,). His English name was John Chang Myon (baptismal name, surname, given name). Under the Japanese rule, Chang worked as a teacher. From 191921, he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School and from 193136 at Dongsung Commerce High School. From 193744, he was principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten of the Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church. From 193645, he was principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. In 1948, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly. In 1949, he became the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In 1950, he successfully appealed to the United States and the UN to send troops to assist in the Korean War. On November 23, 1950, he was appointed the second prime minister of the First Republic of Korea. From 1956 to 1960, he served as the fourth vice president of the First Republic of Korea. When Syngman Rhee’s government was ousted by the student-led pro-democracy uprising of April 19 Movement, he was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic in 1960. After the country adopted a parliamentary system in response to Rhee’s abuse of presidential power, Chang became the head of government. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee led a successful military coup on May 16, 1961, which marked the end of the Second Republic and the nation’s brief experimentation with the cabinet form of government. Study in the United States. Religious belief and education movements. Prime Minister of the First Republic. Prime Minister of the Second Republic. Chang Myon was born in 1899 in Jeokseon-dong, Hansung. He was the first son of Chang Gi-bin and Lucia Hwang. His given name was Myon (;). [2] He was a member of the Indong Chang Family (;), and descended from Jukjong Chang Cham (;), a well-known Neo-Confucianism philosopher. Chang’s ninth-generation grandfather lived in South Pyongan Province Province but his father moved to Incheon. [3] The first Roman Catholic believer in his family was his great-grandmother, Lady Park. In 1906, he began studying at Incheon Parkmun Primary School (;), and graduated in 1912. He then went to Incheon Public Simsang Elementary School (,), graduating in 1914. He later attended Suwon Agriculture High School (,), and he graduated on May 25, 1917. In March 1916, he married Kim Ok-yun. They had six sons and three daughters. Manhattan College student, 1921. In September 1918, he was registered at the YMCA Village School, and from 191921 he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School (,). On March 1, 1919, he participated in the eponymous protests against Japanese occupation of Korea but escaped arrest. In January 1921, Chang Myon went to the United States with his younger brother Chang Bal to study. They were sponsored by the Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America. In September 1921, he entered Manhattan College and in 1924 took a one-year leave of absence from the college due to acute appendicitis. In August 1921, he entered the Secular Franciscan Order. After graduating from Manhattan College in July 1925, he left for Italy on July 30 to attend the beatification of 79 Korean Joseon Catholic martyrs. He was also received by Pope Pius XII. On December 2, 1925, he was appointed Maryknoll Center School’s professor of the Korean language and translation. At the same time, he served as the leader of the laity for the Pyongyang archdiocese. On February 11, 1927, he formally entered the service of the Pyongyang Catholic church. He translated religious terms for Catholic teaching into the Korean language and published The Summary of Religious Terms in November 1929. In 1930, he published Way of the seeker of truth (;) and on September 15 he published An Outline of Joseon Catholic History (,). On March 18, 1931, he resigned from the affairs of Pyongyang archdiocese (;) and moved to Seoul. Appointed as a teacher at Dongsung Commerce High School (;) on April 1, 1931, he took on the responsibility of teaching English and rhetorical subjects. On July 10th, along with Jeong Ji-yong, he published the first issue of Catholic Young Men’s News (;). In 1935, he became Manager of Affairs for Dongsung Commerce High School. On April 1, 1937, he became the lay leader of Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church and principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten (,). On November 19, 1936, he became principal of Dongsung Commerce High School (;). At the same time he took on the additional role of principal of Gyesong Elementary School (;) in Jongro, Seoul, in April 1939. That September, he was appointed chairman of the Seoul Catholic Young Men’s National Union (,). He translated James Gibbons’ The Faith of Our Fathers: A Plain Exposition and Vindication of the Church Founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ into the Korean language and published the hangul edition on July 4, 1944. Republic of Korea Ambassador to USA, 1949. The Third UN General Assembly, 1948. On February 11, 1946, he was appointed a member of the Democratic Conference (,) and a Representative of Emergency Peoples Conference (,). That August, Chang was elected to the South Korean Provisional National Assembly (,). By this time, he emerged as a major political figure in the Syngman Rhee administration of the First Republic of Korea. On May 10, 1948, he ran for a National Assembly seat from Jongro District of Seoul, and he was duly elected on May 30. On October 11 of the same year, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly and witnessed the recognition of the Republic of Korea as a sovereign nation by the UN on December 12, 1948. In 1949, he visited the Vatican to express his appreciation of the Vatican’s active support of his diplomatic endeavors. In December 1949, he was appointed the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In April 1950, he was designated a special envoy of the Republic of Korea to Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. Immediately after the outbreak of the Korean War, on June 25, 1950, he actively solicited urgent aide from the United States and the UN. The 6th UN General Assembly, 1952. In November 1950, Chang was appointed the second Prime Minister of the First Republic of Korea, a position he at first refused, but after an earnest request from Syngman Rhee, he accepted and went on to serve from October 1951 until April 29, 1952. He was sent to the sixth UN General Assembly held in Paris, France. The involvement of the Catholic Church with the democratic opposition to the Rhee administration first began in the 1950s. As the foremost leader of the opposition in the late 1950s, Chang Myon, a devout Catholic, already had a good relationship with Roh Ki-nam, the Bishop of Seoul, from the early 1940s. Roh soon came to be known as the “political bishop” because of his frequent critical statements on the dictatorial tendencies of Syngman Rhee. In the 1950s, the governing Liberal Party was led by President Syngman Rhee. In April 1952, opposition lawmakers and some Liberal Party lawmakers attempted a constitutional amendment but were branded enemies of the state by Syngman Rhee[5] When the assembly voted to have martial law lifted in Busan, Rhee had half of them arrested. After a staged assassination attempt on Rhee, police began to investigate alleged links to the opposition. Police claimed that Chang Myon was working with assassins paid by North Korea to depose Rhee. Under this type of pressure, the assembly voted 160 to zero for Rhee’s constitutional amendments. [5] By the late 1950s Chang Myon emerged as the major alternative to Rhee, and in 1960, when Rhee was overthrown by the April 19th Movement and a popular revolution, Chang Myon was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea and de facto chief executive. Chang’s campaign for vice-presidency (1956). On September 18, 1955, he was defeated by a narrow margin by Shin Ik-hee for the Democratic Party’s candidacy in the presidential election. Instead, he was nominated for the vice-presidency as the running mate of Shin Ik-hee, who died suddenly on May 5, 1956. On May 30, 1956, Chang was duly elected the fourth vice president of the Republic of Korea. On September 28, 1956, at the Democratic party’s national convention in the Sigong Building (,) in Jongno, Seoul, he was shot by a sniper in the September 28 Incident [ko] and received a penetrating wound to the wrist. The would-be assassin was immediately arrested. The assassination attempt was in all probability sponsored by the top echelon of the Liberal Party. During his vice presidency, Chang came into conflict with Lee Ki-poong, an influential Liberal Party member, who sent spies and placed him under surveillance. In 1959, he was appointed as a member of the Supreme Council of the Democratic Party of the Republic of Korea. In the same year, he became the Democratic Party’s candidate for the vice-presidency and the running mate of presidential candidate Cho Byong-ok. Chang had attempted to become a candidate for the presidency, but once again he lost by a narrow margin, this time to Cho. In November of the same year, he was reelected as a member of the supreme council of the Democratic Party. In the Republic of Korea’s vice-presidential election of March 15, 1960, Chang suffered defeat at the hands of Lee Ki-poong by such a suspiciously large margin that protesters took to the streets alleging fraud. [6] A thousand residents gathered in front of the opposition Democratic Party building in the southern city of Masan to protest. When the police started shooting, the protesters responded by throwing rocks. Following the suppression of the protests, the body of a young man, Kim Ju-yul, a student at Masan Commercial High School who had participated in the protests, was found on a nearby beach. [6] This tragic incident served as a catalyst for the April 19 Movement and the popular revolution that overthrew the Rhee regime in May 1960. In May 1960, Chang was a candidate in the election for a National Assembly seat. At the time, he was the leader of the New Group in the Democratic Party (,). On August 18, 1960, he was duly elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea under a parliamentary system. When Syngman Rhee was forced out of office in April 1960 because of the Rhee administration and Lee Ki-poong’s misgovernment of state affairs, compounded by the exposure of egregious corruption, the Republic of Korea found itself in serious disarray. Hence, the administration led by Prime Minister Chang Myon faced volatile political and grievous socioeconomic difficulties. In the midst of such difficulties, the Chang administration did not resort to dictatorship. After all, Chang Myon fought against the Rhee dictatorship for many years. He was a true believer in democracy. [7] Moreover, his administration had successfully designed the first five-year economic development plan that would have proven beneficial for all Koreans. And this five-year economic development plan was “borrowed” by the Park Chung-hee administration. Park used virtually the same Five-Year Economic Development Plan, originally designed and drafted by the Chang Myon administration, for his economic development after the May 16 military coup. In 1961, the Chang Myon administration attempted to resume talks on a treaty of relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea, and discussed eight of the proposed articles designed to normalize diplomatic ties. However, the talks came to a halt because of the military coup led by Park Chung-hee on May 16. On May 20, 1961, he was removed from the position of Prime Minister after less than one year in power. In January 2005, the government of the Republic of Korea uncovered 1,200 