Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi

Scarce_Outlaw_Handwritten_Letter_Wilbur_Underhill_Jr_1901_1934_Killed_Fbi_01_ju Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi
Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi
Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi
Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi
Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi
Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi
Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi

Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi
AN EXTREMELY RARE LENGHTY AND DETAILED LETTER HANDWRITTEN BY WILBUR UNDERHILL, JR. LETTER INCLUDES MAILING ENVELOPE ADDRESSED TO RELATIVE (SISTER). WRITTEN WHEN HE WAS IN JAIL. WILBUR WAS KILLED AT THE AGE OF 32 BY WOUNDS SUFFERED BY BEING SHOT MULTIPLE TIMES BY FEDERAL AGENTS, STATE TROOPERS AND LOCAL POLICE. (March 16, 1901 January 6, 1934), often called “Mad Dog” or the “Tri-State Terror”, was an American criminal, burglar, bank robber and Depression-era outlaw. He was one of the most wanted bandits in Oklahoma during the 1920s and 1930s and co-led a gang with Harvey Bailey that included many fellow Cookson Hills outlaws including Jim Clark, Ed Davis and Robert “Big Bob” Brady. Dont know what about. “She said she liked me most because im a bad man I know i aint that pitiful”. “But really Deane when I come in the cell after work I walk the floor to pass the time away”. “I guess she figured I would never be out”. Letter and envelope are in protective mylar. Those who have written about Wilbur Underhill, a Missouri-born outlaw who surfaced in the 1920s and attracted nationwide attention in 1933, speculate on why he didn’t become more famous, since he was considered one of the most brazen and dangerous criminals of his era. The photo above makes him look jaunty, and inspired one writer to say Underhill had Hollywood good looks. Newspapers at the time more often used a photo (right) that made Underhill uglier and more menacing. I think it was taken in 1927 after he had been wounded during a shootout that led to his capture. One reason suggested not only for Underhill’s failure to catch public fancy, but a few other outlaws, is the lack of a catchy name, though I suggest anyone nicknamed “The Tri-State Terror” stands out from the crowd. And there certainly was a crowd of outlaws in the early 1930s, only some of whom I’ve spotlighted. Many of these outlaws are linked… Because the rosters of their gangs were ever-changing. In sports terms, the Midwest and Southwest outlaws were the free agents of their day. And the more time an outlaw spent in prison, the more known associates he was apt to have. This often led police to assume guilt by association. In 1933, for example, Underhill and ten other inmates escaped the Kansas State Penitentiary in Lansing, using pistols supposedly smuggled into the prison by Frank “Jelly” Nash, who was captured shortly thereafter. Nash was killed when at least three gunmen tried to rescue him from police at Kansas City’s Union Station. Four lawmen also were killed in what became known as “The Kansas City Massacre” (or “The Union Station Massacre”). But that wasn’t true. Underhill and Bailey were busy elsewhere, though they were indicted for the Kansas City shootings. Federal authorities, soon to be called the FBI, eventually settled on Verne Miller, Charles “Pretty Boy” Floyd and Adam Richetti as the shooters, though there’s much doubt about Floyd and Richetti. BUT I’M GETTING ahead of myself. Back to The Tri-State Terror. Those three states, incidentally, were Missouri, Kansas and Oklahoma. Henry Wilber Underhill was born March 16, 1901, near Joplin, Missouri, a town that pops up often in tales about 1930s outlaws. For example, Clyde and Buck Barrow briefly went into hiding there, and had to shoot their way out of town; Bailey settled there after serving time, marrying ex-con Esther Farmer, who years earlier had retired there. Jailed for the first time in 1918, Wilbur Underhill resumed his life of crime upon his release in 1922 when he became known as Joplin’s “Lover’s Lane Bandit, ” for preying on couples parked in secluded places. He was back in prison by the end of the year. In 1926 Wilbur and his three brothers had a family reunion at the Missouri State Prison in Jefferson City. Hornell (NY) Tribune-Times, May 3, 1926. JEFFERSON CITY, Missouri Four brothers, serving terms in the penitentiary here, furnish criminologists with an interesting study. The brothers, member of the Underhill family of Neosho, Newton County, Missouri, are serving terms ranging from attempted robbery to murder. A stepson of their sister is also an inmate of the same prison. The fourth brother, George Underhill, 22 years old, was dressed in recently at the prison to serve five years for burglary and larceny from Newton County after his brother, Earl, had testified against him. Underhill, now 32, has been in prison since November, 1913, serving a life sentence for murder. Wilbur Underhill, 25, is serving his second term. His first term was two years from Newton County for attempted robbery. The oldest brother, Earl, 36, was received here last December to serve two years for burglary and larceny from Newton County. He was given credit for his jail time in Neosho. Earl incurred the enmity of his family and brothers because he testified against George. Earl said he left home when he was 15 years old and spent most of his time in the west as a carpenter. He said he arrived in Joplin on May 22, 1925,, for a visit with his mother. The following day his youngest brother, George, asked him to use his automobile in hauling some stolen tires from a garage in Neosho. Earl, who said he had never been in trouble before, realized that he did wrong in using his car to haul the stolen property. In the party stealing the tires was Morris Baine, 22, stepson of a sister of the Underhill brothers. After remaining in jail five months, Earl told the officers the complete story of the robbery and pleaded guilty to the burglary and larceny charge. His testimony later resulted in George getting a five-year sentence and Baine seven years. The father of the boys was a farmer and carpenter in Newton County. There were four boys and three girls in the family. The father died several years ago. George Underhill, the youngest of the seven children, died first, in 1931, after breaking out of jail, robbing two pharmacies, and taking an overdose of sodium amytal. Charles Ernest died of cirrhosis in 1937. Earl, who apparently was law-abiding, except for the 1926 arrest, died in 1974, at the age of 85. Grace Underhill Baine also died in 1974. I don’t know what happened to her stepson, whose name may have been Maurice, not Morris, but she and her husband, James or John the U. Census had it listed one way in 1930, another ten years later, had five children of their own. Another of the Underhill daughters, Anna, married a man named Lewis, and in 1973 was living in Joplin. The seventh child of Henry and Almira Underhill was Dorothy, who never married. She moved to Kansas City, cared for her widowed mother, and worked for the Jackson County liquor control board. Her mother died in 1951, Dorothy died 20 years later. The above information came from an article in the Kansas City Times on December 29, 1973. WILBUR UNDERHILL was paroled a few months after the 1926 article appeared, and committed his first murder in December during a drug store robbery in Okmulgee, Oklahoma, when he shot the teenager who walked into a drug store he was robbing with his partner, Ike “Skeet” Akins. Caught, Underhill then escaped jail, was recaptured, tried and sentenced to life in the Oklahoma State Penitentiary at McAlester, but he escaped on July 14, 1927, committed more robberies, was confronted by a policeman and committed his second murder, taking a bullet in the neck in the process. This time he wound up in the Kansas State Penitentiary in Lansing. And though this plan had been in the works for months, the new ringleader, according to the warden, was Wilbur Underhill. This plot had all the makings of a movie. The inmates had manufactured three shotguns, a revolver and ammunition in a prison machine shop, and also had a rifle that had been smuggled to them from outside. Warden Prather led the raid that uncovered the cache of weapons, hidden in a machine shop wall. The nine convicts had come up with a list of six guards and inmate trusties to kill on their way out of the prison. At the time, Prather withheld the name of the inmate who talked, but two months later a convict named Stanton Zack, serving a life sentence under the Kansas Habitual Criminal Act, was paroled as a reward for the information he provided. A year later another breakout was nipped in the bud, though this time Underhill’s name wasn’t mentioned. Instead, the leader of the plot was a convict known as “Two Gun” Henderson. However, Wilbur Underhill still had escape on his mind. He put his next plan in motion on Memorial Day, 1933, while a baseball game was being played inside the walls of the Kansas State Prison. Underhill was about to become nationally famous. Syracuse Journal, May 31, 1933. LANSING, Kansas (INS) With three women hostages safe and unharmed, the entire Southwest today joined in one of the greatest manhunts in history as heavily armed posses, sheriffs and police in numerous cities sought the rendezvous of 11 convicts who escaped yesterday from the Kansas penitentiary here. Authorities today concentrated the search in Oklahoma, near Picher, where five of the convicts held up a filling station at 6 a. Weatherby was released 15 miles southwest of Picher a short time later. Meanwhile, Governor William H. Murray of Oklahoma and Governor Alfred “Alf” Landon of Kansas offered every co-operation in an effort to track down the felons. Police in 100 cities and authorities as far south as the Mexican border were notified to be on the lookout. Governor Landon today ordered a complete investigation of conditions at the prison that may have brought about and made possible the break that freed 11 desperate men and resulted in the wounding of another. Foulks, pardon and parole attorney at the state capitol, was sent to the penitentiary to conduct the investigation. Authorities said the induction of a new administration at the prison may have had something to do with the unrest that precipitated the plot to escape. Miss Louise Wood, 17, who, together with two other women was held prisoner for several hours by the felons, characterized her abductors to International New Service. They were most courteous and polite. They didnt curse or act like criminals are supposed to act at all, she said. We came directly south from near Lansing, where we were kidnapped, in our automobile. The convicts drove fast and tried to avoid towns as much as possible. We were warned not to make any outcry, but we werent threatened. The men told us they hated to take us with them, but that it was necessary. We were not mistreated in any way. None of us had eaten since morning and the men appeared anxious that w get food. I dont know what time it was when we arrived at the farm of Bill New, but the men ordered Mrs. New to cook some food. The convicts were under the command of Wilbur Underhill, three times a murderer, and regarded as one of the most desperate characters in the southwest since the reign of Jesse James. Underhill led the plot to escape from prison. Warden Kirk Prather of the penitentiary told a graphic story of the escape. I was watching the baseball game in the prison yard when Underhill slipped up behind me and threw a slipknot noose of wire around my neck. At the same time, another convict, I think it was Harvey Bailey, pressed a revolver against my neck. Other guards were taken around me. Several guards, covered by six convicts joined us together and we were told that we would all be killed unless we did what we were told. I told the guard on the wall not to fire under any circumstances. We were then marched to gate Number 3, and there the convicts obtained the keys, and once outside they took possession of a car. Someone fired a shot and it hit Bailey as the car sped away. Warden Prather and two guards who were kidnapped from the prison by the escaping felons, and threatened with death, were released unharmed late last night near Welch, Oklahoma, by six of the convicts riding in a commandeered automobiles. I knew Kirk would come out of this all right; I had the utmost faith in his ability to deal with his abductors. Prather, wife of the kidnapped warden, thus expressed her relief in the wardens office. She was at the prison when the sensational break occurred. She did not witness the rebellion, but when the prison siren alarm sounded, she took her place in her husbands office, where she assisted in directing the manhunt. After ejecting Prather and the guards, L. Sherman, the convicts sped on toward the Osage Hills badlands, where authorities believe they will be joined at a rendezvous by the remaining five fugitives, who abducted three women whose car they commandeered six miles south of here in their mad dash for freedom. Today Picher, Oklahoma, which once was home to nearly 20,000 people, is little more than a ghost town, with only a handful of residents who refuse to leave. Lead and zinc mining constituted the local industries. The result was Picher became one of the most polluted cities in the country, a hazardous place to live. As if Mother Nature wanted to add her own warning, Picher was hit by a tornado in 2009, the year the city ceased to exist. As with several large-scale prison escapes. This one included a few tag-alongs. It is assumed Underhill and Bailey planned the breakout, intending to take three or four others with them. Bob “Big Boy” Brady, Jim Clark and Ed Davis went off with Underhill and Bailey. It’s possible, I suppose, they did a favor for Frank Sawyer, a career criminal who just happened to be convicted for a robbery he didn’t do. In any event, Sawyer was one of the escapees who walked out of the prison with a gun in his hand. The “courteous and polite” convicts who abducted the three women probably