pages of diplomatic documents of the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea of 1965 that had been kept secret for forty years. These documents revealed that the Japanese government proposed to the government of the Republic of Korea, headed by Park Chung-hee, to directly compensate individual victims of Japanese colonization of Korea, but it was the Park administration that insisted it would handle the individual compensation to the victims, and took over the entire amount of the grant, 300 million dollars, (for 35 years of Japanese colonial rule in Korea), on behalf of the victims. The Park administration negotiated for a total of 360 million dollars in compensation for the 1.03 million Koreans conscripted into the forced labor and military service during the colonial period but received only 300 million dollars. [9] On March 30, 1962, the Park Military Government detained Chang and prohibited him from engaging in any further political activity. Initially, he was under the threat of the death penalty. However, in August 1962, he was released on bail. In 1962, he wrote an appeal to F. Remler, Why Must I suffer? On January 27, 1966, Chang was hospitalized with hepatitis at the Holy Mother Hospital (,) in Seoul, and on June 4, 1966, he died in Jongro at the age of 66. Chang was buried in the Hehwa Catholic Church burial site on Chonbo mountain (;) in Pocheon, Gyeonggi Province. On October 27, 1999, he was posthumously honored by President Kim Dae-jung of the Republic of Korea, with the first class rank of the Order of Merit for National Foundation. [10] On the occasion of the hundredth birthday of Chang Myon, Cardinal Kim Sou-hwan celebrated a memorial mass at Hehwa Catholic Parish Church in August 1999. He rhetorically asked: How is it possible for the leaders of the May 16 military coup to declare that the Chang Myon administration of the Second Republic was already corrupt and incompetent in less than a month of its inception? Their first two children died at an early age. The first child, Anna Chang Myeong-sook (baptismal name, surname, given name), died before age one, and the second child, Joseph Chang Young died at age two. Joseph Chang Jin, Ph. Was a professor of biology at Princeton University and Sogang University (deceased); Benedicta Chang Yi-sook, MFA, an artist and teacher, a member of the order of Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur; Andrew Chang Geon, MA, a successful architect; John Chang Yik, Catholic bishop of Chuncheon (deceased); Leo Chang Soon, Ph. A professor of political science; Matthew Chang Heung, Ph. A manager at the Bank of Paris; Teresa Chang Myong-ja, MA in Library Science, a librarian (deceased). Chang Myon had two younger brothers and three younger sisters. The older, Louis Chang Bal, was an artist and dean of the College of Fine Arts, Seoul National University (deceased); the younger, Paul Chang Geuk, Ph. Was a professor of physics and aerodynamics/space scientist at NASA, Catholic University, Washington, DC, and the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), (deceased); the eldest of the three younger sisters was Gunaegunda Chang Jeong-hae (deceased), the second, Agneta Chang Jeong-eun, was a Maryknoll Sister and the founder and the mother superior of a Korean order in North Korea, Sisters of Our Perpetual Help, (deceased under fateful duress, October 1950); and the third was Martha Chang Jeong-soon, deceased in 1937 at the age of 21, a senior at Sacred Heart University. Third UN General Assembly, 1948. Chang Myon championed liberal and democratic values. Therefore, he was strongly opposed to communism as practiced by the Soviet Union and fascism/Nazism as practiced by Nazi Germany. Likewise, he firmly opposed totalitarianism and authoritarianism in any shape or form. He believed in individualism in the context of common good. Thus, he abhorred endemic political and economic/financial corruption in the Republic of Korea. The word republic stands for res, things/affairs, and publica, public. In short, republic stands for things public, commonweal, public interest and/or common good. He led a modest and frugal life. He lived in a small, unpretentious house (Seoul, Jongro-gu, Myongreun-dong, 1 Ga, 36-1) where he and his spouse spent most of their life and raised seven children. Anyone who visits the old house, now renovated, can readily see his life style. This house is now designated a National Heritage site and converted to be a museum dedicated to him. It is open to the public. As a member of the National Assembly in the late 1940s, he initiated a legislation prohibiting concubinage and prostitution. It was duly passed. Throughout his life, he abstained from smoking and drinking. He had many good friends and enjoyed listening to classical music. He influenced the conversion of Kim Dae-jung to Catholicism and became his godfather. Kim later remarked that Chang was a devout Catholic who believed in Catholic action to rectify many evils in Korea. Democratic Party of Korea. The Second Republic of Korea was the government of South Korea from April 1960 to May 1961. The Second Republic was founded during the April Revolution mass protests against President Syngman Rhee, succeeding the First Republic and establishing a parliamentary government under President Yun Bo-seon and Prime Minister Chang Myon. The Second Republic ended Rhee’s authoritarianism and repression, formed a liberal democracy, and formulated the first Five-Year Plans to develop the neglected economy. The Second Republic’s failure to improve South Korea’s political and economic issues led to instability, and after thirteen months it was overthrown by the South Korean Army in the May 16 coup led by Park Chung-hee. The Second Republic was replaced by a provisional military government under the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, leading to the Third Republic of Korea. The short-lived Second Republic was the only government under a parliamentary system in the history of Korea. Proclamation of the Second Republic of Korea. From right: Chang Myon (Prime Minister), Yun Bo-seon (President), Paik Nak-jun (President of the House of Councillors) and Kwak Sang-hoon (President of the Chamber of Deputies). The First Republic of Korea had existed since 1948 under President Syngman Rhee, who was widely considered to be corrupt and a dictator who abused his presidential powers to maintain his rule and cronyism. Although the First Republic was officially a representative democracy, Rhee adopted a strongly anti-communist position and used the threat of communism to enact a policy of severe repression against all political opposition. Tolerance of Rhee and his Liberal Party-dominated government declined in the mid-to-late 1950s, as the South Korean public were increasingly discontent with the repression and the limited economic and social development. In April 1960, Rhee was overthrown by widespread protests known as the “April Revolution” in response to the discovery of a high school student murdered by police during demonstrations against Rhee and rigged election in March. After Rhee’s fall, power was briefly held by a caretaker government headed by Heo Jeong as Prime Minister until a new parliamentary election was held on 29 July 1960. The Second Republic operated under a parliamentary system, with the Prime Minister of South Korea as the head of government and the President of South Korea as the head of state. Due to Rhee’s numerous abuses of power, the President’s power was greatly reduced, to the point that he was effectively a figurehead. He was elected by both houses of the legislature. Real power was vested in the Prime Minister, who was elected by the National Assembly. The Second Republic was the first and the only instance of the South Korean government using a cabinet system instead of a presidential system. The Democratic Party, which had been in the opposition during the First Republic, easily gained power. And Rhee’s former opponent Chang Myon became Prime Minister. The new legislature was bicameral, with the House of Commons as the lower house and the Senate as the upper house. Yun Bo-seon was elected as the second President of South Korea on 13 August 1960. Real power now rested with the Prime Minister and cabinet, who were both elected by the National Assembly. Part of a series on the. History of South Korea. Preludes to Division 191048. People’s Republic of Korea. Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Assassination of Park Chung-hee. 1997 Asian financial crisis. Flag of South Korea. Svg South Korea portal. Much of this activity was from leftist and student groups, which had been instrumental in the overthrow of the First Republic. Membership of unions and activity grew rapidly during the later months of 1960. [2] Estimates suggest around 2,000 demonstrations were held during eight months of the Second Republic. Under pressure from the left-wing, the Chang government carried out a series of purges of military and police officials who had been involved in anti-democratic activities or corruption during the First Republic. A special law to this effect was passed on 31 October 1960. [4] Around 40,000 people were placed under investigation; of these, more than 2,200 government officials and 4,000 police officers were purged. [5] In addition, the government considered reducing the size of the South Korean Army by 100,000, although this plan was shelved. The Second Republic government was faced with mounting instability in economic terms as well, seeing unemployment and wholesale prices also rose during this period. The won lost half of its value against the US dollar between fall 1960 and spring 1961. [7] The government formulated a five-year economic plan based around agriculture and light industry to decrease unemployment, although it was unable to act on it prior to being overthrown. Chang’s government resumed negotiations for the normalization of diplomatic relations between Korea and Japan, which had not progressed under the Rhee regime that had existed since the end of Japanese rule. The Second Republic established diplomatic relations with many new countries, with Sohn Won-yil, the first ambassador to West Germany, attending the independence ceremonies of Cameroon, Togo, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Morocco. The Second Republic suffered from numerous political, economic, and social issues that were both new and inherited from the First Republic. Failure to properly address the issues caused a growth in political instability as factional fighting within the Democratic Party, combined with the increasing activity from opposition and activist groups, led to a breakdown in South Korean politics. Main article: May 16 coup. Many high-ranking figures of the South Korean military held animosity for so-called “liberation aristocrats” the ruling class of conservative politicians involved in the Korean independence movement and United States Army Military Government that they blamed for the stalling of development in South Korea. Military figures noted how South Korea had been intensively developed under the Japanese colonial system and the “economic miracle” occurring in Japan, in marked contrast to Rhee’s presidency which saw little significant effort to develop the economy, which remained stagnant, poor and largely agrarian. The lack of development under Rhee provoked a growing nationalistic intellectual reaction which called for a radical restructuring of society and a thorough political and economic reorganization, rejecting the model being pursued by the governing elite. Park Chung-hee, a Major General in the Republic of Korea Army with decidedly ambiguous political leanings, was heavily influenced by this unfolding intellectual reaction. Park became