were the tag-along convicts. Sawyer went off or was sent off on his own soon after he fled the prison. His recapture (story below) showed what can happen when you piss off the wrong female. Another escapee, definitely not in on the plan, was Lewis Bechtel, who was quickly recaptured when he rested at a nearby farm. The other four Billy Woods and Clifford Dopson, and Kenneth Conn and Alvis Payton paired off and split. The convicts who remained with Underhill immediately became a bank-robbing gang. Now about Frank Sawyer.. New York Sun, June 5, 1933. CHICKASHA, Oklahoma (AP) The courage of an Oklahoma A&M College [now Oklahoma State University] coed was credited today with a large share in stopping the frenzied cross-state dash of Frank Sawyer, fleeing Kansas convict. Sawyer, one of eleven convicts who escaped the Kansas State Penitentiary on Memorial Day, left a trail of kidnappings and stolen automobiles in his attempt to avoid the cordon of officers thrown about northeastern Oklahoma. Lewis Bechtel, recaptured near Dripping Springs, Oklahoma, is the only other one of the Kansas fugitives who has been retaken. Sawyer was captured in a gun battle and free-for-all fight after he had kidnapped Bob Goodfellow, Caddo County clerk, and his 20-year-old sister, Lois. Goodfellow, wounded in the groin by a posse mans bullet when Sawer used him as a shield, was taken to an Adadarko hospital, where his condition was described as serious, but not critical. After abducting the Goodfellows, Sawyer ordered the girl, who was driving, to go to Oklahoma City. Instead the coed drove the car into a ditch while her brother attempted to seize Sawyers pistol, but the move failed. While Sawyer was trying to get the car out of the ditch, with pretended assistance from the Goodfellows, Sheriff Horace Crisp and Deputy Al Marlow of Grady County drove up. Sawyer seized Goodfellow and opened fire. When her brother was wounded, Miss Goodfellow, ignoring the blazing pistols, started pulling Sawyers hair, which, being cut short in convict style, proved unsatisfactory. Then, according to the sheriff, the young lady began choking the convict, giving the officers an opportunity to close in. I was not afraid of him, she said afterward, I was just afraid Bob had been killed and I wanted to choke him awful bad. Previous to kidnapping the Goodfellows, reports to the sheriffs office here indicated Sawyer had abducted and released nearly a score of persons Sunday. In all cases he wanted motor cars in which to further his escape. Some of his victims were stopped on the highways; others were taken from their homes. Billy Woods and Clifford Dopson, were arrested on June 10, near San Angelo, Texas. Kenneth Conn and Alvis Payton attempted to rob a bank in Altamont, Kansas, on July 14. Bank robberies were so commonplace at the time, that some of then didn’t make the news. However, this one was decidedly newsworthy. Syracuse Journal, July 14, 1933. ALTAMONT, Kansas (INS) A banker with true aim today fired past his wife, who was being held as a shield, and instantly killed Kenneth Conn, escaped convict, who, with a companion, had attempted to hold up his bank. The second bandit, Alvis Payton, also an escaped convict, was critically wounded by the banker, Isaac McCarty, cashier of the Labette County Bank here. Both bandits escaped from the Kansas state prison in Lansing on Memorial Day. McCarty saw the bandits drive up to the bank. Something about them aroused my suspicions when I first saw them, McCarty said. Leaving his father, A. McCarty, vice president; his wife, who is assistant cashier, and W. Grumheller, also an official in the bank, to wait on the two men, McCarty walked to the rear of the building where he obtained two guns. He then concealed himself on a stairway. The bandits instructed the officials of the bank to stick up their hands. Whether Isaac McCarty was known ever after as “Deadeye, ” I don’t know. Meanwhile, what immediately became known as “The Bailey-Underhill gang” robbed Oklahoma banks in Chelsea and Clinton. Bailey departed for Paradise, Texas, to visit George “Machine Gun” Kelly at the ranch of Mr. Boss Shannon, the ranch where the kidnapped Charles Urschel had been held prisoner. It was a dumb move by Bailey, who was sleeping at the ranch on August 15 when lawmen arrived and arrested him in connection with the kidnapping. Underhill went on stealing. Syracuse American, September 24, 1933. The bandit stepped into the bank with two companions and waving a machine gun and shouted, Im Machine Gun Kelly! Youve read about me! Joan Morgan, an employee, to open the safe, but she protested she did not know the combination. Morgan and other employees and a customer to his car. The three bandits used the women as shields, making them stand on the running board to protect the bandits from bullets from any pursuing officers. Underhill and the three remaining gang members who had escaped from the Kansas State Prison on Memorial Day parted company in the fall. Ed Davis and his wife moved to California. Bob “Big Boy” Brady and Jim Clark attempted their own crime spree, in Oklahoma and Texas, but soon had to flee into New Mexico. Syracuse Journal, October 7, 1933. TUCUMCARI, New Mexico (INS) Bob Big Boy Brady, an escaped Kansas convict, was near death in a Tucumcari hospital today after being shot down by Sheriff Ira Allen while fleeing arrest. Brady was arrested while driving into Tucumcari from Amarillo, Texas, with a man tentatively identified as Jim Clark, another escaped convict, who was arrested. Clark and Brady offered no resistance when Sheriff Allen ordered them to halt their car. Instead, Brady leaped from the car and fled down the road. Sheriff Allen and a deputy fired simultaneously. Brady dropped, hit three times. Both men took part in the Kansas state prison riot last Memorial Day and escaped. Clark at first was believed to be Wilbur Underhill. Brady, who took a shot in the head, managed to survive. He and Clark were sent back to the Kansas prison in Lansing, but surprise! They escaped again on January 19, 1934. This time they split. Brady, perhaps suffering the effects of his October gunshot wounds, which had impaired his vision, was killed in a shootout five days later near Paola, Kansas. Clark and another escaped convict, Frank Delmar, soon robbed a bank in Goodland, Kansas, but Clark was shot in both feet by a policeman. He escaped but as sidelined for three months, before the next bank robbery, in Wetumka, Oklahoma. However, Clark’s luck ran out in August when he was arrested and found himself facing federal bank robbery charges. Found guilty, he spent the next 35 years bouncing between Leavenworth and Alcatraz, before being sent to Seagoville, Texas, where he was released a few weeks later, in 1969. At 67, Clark married his late brother’s widow, lived in Oklahoma, worked as a ranch hand and then managed a parking lot until he died June 9, 1974. However, even Brady, killed 40 years earlier, managed to outlive Wilbur Underhill, who himself somehow managed to live about week longer than any normal person would have after federal agents caught up with him. Buffalo Courier-Express, December 31, 1933. SHAWNEE, Oklahoma, December 30 (AP) The Tri-State Terror, Wilbur Underhill killer, bank robber, machine gunner and prison breaker lay in a dying condition tonight, his body almost riddled by police bullets, and law enforcement agencies checked off another name on the dwindling list of southwestern bad men still at large. I dont think I can live, he told his bride, a pretty brunette whom he married at Coalgate, Oklahoma, several weeks ago. Hospital physicians expressed the belief the outlaw would jot live, and officers voiced amazement that Underhill had been able to escape from a house where he was trapped and wounded in a gunfight early today. Bleeding from more than half a dozen wounds, and scantily clad, Underhill ran from the house under a hail of lead and found refuge in a furniture store. Four hours later he was found hiding in a bed in the rear of the store. He surrendered without a fight, although still armed with a pistol. Underhill was a leader of the break of eleven convicts from the Kansas penitentiary last Memorial Day, and is under indictment for the machine gun killing of four officers and Frank Nash, federal convict, at Kansas City last June. Colvin, department of justice agent from Oklahoma City, and a group of other officers trailed Underhill to the house. Captured in the raid were a man tentatively identified as Raymond Roe, alias Ralph Rowe; a Seminola beauty parlor operator, Eva Mae Nichols, and Underhills wife, the former Hazel Hudson. Roe was wounded in the right shoulder by the officers fusillade, fired when Underhill grabbed two pistols as Colvin peered through a rear window and shouted, Stick em up, Wilbur! The Nicholas woman was shot through the stomach and probably fatally wounded. Sobbing at her husbands bedside, Mrs. Underhill said, Wilburs a good man and hes been trying to go straight, but they just wont let him. The bandits wife wore several large diamonds when taken to the hospital to see her husband. She was attractively dressed. Assuring his wife the officers have nothing against you, Underhill told her where she could find his automobiles and valuable papers. A light was burning in a bedroom. Colvin and Clarence Hurt, Oklahoma city policeman, cautiously approached an open window after other officers had surrounded the house. Colvin and I walked up to the window of a northeast bedroom in the house, Hurt said. There was Underhill standing near the bed in his underwear, and his wife was sitting on the bed. Colvin was armed with a machine gun, Hurt with a machine gun and a tear gas gun. When the officers shouted at him to surrender, Underhill whirled, grabbed two automatic pistols off a small table and fired. His first shot brought a rain of lead from the posse mens machine guns, shotguns, rifles and revolvers. The officers shot not only into the Underhill room, but into the adjoining room, which was dark. Thats where Roe and the Nichols woman were. We saw Underhill stagger when the volley opened, said Hurt. Then he jumped into another room. The firing lulled, then Underhill darted from the front door and ran across muddy ground into the darkness. He disappeared behind another house. Hurt estimated 200 shots were fired. He said he believed Underhill fired at least 60 of them. None of the officers was wounded. With Underhills capture, all except one of the eleven persons indicted for the Kansas City killings have been arrested or slain. The man still sought is Richard T. Galatas, Hot Springs, Arkansas, gangster. Only one of the eleven convicts who escaped from the Kansas prison on Memorial Day is at large. He is Ed Davis. All of the other fugitives have been recaptured or killed. Underhills capture had been expected for weeks. Some time ago, he escaped an early night raid on the farm home of George Nash, near Konawa, 30 miles southeast of Shawnee. At that time he left the farmhouse scantily clad and ill. While officers were reticent as to the clues leading to the desperados apprehension, it was disclosed that one clue came indirectly through the Nichols woman after Underhill went to her shop in Seminole to be treated by a doctor following the Konawa escape. Underhill gained his nickname, The Tri-State Terror, through his viciousness as a killer and his widespread criminal operations through Oklahoma, Kansas and Missouri. He was serving a life sentence for the murder of Merle Colver, Wichita, Kansas, policeman, when he escaped from the Kansas penitentiary last May 30 by kidnapping the warden. Urschel, Oklahoma City oil millionaire. Underhill had escaped from the Oklahoma penitentiary in July, 1931. He then was serving a life sentence for murder in Okmulgee County. The murder of a boy in Picher, Oklahoma, also is charged against him,, as well as numerous bank robberies. There’s an interesting story about Wilbur Underhill’s last days; you’ll find it on a website called Baby Face Nelson Journal. For a look, see Shawnee Ambush. ” Or check out “The Spell of the West. For the short version, keep reading. He died en route. His bride who was, at least the fifth Mrs. Underhill, probably was soon released from police custody. Nichols, who was married, but hoping for a divorce, died of her gunshot wounds. Ford Bradshaw, a young outlaw and a partner of Wilbur Underhill during the “Terror’s” last few bank robberies, shot up the tiny town of Vian, Oklahoma, on New Year’s Eve to vent his anger over Underhill’s capture, but Bradshaw would be dead before April, killed by a deputy sheriff in Ardmore, Oklahoma, while resisting arrest. Underhill remained linked to two outlaws who’d make news before long. Raymond (aka Ralph) Roe wound up in Alcatraz where he teamed with another former Oklahoma convict, Theodore Cole, to attempt an escape from the escape-proof island prison. The sneaked out on December 16. 1937, and disappeared into a heavy fog on some flotation devices they had fashioned. Experts on tidal current said there was no chance Roe and Cole could have survived, that they would have been swept into the Pacific Ocean with no chance of reaching shore beforehand. It was no surprise their bodies were never found… But because their bodies were never found, some people believed they lived to talk about their escape. Exactly one year later, in California’s San Quentin Prison, Ed Davis, 38, who had escaped with Wilbur Underhill from the Kansas State Prison in 1933, was executed in the gas chamber. Davis had been arrested soon after fleeing to California, but in September, 1937, he and four other inmates tried to escape from Folsom Prison. During the failed attempt, warden Clarence Larkin was killed. The five convicts were sentenced to death a few weeks later, but appeals delayed the executions. Davis was the last of the five to die. The first two, Albert Kessell and Robert Cannon, died a week earlier, the first convicts to be executed in California’s gas chamber. A mugshot of criminal Wilbur Underhill – headstuff. OrgThe 1930s were a violent time for crime in the United States. While some might claim the