the leader of a reformist faction within the military that plotted a coup d’etat against the civilian government of the Second Republic on 12 May 1961. The plot was aborted after being leaked, however, the military attempted another coup four days later on 16 May which was successful, dissolving the Second Republic. They proceeded to broadcast a proclamation outlining the policy objectives of the coup, including anti-communism, strengthening of ties with the United States, the elimination of political corruption, the construction of an autonomous national economy, Korean reunification, and the removal of the present generation of politicians. Park and his supporters subsequently established the Military Revolutionary Committee as a military junta government, later renamed the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Park became the de facto dictator of South Korea as the Chairman of the Council, while Yun Bo-seon remained President as a figurehead. On one autumn day in 1969, when the Korean engineering design office of a Nevada Corporation was located within the U. Army Yongsan Garrison in central Seoul, a tall handsome man, dressed in a black suit with a small rectangular white window in the front part of the collar, visited my design office. He was Father Chang Ick. Somehow, I immediately liked his elegant and refined manner. I don’t remember why, but we spoke in English. He wanted us to design a Catholic church building in Seongbuk-dong, northeastern Seoul, and showed me a cadastral map. I asked him to give us the general concept and specifications of the proposed building. May I use your typewriter? I let him sit at my desk, and quickly replaced the old typewriter ribbon with a new one. The Father knew by heart every concept of his new church, and typed the design requirements rather quickly. He typed three pages of the specifications, without even making typographical errors. I glanced over the papers and said Give us two weeks and I’ll submit to you three different conceptual ideas showing the floor layouts and facades, before we enter into the detailed design. Then I checked the city planning regulations in the area around City Hall. There were no restrictions. Then, later we applied for a building permit. The answer came back a week later and we were told that there is a height restriction in the area by the Metropolitan Army Defense Command. We were told that the very area in Seongbuk-dong comes within the field vision of anti-aircraft artillery as the zone is within the range of protection for Cheong Wa Dae. We redesigned and lowered the height of the tower of the Roman Catholic church and finally we were able to receive the building permit. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee, a major-general, led a military coup on May 16, 1961. Over a cup of coffee in my office, Father Chang kept criticizing Park Chung-hee for taking over the country in a coup d’etat. Such anti-military government words were taboo and dangerous at the time. 20, 2011 this column carried an article Cryptography is the key to Information Age. ” A part of it reads, “When Chang Myon, vice president and prime minister of the First and the Second Republic, was assigned as South Korea’s first ambassador to the United States in 1949, he hid a Korean-English dictionary in his portfolio. The foreign ministry’s Seoul Office had the same copy. The dictionary was their code book. A word is picked up by indicating the page number and the column number from the same dictionaries in Washington, D. Bishop Chang Ick was my age, 87. I’m thinking of that wonderful gentleman in this time of sorrow. [Raw] Gwangmyeong 3 (1899). [Death] 1966.6.4. Graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After earning a doctorate in law and returning to Japan, engaged in Christian business. He was a member of the Constituent National Assembly in 1948 and became the first ambassador to the United States in 1949. 51 years Prime Minister became but Lee Sunman (Syngman Rhee) president and the collision to resign. In 1955, he organized the Democratic Party with Sin Ik-hui and became an opposition leader. In the third presidential election in 1981, he was elected vice president from the opposition party under President Lee Seung-man of the Liberal Party. Even after taking office, he blamed the Lee administration’s policies and resigned as vice president in the student revolution in April 1960. August Cabinet has been appointed to the responsibility system the second Prime Minister of the Republic, the following year of the five-sixteen military revolution can not respond quickly in, resulting in a successful revolution as a result. The Cabinet resigned altogether. Imprisoned for anti-revolution case in 1987Received a 10-year sentence , but was released from expulsion in 1965. SourceBritannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Information about. Commentary on Digital Daijisen. Became Prime Minister in 1950, but resigned in conflict with President Syngman Rhee. He formed the Democratic Party of Japan in 1955, and was reappointed as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April Revolution of 1960. 1961 Chung of the coup in the downfall. Chang Myon (Chang Myon). Commentary on the 2nd edition of the World Encyclopedia. The issue is Unishi. Born in Incheon, Gyeonggi Province. Graduated from the Catholic University of Manhattan in New York in 1925. Participated in the formation of the Democratic Party of the Conservative Opposition in 1955. He defeated Lee Ki-poong of the Liberal Party in 1981 and was elected Vice President, but there was no fundamental difference in his pro-American personality. Inaugurated as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April 1960 Revolution. In 1961, he signed the Korea-US Economic and Technical Assistance Agreement and endeavored to realize a new Korea-US relationship. But the president Yoonadministration, such as (in-failure) faction split is a weakness, not be able to respond effectively to the popular movements that hope the negative and unification also to North-South dialogue as a transient regime, 61 years Chung of He was banished from political activities in the 5/16 coup d’etat. SourceInformation about Heibonsha World Encyclopedia 2nd Edition. Commentary on the Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). A politician from South Korea. Born in Gyeonggi Province. After graduating from Suwon High School of Agriculture and Forestry, studied abroad in the United States and graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After returning to Japan, following the Catholic business, he became the principal of Tosei Commercial School from 1931 to 1945. After liberation, he entered politics and became a member of various parliament. 1951 Prime Minister, 1952 Presidential election and lost. He founded the Democratic Party in 1955 and confronted the ruling Liberal Party. After the student revolution in April 1960, he was elected Prime Minister under the new constitution and established the Democratic Party of Japan (a spokesman at the time was later President Kim Dae-Jung). However, he was dismissed by the military revolution in May 1961 and was temporarily charged with anti-revolutionary charges. He was released from exile in 1965, but died in June 1966 in disappointment. Mention of Chang Myon in the World Encyclopedia. From [Republic of Korea]. However, in order to perpetuate the administration, the people were forced to revise the constitution, such as changing the presidential election method from indirect elections by members of the Diet to direct elections by the people, and abolishing the three-election prohibition clause for the presidential term. The Lee administration collapsed due to the April revolution centered on students in 1960, against the backdrop of the economic crisis. In the Second Republic, which was established in its place, the criticism of Lee’s dictatorship was changed to a responsible cabinet system with significantly reduced presidential authority, and the Chang Myon administration (President Yun Posun) based on the opposition party (Democratic Party) during the Lee administration. However, the energy of the people who caused the April Revolution overcame the regulations of the Zhang administration, and the movement for democratization and unity showed unprecedented upsurge. [From the Park administration to all administrations] When. It seemed that a new phase would be opened in the North-South division situation, a military coup d’etat (May 16 coup d’etat) broke out on May 16, 1961, and mainly military personnel. Chung administration (third Republic) is satisfied. 1899 8 28 34. , · , 1948 5 10. 1961 5 16 809. 3 (79·) (76·) (41·). 4 (77· , , ,) 1994 ····· · ··. 5 (75·) (44·) (36). (40·)·(37·)·(35·) , (29·). 2 (81·,) , 3 (78) 3. Korea (or Korean peninsula) is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”) and South Korea (officially the “Republic of Korea”). Korea consists of the mainland Korean Peninsula (“Mainland Korea”), Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. It is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, together known as the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the second half of the 1st millennium, Silla defeated and conquered Baekje and Goguryeo, leading to the “Unified Silla” period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north, superseding former Goguryeo. Unified Silla eventually collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium, Goguryeo was resurrected as Goryeo, which defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as a single sovereign state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo. Goryeo (also spelled as Kory), whose name developed into the modern exonym “Korea”, was a highly cultured state that created the world’s first metal movable type in 1234. [3][4][5][6][7][8] However, multiple incursions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century greatly weakened the nation, which eventually agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin that ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, and Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 17 July 1392. The first 200 years of the Joseon era were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the later part of the dynasty, Korea’s isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the “Hermit Kingdom”. By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire’s effort to modernize, the country was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by it until the end of World War II in August 1945. In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. These circumstances became the basis for the division of Korea by the 2 superpowers with the 2 diffirent ideologies, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea’s division into two political entities in 1948: North Korea, and South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty. This status contributes to the high tensions that continue to divide the peninsula. Both governments of the two Koreas always claim to be the sole legitimate government of this region. Japanese occupation and Japan-Korea Annexation. List of heads of state (since 1897). Comparison of the two countries of Korea. Notable public holidays in South Korea. Independence Movement Day, March 1st. Memorial day, 6 June. National Liberation Day, 15 August. Hangul Day, 9 October. Main article: Names of Korea. See also: Korean romanization. “Korea” is the modern spelling of “Corea”, a name attested in English as early as 1614. [9][10] Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, [11] of the Chinese MCKawlej, [12] mod. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo (Korean: ; Hanja: ; MR: Kory), which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo’s time. Korea’s introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, [13] with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. [14] Goryeo’s name was a continuation of Goguryeo (Kogury) the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which was officially known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century. [15] The original name was a combination of the adjective go (“high, lofty”) with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either Guru (, “walled city, ” inferred from some toponyms in Chinese historical documents) or Gauri (, “center”). With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling “Korea” appeared and gradually grew in popularity;[9] its use in transcribing East Asian languages avoids the issues caused by the separate hard and soft Cs existing in English vocabulary derived from the Romance languages. The name Korea is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk , [hanuk], lit. “Country of the Han”. The name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. [16][17] Although written in Hanja as , , or , this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription (OC:Gar, MCHan[12] or Gan) of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning “big” or “great”, particularly in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria and Central Asia. In North Korea, Japan, China and Vietnam, Korea as a whole is referred to as , (Joseon, [tosn]), (Chsen), / (Cháoxin/Jusn), Triu Tiên lit. “[land of the] Morning Calm”. “Great Joseon” was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon , who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108BCE by China’s Han Empire. This go is the Hanja and simply means “ancient” or “old”; it is a modern usage to distinguish the ancient Joseon from the later dynasty. Joseon itself is the modern Korean pronunciation of the Hanja but it is unclear whether this was a transcription of a native Korean name (OCT[r]awser, MCTrjewsjen[12]) or a partial translation into Chinese of the Korean capital Asadal , [18] whose meaning has been reconstructed as “Morning Land” or “Mountain”. Main article: Geography of Korea. See also: Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea, and Provinces of Korea. A neighborhood in North Gyeongsang Province. A view of Mount Seorak. Daedongyeojido this 1861 map of Korea represents the peak of pre-modern mapmaking in the region. Korea consists of a peninsula and nearby islands located in East Asia. The peninsula extends southwards for about 1,100 km (680 mi) from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the east and the Yellow Sea (West Sea) to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water. [19][20] To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia. [21] Notable islands include Jeju Island, Ulleung Island, Dokdo. The southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu (2,744 m), through which runs the border with China. The southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter. To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan. Some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan (1,439 m), Mount Kumgang (1,638 m), Mount Seorak (1,708 m), Mount Taebaek (1,567 m), and Mount Jiri (1,915 m). There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is almost perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan. They are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are basically northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan (1950 m) is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of Japan, the composition of which is more felsic than Jeju-do. The volcanic islands tend to be younger, the more westward. Because the mountainous region is mostly on the eastern part of the peninsula, the main rivers tend to flow westwards. Two exceptions are the southward-flowing Nakdong River and Seomjin River. Important rivers running westward include the Amnok River, the Chongchon River, the Taedong River, the Han River, the Geum River, and the Yeongsan River. These rivers have vast flood plains and provide an ideal environment for wet-rice cultivation. The southern and southwestern coastlines of the peninsula form a well-developed ria coastline, known as Dadohae-jin in Korean. Its convoluted coastline provides mild seas, and the resulting calm environment allows for safe navigation, fishing, and seaweed farming. In addition to the complex coastline, the western coast of the Korean Peninsula has an extremely high tidal amplitude at Incheon, around the middle of the western coast. It can get as high as 9 m. Vast tidal flats have been developing on the south and west coastlines. Korea has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula’s position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west. The peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining. When these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with often cloudy days with rain, which is sometimes very heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer; temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) daily at this time of year. Usually, high pressure is heavily dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes relatively low. The weather becomes increasingly dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is relatively dry with some snow falling at times. Main article: Wildlife of Korea. Animal life of the Korean Peninsula includes a considerable number of bird species and native freshwater fish. Native or endemic species of the Korean Peninsula include Korean hare, Korean water deer, Korean field mouse, Korean brown frog, Korean pine and Korean spruce. The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) with its forest and natural wetlands is a unique biodiversity spot, which harbours eighty-two endangered species. Korea once hosted many Siberian tigers, but as the number of people affected by the tigers increased, the tigers were killed in the Joseon Dynasty and the Siberian tigers in the South Korea became extinct during the Japanese colonial era period. It has been confirmed that Siberian tigers are only on the side of North Korea now. There are also approximately 3,034 species of vascular plants. Main article: History of Korea. See also: History of North Korea and History of South Korea. Four Commanderies of Han. Northern and Southern States period. United Silla (Unified Silla). Later Three Kingdoms period. Unified Silla (Later Silla). ArtDivisionLanguageMilitary (Goguryeo)MonarchsNavalScience and technologyHistory of Jeju. Main articles: Prehistoric Korea and Gojoseon. The Korean Academy claimed ancient hominid fossils originating from about 100,000BCE in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. Fluorescent and high-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000BCE. [24] The best preserved Korean pottery goes back to the paleolithic times around 10,000BCE and the Neolithic period begins around 6000BCE. According to legend, Dangun, a descendant of Heaven, established Gojoseon in 2333BCE. In 108BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Gojoseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula. By 313, Goguryeo annexed all of the Chinese commanderies. Main article: ProtoThree Kingdoms of Korea. The ProtoThree Kingdoms period, sometimes called the Multiple States Period, is the earlier part of what is commonly called the Three Kingdoms Period, following the fall of Gojoseon but before Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla fully developed into kingdoms. This time period saw numerous states spring up from the former territories of Gojoseon, which encompassed northern Korea and southern Manchuria. With the fall of Gojoseon, southern Korea entered the Samhan period. Located in the southern part of Korea, Samhan referred to the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. Mahan was the largest and consisted of 54 states. Byeonhan and Jinhan both consisted of twelve states, bringing a total of 78 states within the Samhan. These three confederacies eventually developed into Baekje, Silla, and Gaya. Main articles: Three Kingdoms of Korea, Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. 7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea consisted of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje. Silla and Baekje controlled the southern half of the Korean Peninsula, maintaining the former Samhan territories, while Goguryeo controlled the northern half of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria and the Liaodong Peninsula, uniting Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and other states in the former Gojoseon territories. Goguryeo was a highly militaristic state;[26][27]self-published source? It was a powerful empire and one of the great powers in East Asia, [28][29][30][31]self-published source? Reaching its zenith in the 5th century when its territories expanded to encompass most of Manchuria to the north, parts of Inner Mongolia to the west, [32] parts of Russia to the east, [33] and the Seoul region to the south. [34] Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Jangsu, [35][36][37][38] who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power on the Korean Peninsula. [39][40] In addition to contesting for control of the Korean Peninsula, Goguryeo had many military conflicts with various Chinese dynasties, [41]self-published source? Most notably the GoguryeoSui War, in which Goguryeo defeated a huge force said to number over a million men. [42][43][44][45][46] In 642, the powerful general Yeon Gaesomun led a coup and gained complete control over Goguryeo. In response, Emperor Tang Taizong of China led a campaign against Goguryeo, but was defeated and retreated. [47][48]self-published source? After the death of Tang Taizong, his son Emperor Tang Gaozong allied with the Korean kingdom of Silla and invaded Goguryeo again, but was unable to overcome Goguryeo’s stalwart defenses and was defeated in 662. [49][50] However, Yeon Gaesomun died of a natural cause in 666 and Goguryeo was thrown into chaos and weakened by a succession struggle among his sons and younger brother, with his eldest son defecting to Tang and his younger brother defecting to Silla. [51][52] The Tang-Silla alliance finally conquered Goguryeo in 668. After the collapse of Goguryeo, Tang and Silla ended their alliance and fought over control of the Korean Peninsula. Silla succeeded in gaining control over most of the Korean Peninsula, while Tang gained control over Goguryeo’s northern territories. However, 30 years after the fall of Goguryeo, a Goguryeo general by the name of Dae Joyeong founded the Korean-Mohe state of Balhae and successfully expelled the Tang presence from much of the former Goguryeo territories. Seokguram Grotto from the Silla era, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The southwestern Korean kingdom of Baekje was founded around modern-day Seoul by a Goguryeo prince, a son of the founder of Goguryeo. [53][54]self-published source? [55] Baekje absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as parts of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralised government; during the expansion of its territory, Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through maritime contacts with the Southern Dynasties. Baekje was a great maritime power;[56] its nautical skill, which made it the Phoenicia of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan. [57][58] Historic evidence suggests that Japanese culture, art, and language were influenced by the kingdom of Baekje and Korea itself;[31][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69] Baekje also played an important role in transmitting advanced Chinese culture to the Japanese archipelago. Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, most notably in the 4th century during the rule of Geunchogo when its influence extended across the sea to Liaoxi and Shandong in China, taking advantage of the weakened state of Former Qin, and Kyushu in the Japanese archipelago;[70] however, Baekje was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined. The Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century. Although later records claim that Silla was the oldest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it is now believed to have been the last kingdom to develop. By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a large state in the southeast, occupying and influencing its neighboring city-states. In 562, Silla annexed the Gaya confederacy, which was located between Baekje and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea often warred with each other and Silla was often dominated by Baekje and Goguryeo. Silla was the smallest and weakest of the three, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage. [71][72] In 660, King Muyeol ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin, aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje after defeating General Gyebaek at the Battle of Hwangsanbeol. In 661, Silla and Tang attacked Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of General Kim Yu-shin, launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year. Main articles: NorthSouth States Period, Later Silla, and Balhae. Beginning in the 6th century, Silla’s power gradually extended across the Korean Peninsula. Silla first annexed the adjacent Gaya confederacy in 562. By the 640s, Silla formed an alliance with the Tang dynasty of China to conquer Baekje and later Goguryeo. After conquering Baekje and Goguryeo, Silla repulsed Tang China from the Korean peninsula in 676. Even though Silla unified most of the Korean Peninsula, most of the Goguryeo territories to the north of the Korean Peninsula were ruled by Balhae. Former Goguryeo general[73][74] or chief of Sumo Mohe[75][76][77] Dae Jo-yeong led a group of Goguryeo and Mohe refugees to the Jilin and founded the kingdom of Balhae, 30 years after the collapse of Goguryeo, as the successor to Goguryeo. At its height, Balhae’s territories extended from southern Manchuria down to the northern Korean peninsula. Balhae was called the “Prosperous Country in the East”. Unified Silla and Balhae in the 8th century CE. Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia, [79] and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River. [80][81][82][83] Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country, [84] and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju[85] was the fourth largest city in the world. [86][87][88][89] Later Silla was a golden age of art and culture, [90][91][92][93] as evidenced by the Hwangnyongsa, Seokguram, and Emille Bell. Buddhism flourished during this time, and many Korean Buddhists gained great fame among Chinese Buddhists[94] and contributed to Chinese Buddhism, [95] including: Woncheuk, Wonhyo, Uisang, Musang, [96][97][98][99] and Kim Gyo-gak, a Silla prince whose influence made Mount Jiuhua one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism. [100][101][102][103][104]. Later Silla fell apart in the late 9th century, giving way to the tumultuous Later Three Kingdoms period (892935), and Balhae was destroyed by the Khitans in 926. Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms and received the last crown prince and much of the ruling class of Balhae, thus bringing about a unification of the two successor nations of Goguryeo. Goryeo was founded in 918 and replaced Silla as the ruling dynasty of Korea. Goryeo’s land was at first what is now South Korea and about 1/3 of North Korea, but later on managed to recover most of the Korean peninsula. The name “Goryeo” is a short form of “Goguryeo” and was first used during the time of King Jangsu. Goryeo regarded itself as the successor of Goguryeo, hence its name and efforts to recover the former territories of Goguryeo. [106][107][108][109] Wang Geon, the founder of Goryeo, was of Goguryeo descent and traced his ancestry to a noble Goguryeo clan. [110] He made Kaesong, his hometown, the capital. During this period, laws were codified and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon industries flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. The publication of the Tripitaka Koreana onto more than 80,000 wooden blocks and the invention of the world’s first metal movable type in the 13th century attest to Goryeo’s cultural achievements. [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Goryeo had to defend frequently against attacks by nomadic empires, especially the Khitans and the Mongols. Goryeo had a hostile relationship with the Khitans, because the Khitan Empire had destroyed Balhae, also a successor state of Goguryeo. In 993, the Khitans, who had established the Liao dynasty in 907, invaded Goryeo, demanding that it make amity with them. Goryeo sent the diplomat Seo Hui to negotiate, who successfully persuaded the Khitans to let Goryeo expand to the banks of the Amnok (Yalu) River, citing that in the past the land belonged to Goguryeo, the predecessor of Goryeo. [111] During the GoryeoKhitan War, the Khitan Empire invaded Korea twice more in 1009 and 1018, but was defeated. After defeating the Khitan Empire, which was the most powerful empire of its time, [112][113] Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which the Tripitaka Koreana was completed, and there were great developments in printing and publishing, promoting learning and dispersing knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science; by 1100, there were 12 universities that produced famous scholars and scientists. Goryeo was invaded by the Mongols in seven major campaigns from the 1230s until the 1270s, but was never conquered. [116] Exhausted after decades of fighting, Goryeo sent its crown prince to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to the Mongols; Kublai Khan accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince, [116] and the dynastic line of Goryeo continued to survive under the overlordship of the Mongol Yuan dynasty as a semi-autonomous vassal state and compulsory ally. The two nations became intertwined for 80 years as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses, [116] and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess. In the 1350s, King Gongmin was free at last to reform the Goryeo government when the Yuan dynasty began to crumble. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, which included the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars. During this tumultuous period, Goryeo momentarily conquered Liaoyang in 1356, repulsed two large invasions by the Red Turbans in 1359 and 1360, and defeated the final attempt by the Yuan to dominate Goryeo when General Choe Yeong defeated a Mongol tumen in 1364. During the 1380s, Goryeo turned its attention to the Wokou threat and used naval artillery created by Choe Museon to annihilate hundreds of pirate ships. In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye overthrew the Goryeo dynasty after he staged a coup and defeated General Choe Yeong. Yi Seong-gye named his new dynasty Joseon and moved the capital from Kaesong to Hanseong (formerly Hanyang; modern-day Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung palace. [117] In 1394, he adopted Confucianism as the country’s official ideology, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy of the Joseon dynasty was Neo-Confucianism, which was epitomized by the seonbi class, scholars who passed up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity. Joseon was a nominal tributary state of China but exercised full sovereignty, [118][119] and maintained the highest position among China’s tributary states, [120][121] which also included countries such as the Ryukyu Kingdom, Vietnam, Burma, Brunei, Laos, Thailand, [122][123][124] and the Philippines, among others. [125][126] In addition, Joseon received tribute from Jurchens and Japanese until the 17th century, [127][128][129] and had a small enclave in the Ryukyu Kingdom that engaged in trade with Siam and Java. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Joseon enjoyed many benevolent rulers who promoted education and science. [131] Most notable among them was Sejong the Great r. 141850, who personally created and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet. [132] This golden age[131] saw great cultural and scientific advancements, [133] including in printing, meteorological observation, astronomy, calendar science, ceramics, military technology, geography, cartography, medicine, and agricultural technology, some of which were unrivaled elsewhere. [134] Joseon implemented a class system that consisted of yangban the noble class, jungin the middle class, yangin the common class, and cheonin the lowest class, which included occupations such as butchers, tanners, shamans, entertainers, and nobi, the equivalent of slaves, bondservants, or serfs. In 1592 and again in 1597, the Japanese invaded Korea; the Korean military at the time was unprepared and untrained, due to two centuries of peace on the Korean Peninsula. [137] Toyotomi Hideyoshi intended to conquer China and India[138] through the Korean Peninsula, but was defeated by strong resistance from the Righteous Army, the naval superiority of Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his turtle ships, and assistance from Wanli Emperor of Ming China. However, Joseon experienced great destruction, including a tremendous loss of cultural sites such as temples and palaces to Japanese pillaging, and the Japanese brought back to Japan an estimated 100,000200,000 noses cut from Korean victims. [139] Less than 30 years after the Japanese invasions, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon’s war-weakened state and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty. After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynasty, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century. In the 19th century, the royal in-law families gained control of the government, leading to mass corruption and weakening of the state, with severe poverty and peasant rebellions spreading throughout the country. Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname “the hermit kingdom”, but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders, beginning an era leading into Japanese imperial rule. Main article: Korean Empire. The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889. Beginning in 1871, Japan began to exert more influence in Korea, forcing it out of China’s traditional sphere of influence. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (189495), the Qing dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong of Korea was assassinated by Japanese agents. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty proclaimed the Korean Empire (18971910). King Gojong became emperor. During this brief period, Korea had some success in modernizing the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries. Russia, Japan, France, and the United States all invested in the country and sought to influence it politically. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on 26 October 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, It Hirobumi, for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation. Main article: Korea under Japanese rule. See also: Japanese war crimes. The memorial tablet for the March 1st Movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul. In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the JapanKorea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin. [143] There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes. Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation[144][145][146] was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military. [147] The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia. Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939, [148] and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan’s military. [149] Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died. [150] Approximately 200,000 girls and women, [151] mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. [152] In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named “comfort women”. During the Japanese annexation, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Sshi-kaimei. [155] Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed[156] or taken to Japan. [157] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections. [158] One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan. [157][159] Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date[157] this has not occurred. [159] Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Dokdo islets, located east of the Korean Peninsula. There was significant emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese occupation period, including Korea. [161] By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea. [162] After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan. Main articles: Division of Korea, Korean conflict, and Korean reunification. Flag of North Korea. In 1945, with the surrender of Japan, the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea. Satellite image of the Korean peninsula taken at night showing the extent of the division between the Koreas; note the difference in light emitted between the two countries. The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, North Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic was established in the north and South Korea; a Western-style regime, was established in the South. North Korea is a one-party state, now centred on Kim Il-sung’s Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history. Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957, South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana, [163] and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana’s. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987;[165] others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone. [166] Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008. [167] In South Korea, as guerrilla activities expanded, the South Korean government used strong measures against peasants, such as forcefully moving their families from guerrilla areas. According to one estimate, these measures resulted in 36,000 people killed, 11,000 people wounded, and 432,000 people displaced. Main article: Korean War. Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as U. Marines fight North Koreans holding the city. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remained divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states. In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (195053) more than 1.2 million people died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities. [169] The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line, but the two governments are officially at war. In 2018, the leaders of North Korea and South Korea officially signed the Panmunjom Declaration, announcing that they will work to end the conflict. Korean Empire (1897 1910). 12 October 1897 20 July 1907. 20 July 1907 29 August 1910. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1948). Chairman of the Standing Committee. Of the Supreme People’s Assembly. 9 September 1948 20 September 1957. 20 September 1957 28 December 1972. 28 December 1972 8 July 1994. President of the Presidium. 5 September 1998 11 April 2019. Chairman of the National Defence Commission. 9 April 2009 17 December 2011. First Chairman of the National Defence Commission/Chairman of the State Affairs Commission. Republic of Korea (1948). 24 July 1948 26 April 1960. 13 August 1960 23 March 1962. 17 December 1963 26 October 1979. 6 December 1979 16 August 1980. 1 September 1980 24 February 1988. 25 February 1988 24 February 1993. 25 February 1993 24 February 1998. 25 February 1998 24 February 2003. 25 February 2003 24 February 2008. 25 February 2008 24 February 2013. 25 February 2013 10 March 2017. The name “Korea” is written as it started from 1897. Main articles: Koreans, Demographics of South Korea, and Demographics of North Korea. The combined population of the Koreas is about 76 million (North Korea: 25 million, South Korea: 51 million). Korea is chiefly populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak the Korean language. [170] The number of foreigners living in Korea has also steadily increased since the late 20th century, particularly in South Korea, where more than 1 million foreigners reside. [171] It was estimated in 2006 that only 26,700 of the old Chinese community now remain in South Korea. [172] However, in recent years, immigration from mainland China has increased; 624,994 persons of Chinese nationality have immigrated to South Korea, including 443,566 of ethnic Korean descent. [173] Small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese are also found in North Korea. Main articles: Korean language and Korean Sign Language. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul. Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 25 million. Other large groups of Korean speakers through Korean diaspora are found in China, the United States, Japan, former Soviet Union and elsewhere. Modern Korean is written almost exclusively in the script of the Korean alphabet (known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosungul in China and North Korea), which was invented in the 15th century. Korean is sometimes written with the addition of some Chinese characters called Hanja; however, this is only occasionally seen nowadays. Main articles: Culture of Korea, Korean art, Korean pottery and porcelain, Korean martial arts, Korean dance, Korean bow, and Korean architecture. Location of World Heritage Sites in Korea. Note: Seoul is home to three separate properties; Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty locate throughout the country, only one site is shown on map. Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu). In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as “Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk” (,) and “Eastern Nation of Decorum” (,). [177] Individuals are regarded as one year old when they are born, as Koreans reckon the pregnancy period as one year of life for infants, and age increments increase on New Year’s Day rather than on the anniversary of birthdays. Thus, one born immediately before New Year’s Day may only be a few days old in western reckoning, but two years old in Korea. Accordingly, a Korean person’s stated age (at least among fellow Koreans) will be one or two years more than their age according to western reckoning. However, western reckoning is sometimes applied with regard to the concept of legal age; for example, the legal age for purchasing alcohol or cigarettes in the Republic of Korea is 19, which is measured according to western reckoning. Main article: Korean literature. Korean literature written before the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called “Classical” or Traditional. Literature, written in Chinese characters (hanja), was established at the same time as the Chinese script arrived on the peninsula. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the classical Korean style as early as the 2nd centuryBCE, reflecting Korean thoughts and experiences of that time. Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the peninsula, strongly influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Modern literature is often linked with the development of hangul, which helped spread literacy from the aristocracy to the common people. Hangul, however, only reached a dominant position in Korean literature in the second half of the 19th century, resulting in a major growth in Korean literature. Sinsoseol, for instance, are novels written in hangul. The Korean War led to the development of literature centered on the wounds and chaos of war. Much of the post-war literature in South Korea deals with the daily lives of ordinary people, and their struggles with national pain. The collapse of the traditional Korean value system is another common theme of the time. Main article: Music of Korea. Traditional Korean music includes combinations of the folk, vocal, religious and ritual music styles of the Korean people. Korean music has been practiced since prehistoric times. [178] Korean music falls into two broad categories. The first, Hyangak, literally means The local music or Music native to Korea, a famous example of which is Sujechon, a piece of instrumental music often claimed to be at least 1,300 years old. [179] The second, yangak, represents a more Western style. Main articles: Religion in Korea, Religion in South Korea, and Religion in North Korea. See also: Korean shamanism, Korean Confucianism, Korean Buddhism, Taoism in Korea, Christianity in Korea, and Islam in Korea. Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s. Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religious practice has been suppressed in North Korea. Throughout Korean history and culture, regardless of separation; the influence of traditional beliefs of Korean Shamanism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism have remained an underlying religion of the Korean people as well as a vital aspect of their culture; all these traditions have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years up to today despite strong Westernisation from Christian missionary conversions in the South[180][181][182] or the pressure from the Juche government in the North. According to 2005 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 29.2% of the population (of which are Protestants 18.3% and Catholics 10.9%) and Buddhists 22.8%. Islam in South Korea is practiced by about 45,000 natives (about 0.09% of the population) in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers from Muslim countries. Main article: Korean cuisine. See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean royal court cuisine. Tteokbokki, rice cakes with spicy gochujang sauce. Koreans traditionally believe that the taste and quality of food depend on its spices and sauces, the essential ingredients to making a delicious meal. Therefore, soybean paste, soy sauce, gochujang or red pepper paste and kimchi are some of the most important staples in a Korean household. Korean cuisine was greatly influenced by the geography and climate of the Korean Peninsula, which is known for its cold autumns and winters, therefore there are many fermented dishes and hot soups and stews. Bulgogi and side dishes. Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, a side dish which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables, most commonly cabbage. Kimchi is said to relieve the pores on the skin, thereby reducing wrinkles and providing nutrients to the skin naturally. It is also healthy, as it provides necessary vitamins and nutrients. Gochujang, a traditional Korean sauce made of red pepper is also commonly used, often as pepper (chilli) paste, earning the cuisine a reputation for spiciness. Bulgogi (roasted marinated meat, usually beef), galbi (marinated grilled short ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork belly) are popular meat entrees. Fish is also a popular commodity, as it is the traditional meat that Koreans eat. Meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, such as galbitang (stewed ribs) or doenjang jjigae (fermented bean paste soup). The center of the table is filled with a shared collection of sidedishes called banchan. Other popular dishes include bibimbap, which literally means “mixed rice” (rice mixed with meat, vegetables, and red pepper paste), and naengmyeon (cold noodles). Instant noodles, or ramyeon, is a popular snack food. Koreans also enjoy food from pojangmachas (street vendors), which serve tteokbokki, rice cake and fish cake with a spicy gochujang sauce; gimbap, made of steamed white rice wrapped in dried laver seaweed; fried squid; and glazed sweet potato. Soondae, a sausage made of cellophane noodles and pork blood, is widely eaten. Additionally, some other common snacks include “Choco Pie”, shrimp crackers, “bbeongtwigi” (puffed rice grains), and “nurungji” (slightly burnt rice). Nurungji can be eaten as it is or boiled with water to make a soup. Nurungji can also be eaten as a snack or a dessert. Korea is unique among Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks. Metal chopsticks have been discovered in archaeological sites belonging to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. Main articles: Education in North Korea and Education in South Korea. The modern South Korean school system consists of six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranks South Korea’s science education as the third best in the world and being significantly higher than the OECD average. South Korea ranks second on math and literature and first in problem solving[citation needed]. Although South Korean students often rank high on international comparative assessments, the education system is criticised for emphasising too much upon passive learning and memorization. The South Korean education system is rather notably strict and structured as compared to its counterparts in most Western societies. The North Korean education system consists primarily of universal and state funded schooling by the government. The national literacy rate for citizens 15 years of age and above is over 99 percent. [190][191] Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, and then on to universities. The most prestigious university in the DPRK is Kim Il-sung University. Other notable universities include Kim Chaek University of Technology, which focuses on computer science, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, which trains working level diplomats and trade officials, and Kim Hyong Jik University, which trains teachers. Main article: History of science and technology in Korea. See also: List of Korean inventions and discoveries. Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris. One of the best known artifacts of Korea’s history of science and technology is the Cheomseongdae (,), a 9.4-meter high observatory built in 634. The earliest known surviving Korean example of woodblock printing is the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra. [192] It is believed to have been printed in Korea in 75051, which if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. During the Goryeo Dynasty, metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in 1234. [193][5][194][195][8][3] This invention made printing easier, more efficient and also increased literacy, which observed by Chinese visitors was seen to be so important where it was considered to be shameful to not be able to read. [196] The Mongol Empire later adopted Korea’s movable type printing and spread as far as Central Asia. There is conjecture as to whether or not Choe’s invention had any influence on later printing inventions such as Gutenberg’s Printing press. [197] When the Mongols invaded Europe they inadvertently introduced different kinds of Asian technology. The Korean alphabet hangul was also invented during this time by King Sejong the Great. Main articles: Sport in South Korea and Sport in North Korea. North Korea and South Korea usually compete as two separate nations in international events. There are, however, a few examples of them having competed as one entity, under the name Korea. While association football remains one of the most popular sports in South Korea, the martial art of taekwondo is considered to be the national sport. Baseball and golf are also popular. Taekwon-Do is Korea’s most famous martial art and sport. It combines combat techniques, self-defence, sport and exercise. Taekwon-Do has become an official Olympic sport, starting as a demonstration event in 1988 (when South Korea hosted the Games in Seoul) and becoming an official medal event in 2000. The two major Taekwon-Do federations were founded in Korea. The two are the International Taekwon-Do Federation and the World Taekwondo Federation. Hapkido is a modern Korean martial art with a grappling focus that employs joint locks, throws, kicks, punches and other striking attacks like attacks against pressure points. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the pure use of strength against strength. Ssireum is a traditional form of wrestling that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years, with evidence discovered from Goguryeo of Korea’s Three Kingdoms Period (57BCE to 688). Ssireum is the traditional national sport of Korea. During a match, opponents grip each other by sash belts wrapped around the waist and the thigh, attempting to throw their competitor to the sandy ground of the ring. The first opponent to touch the ground with any body part above the knee or to lose hold of their opponent loses the round. Ssireum competitions are traditionally held twice a year, during the Dano Festival (the 5th day of the fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month). Competitions are also held throughout the year as a part of festivals and other events. Taekkyon is a traditional martial art, considered the oldest form of fighting technique of Korea. Practiced since centuries and especially popular during the Joseon dynasty, two forms co-existed: one for practical use, the other for sport. This form was usually practiced alongside Ssireum during festivals and competitions between villages. Nonetheless, Taekkyon almost disappeared during the Japanese Occupation and the Korean War. Though lost in North Korea, Taekkyon has enjoyed a spectacular revival from the 1980s in South Korea. It is the only martial art in the world (with Ssireum) recognized as a National Treasure of South Korea and a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Emblem of North Korea. Emblem of South Korea. GDP total 2011/2014 est. Korean People’s won (sign: , ISO: KPW). Korean Republic won (, KRW). Main article: List of public holidays in South Korea. Samiljeol, Independence Movement Day, commemorates Korea’s declaration of independence from Japanese occupation on 1 March 1919. The name is derived from Korean “sam”‘three’, “il”‘one,’ and “jeol”‘day’, the date of the uprising in 1919. Korea was annexed to the Empire of Japan on 29 August 1910 following the imposed Japan-Korea Treaty. On 1 March 1919, Korean presented their resistance towards Japan and Japanese occupation with a declaration of independence. Following the conclusion of World War II, Korea was liberated from Japan and its independence restored. The newly established Korean government set aside 1 March as a national holiday to commemorate the sacrifices borne in the long struggle for Korean independence. Hyunchoongil is the national holiday in Korea commemorating those who fought and died for the nation. In August 1948, only a few years after Korea achieved its independence from Japan, the Korean War, in Korea also known as the 6.25 war, broke out between North and South Korea. During this war, approximately 400,000 soldiers and some one million citizens were killed or injured. In 1953, North and South Korea agreed to a cease-fire, and three years later the Korean government established Hyungchoogil to commemorate the soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Subsequent to its establishment, Hyungchoogil was reinterpreted as a day of remembrance for those who died defending Korea in all conflicts, not only during the Korean War. Gwangbokjeol is the day for celebrating liberation of the country from Japan in 1945 as well as celebrating the establishment of Korean government in 1948. It was first declared to be national holiday in 1949 October 1. On this date every year, the president of Korea visits Independence Hall, and invites diplomatic envoys from many countries and all social standings in countries to Cheongwadae (the Blue House, the Korean presidential residence). Hangul Day (also spelled as Hangeul Day) is a day that celebrates the creation of the Hunminjeongeum (Hangul, Korean alphabet), which was inscribed to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 1997. [202] Hangul was created by Sejong the Great in 1443 and proclaimed in 1446. Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil. [203][204][205][206] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often didn’t have the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. [207] Hangul Day was founded in 1926 during the Japanese occupation by members of the Korean Language Society, whose goal was to preserve the Korean language during a time of rapid forced Japanization. [208] Today, both South Korea and North Korea celebrate Hangul Day as a national holiday. Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea. Index of Korea-related articles. List of Korean inventions and discoveries. List of people of Korean descent. National Treasures of North Korea. National Treasures of South Korea. North KoreaSouth Korea relations. The item “ORIGINAL KOREA CHANG MYUN HANDWRITTEN LETTER ASSASSINATION RARE VINTAGE” is in sale since Sunday, July 4, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “collectiblecollectiblecollectible” and is located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Jamaica, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Korea, Republic of
  • Original/Reproduction: Original

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster

The_Krays_Reg_Kray_Original_hand_Written_Letter_London_Gangster_01_ftly The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster

The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster. Original hand written letter by notorious London gangster reg kray. This item is about 20 inches wide or 40 cm. Looks very striking and would be a great talking point for any room. An opportunity not to be missed. Own a piece of British gangland history. The item “The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster” is in sale since Tuesday, July 13, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectables\Autographs\Certified Original Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “msmyth87″ and is located in Craigavon. This item can be shipped to United Kingdom, Antigua and barbuda, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Australia, United States, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, China, Israel, Hong Kong, Norway, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Barbados, Brunei darussalam, Cayman islands, Dominica, Egypt, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Grenada, French guiana, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Saint kitts and nevis, Saint lucia, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Macao, Monaco, Maldives, Montserrat, Martinique, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Turks and caicos islands, Aruba, Saudi arabia, South africa, United arab emirates, Chile, Bahamas, Colombia, Costa rica, Dominican republic, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Kuwait, Panama, Philippines, Qatar, El salvador, Trinidad and tobago, Uruguay, Russian federation.