Wild West period ended decades earlier, bank robbers like John Dillinger and Charles Pretty Boy Floyd made a mockery of the rule of law, frustrating attempts to civilise the rural frontier even in these more overtly lawful times. It was this turmoil that led to the formation of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and it was quick to claim the scalps of Dillinger, Floyd and dozens of others. Absent from the list of victories it touted was the first man to die at the guns of the Feds Wilbur Mad Dog Underhill. The reason for that is simple they shouldnt have had those guns at all. The man who would become known as the Tri-State Terror and the Southwest Executioner was born in Joplin, Missouri in 1901. His birth name was Henry Wilber Underhill, named for his father who died when he was only 10 years old. The spelling of Wilbur was one he insisted on later, as he felt it was somehow a more manly name. The poverty that his fathers death left the family in drove Wilbur and all three of his brothers into crime, and when Wilbur was twelve his older brother Ernest was convicted of murder and sent to prison. Some say that Wilburs own wild streak began at this time, while others point to a childhood accident when a carelessly thrown crate of bottles caught the young boy on the head while he was scavenging in bins for food. Whatever the cause, Wilbur soon decided that being a criminal with a full belly was preferable to starving to death honestly. One of Wilburs many mugshots. His first recorded crime was burglary, breaking into a home in his neighbourhood and stealing the silverware. Though he was found with some of the stolen property, he claimed to have been given it and for lack of any direct evidence he was let go. When he tried his hand at burglary again though, he was caught. This time the charges stuck, and in 1918 he went to prison for the first time. He was released in 1922, and immediately graduated to armed robbery. He specialised in attacking parked cars in isolated areas, and so became known as the Lovers Lane Bandit. His pattern was too predictable, however, and a police sting soon resulted in his capture. He was sent to prison again, for a sentence of five years. There are stories that he tried to tunnel out of the prison, but if so he wasnt detected. In 1926 he was released on parole, though as would soon be demonstrated he was far from a reformed character. On Christmas day 1926, Wilbur and Ike Akins, known as Skeet, walked into a drugstore in the small Oklahoma town of Okmulgee. It was his first recorded killing, but it wouldnt be his last. The two criminals were swiftly tracked down, and two weeks later on the 7th January they were arrested. They were held in Okmulgee jail, along with two other bandits, Red Gann and Duff Kennedy. The other two also had blood on their hands, having killed a man who tried to run away when they robbed him. Facing a stiff sentence, the four men decided to escape. Somehow they got hold of hacksaw blades and on the 30th of January they sawed their way out of their cells, then through the bars of the jail window. After lowering themselves down on ropes made of blankets, the four men robbed a nearby garage of both cash and a getaway vehicle. Wilbur was spotted a week and half later robbing a movie theatre in Picher [1], but he shot and killed a deputy before escaping. He was eventually recaptured on the 20th of February. On the 3rd of June he was sentenced to life imprisonment, and sent to the Oklahoma State Penitentiary to serve his sentence. Merle Colver, one of Wilburs victims. With no prospect of parole, Wilbur was far from a model prisoner. He tried several times to escape, and eventually succeeded four years into his sentence. Once loose, he robbed a theater and bought a car, then recruited his nephew Frank as an accomplice. The two robbed a gas station, but got less than twenty dollars. To add insult to injury, while they were making their escape Wilbur crashed his new car into another vehicle, and the damage was extensive enough to render it undrivable. They were forced to return to the hotel nearby that theyd been staying in. They were still there the next morning when Detective Merle Colver knocked on their door. Colver was a respected local lawman, who had twice ran for sheriff, and he was checking up on suspicious hotel guests after the reported robbery. He may have recognised Wilbur, as a picture of the escaped criminal was later found in his pocket. Colver asked the men several questions, and then began poking around their hotel room. When he nearly discovered Wilburs gun beneath a pillow, Wilbur rushed at him and grabbed the weapon. Colver tried to fend him off with his billy club, but Wilbur shot him three times, killing him. The two men fled. Once Colvers body was discovered, a manhunt was kicked off that located the men ten hours later. Frank surrendered, but Wilbur tried to fight it out. One deputy shot him in the arm, and when he tried to flee another shot him in the neck. Wilbur survived, but he was sentenced to life imprisonment this time in Kansas State Penitentiary. Frank was controversially found not guilty, as the court decided he had been caught in his uncles spell and had not committed any of the crimes. Scared straight, he would thereafter lead an honest life. Wilbur being treated for his neck wound. On May 30th, 1933, Wilbur managed his biggest escape yet. This was no mere over the wall job Frank Nash, a friend on the outside, managed to smuggle in four pistols. With them Wilbur and at least seven other inmates (possibly up to ten, reports vary) managed to take the Warden and two guards hostage while the rest of the prison was distracted by a baseball game. With these hostages they persuaded the guards in one watchtower to surrender, then used a rope ladder they had made in the prison workshop to get to the ground and freedom. Despite this difference of opinion the two men hit it off, and decided to form what became known as the Bailey-Underhill gang together, along with several of the other escapees. The aftermath of the Kansas City Massacre. The debt that Bailey and Underhill owed to Nash for his aid in their escape was well known, and so when a violent attempt was staged two weeks later to rescue Nash from FBI captivity they were considered most likely to have attempted it. In fact neither man was involved in what became known as the Kansas City Massacre. [2] The massacre left Nash, three policemen, and one FBI Agent dead. As a result the FBI began arming itself, even though it would not officially be allowed to do so until the following year. With this dubiously sourced arsenal they went hunting the Bailey-Underhill gang. Bailey was actually caught up in a net for a different crime. While visiting another criminal, George Machine Gun Kelly, Bailey was arrested in a raid. Kelly had kidnapped a wealthy businessman, and in the wake of the Lindbergh Baby case kidnapping had been made a federal crime with a mandatory life sentence. As a result Bailey was imprisoned and sent to Alcatraz. With him gone the brakes were off Underhill, and he and the gang went on a murderous spree of bank robberies. The authorities seemed powerless to stop him. And then he got married. It was not the first time Underhill had got married. In fact it was the fifth, though he had never gone through the formality of ending the others. He had a reputation for not believing in sex before marriage, an odd code of ethics when combined with his bigamy. On this occasion the girl he married was Hazel Hudson, and in marrying her he made two mistakes. The first was putting his real name on the wedding certificate, and the second was in putting his wifes real address. When word reached the FBI of his marriage they staked out her house, and though the couple inadvertently gave them the slip the G-men were on the trail. They had an ace in the hole, too a member of the Underhill gang was actually an FBI informant. He let them know Underhill was sick, and so they canvassed doctors in the area they thought he had headed to. One of them pointed them to Eva Nichols, girlfriend of a gangster named Ralph Roe. FBI agents posing in the aftermath of the shooting. When the FBI realised that Underhill and his new wife were staying at Nichols cottage in Shawnee, they surrounded it. Underhill heard their dogs barking and went to a window to investigate, and at the sight of him one FBI agent fired a tear gas cannister. Underhill responded with bullets, and the FBI were more than ready to return fire. Some had shotguns, but most were armed with the Thompson submachine guns they had commandeered. All told they fired about a thousand rounds into the small cottage. Roe was injured too badly to escape, while Nichols was killed. Her death, due to the unsanctioned use of weapons, may well be part of the reason why this story is not often repeated by the FBI. Wilbur was also injured, taking around 13 hits. He broke out through the lines and into a cornfield. There they lost track of him, but the full-scale manhunt soon tracked him down to a secondhand furniture shop. He had crept into one of the beds in the store, and was discovered to be mortally wounded. They transported him to prison and tried to save him to stand trial, but it was too late. On the sixth of January the Mad Dog died of his wounds. His last words were. Boys, Im coming home. Images via Babyface Nelson Journal except where noted. Now it sits empty. [2] The truth behind who perpetrated the massacre was never definitively established. While the most likely suspects were either arrested or killed by the FBI, one theory maintained that the attack was actually a hit on Nash sanctioned by mob bosses who feared he would reveal too much to the Feds. However FBI files revealed that Nash himself was actually killed accidentally by one of the FBI agents returning fire on the attackers. The “Tri-State Terror” is the Boogeyman of Depression-era outlaws in more ways than one. For nearly a decade in the turbulent period of the 1920s and 30s, he was one of the most infamous and feared criminals in the Southwest. Convicted of one of his murders in Oklahoma he was sentenced to life and escaped, killing a cop and receiving another life term in Kansas, and then escaped again, leading ten others in a mass breakout. In the last months of his life, he rose to national notoriety as a prolific bank robber and suspect in the infamous Kansas City Massacre and became the first criminal ever shot down by agents of that fledgling agency which would soon become the FBI. True criminal immortality seemed to elude Wilbur after his death, his name eclipsed in the national headlines by the likes of John Dillinger, “Pretty Boy” Floyd, and “Baby Face” Nelson. But scratch the surface and he’s still there. From his native Joplin where Underhill began his career modestly as a “lovers lane” bandit, to the Tri-State mining district where he is best remembered as a lone wolf scurrying about the night terrorizing the populace and committing a half-dozen robberies at gunpoint, to Wichita, Kansas where he was known as a vicious cop-killer, to Jeff City, Lansing, and McAlester where he became a legendary figure among the inmate populations and seemingly possessed a talent to break out at will, to the Central Oklahoma oilfields and his hideouts in the wild and wooly Cookson Hills, to the many towns he struck in Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Kentucky, and Arkansas his impact is still felt. The lives he took, touched or made a total travesty of has impacted generations of folks in the Southwest. His name hasn’t been totally obliterated from the history books of course. Most crime buffs are familiar with Wilbur Underhill if not necessarily with the details of his long and deadly career. He’s received cursory mention, though usually not long on accuracy in such books as Ten Thousand Public Enemies by Courtney Riley Cooper and The Bad Ones by Lew Louderback. Edger Hoover’s crony and favorite journalist in the thirties set the tone with a fictional account of how Underhill was kicked out of the Kimes-Terrill Gang (itself a media created fiction) for having a murder complex. Around 1970 Loren D. Estelman based his novel The Oklahoma Punk (later reissued in paperback as Red Highway) on Underhill. But Estelman’s Virgil Ballard really owed more to Cooper’s fiction than to any real life events. The 1973 movie Dillinger with Warren Oats thoughtfully included Wilbur as a character giving the popular but erroneous version of him being tracked down through his wedding then compounding the fiction by having Underhill personally killed by Melvin Purvis-who wasn’t even there. Hurt, a life long lawman and one of the two G-Men who shot Dillinger, was an Oklahoma City police officer in 1933 and helped bring down Underhill at Shawnee. The Underhill capture may well have gotten him his appointment to the FBI. Strangely, even the FBI has seemingly forgotten Wilbur. Edger Hoover’s death the bureau still promotes it’s glorious gangbusting escapades of the thirties, capitalizing on such gangland legends as Dillinger, Pretty Boy Floyd, and cases in which the bureau’s involvement was minimal such as Al Capone and Bonnie and Clyde. But even they seem to be totally unaware today that Wilbur Underhill was the first criminal ever shot by FBI agents, who had no police powers before 1933 and weren’t really legally authorized to carry guns until six months after Underhill’s demise. Colvin, regional director of the U S Department of Justice’s investigative wing, (The forerunner of the FBI) taking note of Underhill’s activities decided to put on a full court press in an all out effort to capture the badman. Shortly after becoming aware of Wilbur’s marriage at Coalgate, Colvin, who had been the lead investigator in the recent Urschel kidnapping case, and Agent Frank Smith, a survivor of the Kansas City massacre, began assembling a task force which included twenty-nine federal agents along with a contingent of officers from the Oklahoma County Sheriff’s office and a party of Oklahoma City policemen which included Detectives Mickey Ryan, D. “Jelly” Bryce, and Clarence