  • Type: Historical

The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster

Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR

Trotsky_original_handwritten_letter_Autograph_World_rarity_hard_to_find_RAR_01_psr Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR
Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR
Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR
Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR
Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR
Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR
Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR
Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR
Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR

Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR
Liebe Autogramm- und Autographenliebhaber/innen. Herzlich Willkommen/ Welcome to fair-autographs1. Viel Spaß beim durchstöbern meines Shops. Es werden ausschließlich Originale. Aus vielen Bereichen angeboten. Motto des Shops: Erst wenn Sie zufrieden sind bin ich es auch! Informationen zu der hier angebotenen Weltrarität. Kommunistischer Politiker und marxistischer Theoretiker. Trotzki, wie er sich ab 1902 nannte, war der maßgebliche Organisator der Revolution vom 25. November 1917, der die Bolschewiki unter der Führung von Wladimir Lenin an die Macht brachte. Als Kriegskommissar gründete er die Rote Armee , an deren Organisation und an deren Sieg im Russischen Bürgerkrieg er wesentlichen Anteil hatte. Nach Lenins Tod 1924 wurde Trotzki von Josef Stalin zunehmend entmachtet, 1929 ins Exil gezwungen und 1940 von einem sowjetischen Agenten in Mexiko ermordet. Ein handgeschriebener Brief mit interessantem Inhalt von Leo Trotzki an Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky. Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky (russisch :) 4. Februar 1880 – 28. Juli 1948 war ein russischer Revolutionär. Er spielte eine große Rolle bei der russischen Revolution von 1917. So eine Weltrarität ist seit Jahren kaum/ überhaupt nicht auf dem Weltmarkt zu finden. Es werden meistens nur Paraphen oder einfache Signaturen für extrem viel Geld angeboten und verkauft. Original handgeschriebener Brief von Leo Trotzki (Leon Trotsky/ Lew Dawidowitsch Bronstein). (kein Druck, kein Stempel, kein Autopen, oder anderes). Gesamtgröße: Montage auf speziellem Kartonpapier (DIN A4). Zustand: gut – Altersbedingter Gebrauchtzustand. Kein Risiko: 100% Original mit Geld-zurück-Garantie auf die Authentizität. Die Porto- und Versandkosten innerhalb Deutschlands betragen. Einschreiben wie in den jeweiligen Angeboten aufgeführt. Vielen Dank für Ihr Verständnis! Richard Wagner Brief Gustave Flaubert Rainer Maria Rilke eigh. Brief Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger Marc Chagall Boris Pasternak Ayrton Senna Salvador Dali Magaret Rutherford Thomas Mann Maxim Gorki Thomas Alva Edison Franz Liszt. Albert Einstein Gerhart Hauptmann Hermann Hesse Lex Barker Charlie Chaplin Fidel Castro Elvis Presley Erwin Rommel Stan Laurel Stefan Zweig Johannes Paul II. Leo Trotzki Wilhelm Furtwängler Michael Jackson Otto Hahn Ufa-Rüdel-Ross-Kolibri. Have fun browsing the autograph shops. Original autographs from all areas are offered. Information about the autograph offered here. Leon Trotsky was a Russian revolutionary , communist politician and Marxist theorist. Trotsky, as he called himself from 1902, was the principal organizer of the revolution of 25 October/ 7 November 1917, which brought the Bolsheviks to power under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. ” “As a war commissioner, he founded the Red Army , in whose organization and victory in the Russian Civil War he played a major role. After Lenin’s death in 1924, Trotsky was increasingly disempowered by Joseph Stalin, forced into exile in 1929, and assassinated by a Soviet agent in Mexico in 1940. Source Wikipedia A handwritten letter with interesting content from Leon Trotsky to Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky. Nikolai Ilyich Podvoisky (Russian :) (February 4, 1880 – July 28, 1948) was a Russian revolutionary. He played a major role in the Russian Revolution of 1917. Such a world rarity is hardly/not at all found on the world market for years. Original handwritten letter from Leon Trotsky (Leon Trotsky/Lew Dawidowitsch Bronstein). (no print, no stamp, no autopsy, or other). Total size: Mounting on special cardboard paper (DIN A4) Special feature: Absolute world rarity! Thank you for your understanding! I would like to sincerely thank all customers. The item “Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR” is in sale since Sunday, May 9, 2021. This item is in the category “Sammeln & Seltenes\Autogramme & Autographen\Politik, Adel & Militär\Militär”. The seller is “fair-autographs1″ and is located in Bochum. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Herkunft: Russia
  • Kategorie: Militär
  • Autogrammart: handwritten letter
  • Original/Repro: 100% authentic handwritten letter with provenienz

Trotsky original handwritten letter Autograph World rarity hard to find RAR

The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster

The_Krays_Reg_Kray_Original_hand_Written_Letter_London_Gangster_01_bqi The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster

The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster
The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Signed Letter Autograph London Gangster. A genuine authentic hand written letter by reg kray to his adopted son Bradley. A very significant item. Reg writes that he is not happy with fred dinage who help write the book our story by the krays. Reg writes that dinage twisted the truth and that reg has made him revise the book into another edition as he was unhappy with the first one. This unique piece of British gangland memorabilia is framed in a large 20 inch frame. Item looks astonishing and will be a real talking point. Own a piece of British criminal history with this exceptional investment opportunity not to be missed. The item “The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster” is in sale since Thursday, May 6, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectables\Autographs\Certified Original Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “msmyth87″ and is located in Craigavon. This item can be shipped to United Kingdom, Antigua and barbuda, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Australia, United States, Bahrain, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, China, Israel, Hong Kong, Norway, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mexico, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, Bangladesh, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Barbados, Brunei darussalam, Cayman islands, Dominica, Egypt, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Grenada, French guiana, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Saint kitts and nevis, Saint lucia, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Macao, Monaco, Maldives, Montserrat, Martinique, Nicaragua, Oman, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Turks and caicos islands, Aruba, Saudi arabia, South africa, United arab emirates, Chile, Bahamas, Colombia, Costa rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Kuwait, Panama, Philippines, Qatar, Trinidad and tobago, Uruguay, Ukraine.
  • Type: Historical

The Krays Reg Kray Original hand Written Letter London Gangster