Hurt. The thirty-six-year-old Clarence Hurt, who had led the raid on Hazel Hudson’s Oklahoma City residence, was a formidable force in his own right. Joining the Oklahoma City Police Department as a patrolman in 1919, he rapidly worked his way up the ranks to the position of Assistant Chief of Police by the age of thirty-two, becoming the youngest chief in the department’s history. In 1926, he was loaned out to the Department of Justice seeing service as an investigator during the infamous Osage Indian murder case. In 1931, he joined the detective bureau as a supervisor. Jelly Bryce joined the force after impressing Hurt with his marksman ability at a shooting match. Bryce had a reputation as a “Triggerman, ” gunning down several fleeing felons during his first year with the department. On receipt of the information concerning Underhill’s ill health, agents took a shot in the dark fanning out questioning area doctors and druggists showing them photos of Underhill. The day before Christmas investigators finally got a break in the case. A Seminole physician identified a photo of Underhill as a man he had treated at a beauty shop in town. It appears that the operator of the shop, a thirty-three-year-old three-time divorcee named Eva Mae Nichols, had contacted a pharmacy in search of a doctor to treat a friend. The physician continued, saying the man had given his name as George Hickson. The authorities immediately began a loose but apparently ineffective surveillance of the beauty shop, which was located in a two-story downtown brick building. Miss Nichols lived in a second story apartment above the shop with her sister. A short investigation of Miss Nichols, who was described as plump but attractive, turned up the fact she was apparently a well-respected business women known for her wit, intelligence, and drive. She and her sister, Lena, who worked and lived together, were both obvious “thrill seekers” having a penchant for dating unsavory types. Eva, who had left home at the tender age of seventeen traveling alone to New York City to attend beauty school, was apparently a headstrong and free-spirited lass. She was a bit of an enigma, although she obviously enjoyed living on the wild side she in turn willingly took on the responsibility of supporting her younger siblings after the death of their parents. Not your typical gangster’s moll. According to FBI reports the investigators were not operating totally in the dark, they had an ace in the hole in the form of a mole operating inside the Underhill mob. On the evening of December 29, Agent Smith was phoned by “Hughes” who stated he and Lon Johnson had just visited Wilbur Underhill at a residence located at 606 West Dewey Street in Shawnee. “Hughes” requested Smith instruct the Shawnee police to immediately arrest him and Johnson in order to avoid any suspicion that he was involved in any raid made on the place. According to the informant, he and his companion entered the residence and spoke with Wilbur who was in the company of his wife and Ford Bradshaw. Agents conferred with Shawnee Night Chief Frank Bryant who instructed his investigators to search the utility deposits on file at city hall. The deposits for the residence in question were found to be under the name of J. He further instructed lawmen he had not set eyes on the individual. Instead, a politician turned real-estate agent and part-time bond merchant named Joe Smalley had made the actual lease arrangements. When Smalley was contacted, he stated he had let the property in early November to a pair of individuals who signed the agreement as J. Reynolds and Joe Sullivan. After some arm-twisting, he admitted the character using the name of Sullivan was in reality Elmer Inman. That name rang a bell. Smalley explained his actions by stating although he had known Inman for many years he was unaware the slick gangster was wanted at this time for any crime. It later came to light; the house had been under observation for nearly two weeks by Shawnee Police detectives who suspected the residents were engaged in bootlegging activities. At half past midnight a squad car carrying Agent Frank Smith and Detective Clarence Hurt accompanied by the informant drove past the residence in order to ascertain if there was any activity-taking place. The officers spotted a light in the back bedroom with sounds of a drinking party emitting from the place. Upon receiving information of this new development, Agent Colvin contacted the members of his task force instructing them to Saddle Up! At roughly 2 A. On a cold, wet, foggy morning, a large party of heavily armed federal, county, and city officers rendezvoused at the central police station located in downtown Shawnee. Colvin informed the group I think we have our man, now lets set the trap! To ensure the lawmen would not be shooting at one another or into surrounding homes, Colvin gave explicit instructions as to where each officer would be stationed during the ambush. Afterwards, the group set out in several automobiles parking a block and a half from the house in question. Setting up in front of the residence directly across the street was federal agents T. Edger all equipped with shotguns, positioned nearby was Oklahoma County Deputy Sheriffs George Kerr and Don Stone. Next to them was Shawnee Night Chief Frank Bryant, armed with a machinegun. Standing on the porch of a dwelling located directly east of the targeted residence were Oklahoma County Deputies Bill Eads and John Adams. Federal Agents Colvin, Frank Smith, K. Deadrick, and Paul Hanson, along with Oklahoma City Detectives Clarence Hurt, A. Bryce, and Mickey Ryan were assigned to cover the rear of the residence. Colvin and Bryce were armed with machine guns, while Smith, Ryan, Hanson, and Deadrick had shotguns. Hurt was equipped with a tear gas gun as well as his trusty chopper. Hurt, accompanied by Colvin, crept to the window of a bedroom located on the northeast corner of the rear of the dwelling while the others took up positions to their rear. Although the darkness and heavy fog limited their vision, officers could make out a faint light glowing in the room. The pair peered into the window. Colvin pressed the barrel of his machinegun against the screen while Hurt readied his gas gun. They both observed Underhill standing at the foot of the bed clothed only in his long underwear while his scantily dressed wife sat on the edge of the mattress. When a dog started barking in the distance, Underhill looked up and began walking toward the window. A couple of feet from the window, he suddenly stopped locking eye balls with Officer Hurt. Hurt yelled, This is the law Wilbur, stick `em up! ” The outlaw replied, “Okay, then whirled about grabbing a wicked looking automatic Lugar pistol which was attached to an ammo drum with a capacity of thirty-one rounds, off a nearby nightstand. Hurt reacted by firing a single round from his gas gun, the missile crashing through the screen and glass before bouncing off Underhill’s stomach. Colvin squeezed the trigger of his machine gun loosening a full clip of. 45 rounds that smashed into the bedroom’s walls and shattered a glass mirror. Hazel fainted, dropping like a stone to the floor, a maneuver that probably saved her life. The officers standing behind Hurt and Colvin opened up with machine guns and shotguns pumping a ferocious volley of lead into the room. Hurt stated he quickly ducked and weaved to get out of the line of his comrade’s fire. Meanwhile, the second male suspect, currently lying in bed with a female companion in an adjacent bedroom was struck in the left arm and shoulder by rounds piercing the wall between the rooms. The female, later identified as Eva Mae Nichols, jumped up running toward the front door screaming hysterically when suddenly she crumpled to the floor in a bloody heap hit squarely in the stomach by a pair of steel jacketed. Amazingly, she found the strength to gain her footing and rush out the front door and on to the front yard where she abruptly pitched forward to the ground when a machinegun round struck her in the foot. Hurt maintained he saw Wilbur fall to the floor then jump up and rush into the bathroom where he stopped momentarily to return fire before darting into the living room and on to the front porch. On hearing the sudden explosion of deafening gunfire emitting from the rear of the residence and observing the blinding detonation of a myriad of muzzle flashes lighting up the inky-black night like a fourth of July fireworks display, the posse stationed in front of the house took their safeties off and stood at the ready searching for a target. The moment they caught sight of Wilbur sprinting out the front door, Bryant, Eads, Adams, and Stone began hosing down the outlaw with shotgun and machine gun rounds. Sideswiped by the fierce volley of lead, Wilbur fell to the muddy earth with a thud where he lay still. Temporarily holding their fire, lawmen began to warily approach the badman when suddenly like Lazarus from the grave he leaped to his feet and dashed madly into the shadows between two neighboring houses. Meanwhile, Colvin, hearing the firing coming from the front of the home was just rounding the corner when he nearly bumped into the fleeing Underhill. The G-Man responded by, in his words, “Tattooing” the fugitive’s back with a machine gun burst. At about the same time, a pursuing Frank Bryant, dropped to one knee and unleashed a full drum of submachine gun rounds into the fleeing man’s direction. To both his and Colvin’s astonishment, the horribly wounded bandit just kept running till he again disappeared into the foggy night. Colvin later explained, I don’t know how he did it. The bastard just wouldn’t stay down. Back at police headquarters the switchboard suddenly lit up like a Christmas tree, citizens living near the scene of the shootout reported someone was setting off illegal firecrackers, others described their windows being broken by rock throwing juvenile delinquents while yet another citizen reported a prowler running through his yard clothed only in his underwear. Moments after Underhill had pulled his Rasputin act, Deputy Kerr, standing staring in the darkness, heard the voice of the second male subject emitting from inside the tear gas filled house begging to be allowed to come out and surrender. Kerr ordered him to crawl out the bedroom window while instructing the posse to hold their fire. The suspect, who had taken slugs to the shoulder and elbow, responded, I can’t but I’ll crawl out the front door. ” Kerr replied, “Go ahead, then covered the outlaw with his weapon as he wiggled on his belly on to the porch where he was handcuffed and transported to the Shawnee Municipal Hospital. Although he refused to answer questions from officers, he did identify himself not as Ford Bradshaw as previously thought but Ralph “Raymond” Roe. He expressed great anxiety over Miss Nichols condition, saying, She is innocent of all our doings… I got her into this and now she’s gonna die… She’s a good kid who strung along with us asking no questions even when she saw all those guns. After waiting a few minutes for the tear gas to dissipate, Colvin and a group of officers entered the residence where they discovered an unconscious but unhurt Hazel Underhill sprawled on the floor next to the bed. Lawmen were amazed to find her unscathed while the walls of the bedroom were literally shredded. Officers picked her up and carried her into the front yard where suddenly she jerked away from them and began clawing at her burning eyes and gasping for fresh air. When questioned, Hazel was reportedly incoherent. Colvin suggested she was inebriated. Underhill was then transported to the city jail and locked in a cell where she immediately flopped on a cot and fell into a sound sleep. Eva Nichols, floating in and out of consciousness was transported to the emergency room located at the Municipal Hospital where she occupied a room adjacent to her wounded lover. On her arrival at the medical center, she asked for her ex-husband who lived in nearby Seminole. Both wounded suspects were placed under heavy guard. Back at the scene of the raid, the posse fanned out splitting up into several small groups and began a houseto-house search while two-dozen other officers from surrounding counties soon joined the manhunt. Although Underhill was not found, lawmen arrested Lonzo Johnson’s little brother, Seedell, on charges of harboring a fugitive from justice. Although the youth vigorously denied ever meeting Underhill, tire tracks matching those of plaster casts taken from Wilbur’s Ford were discovered in the Johnson’s dirt driveway. Meanwhile, ten miles east of the Johnson residence the bleeding and dazed fugitive, in a superhuman effort, ran several blocks before stumbling face first onto the rain soaked ground. He laid there for several minutes in order to gain strength and get his bearings before racing east across the Jefferson School yard finally coming to the Shawnee Creek drainage ditch where he collapsed and laid low for an hour or more, unable to move due to numerous patrol cars criss-crossing the area. He attempted to start an old feed truck he had spotted nearby but failed. Cursing his luck he stumbled in a southerly direction until he hit an alley located between Main and Seventh. His journey on foot while suffering from numerous painful wounds which would have killed a normal man came to an end when he reached the back door of the McAlester Furniture Store located sixteen blocks from where he had began his dash for freedom. He could go no further. At roughly 6 A. Officers came across a large pool of blood on the banks of the Shawnee Creek drainage ditch. The officers decided to stay put and wait for the arrival of bloodhounds from the state penitentiary in McAlester. An hour later Bill McKenzie, a motorcycle cop who was temporarily acting as a dispatcher at police headquarters, was contacted by R. Owens, the manger of a second-hand furniture store located at 509 East Main, with startling news. Owens reported a large man clothed only in his underwear had broken into the back door of his establishment. McKenzie, suspecting the intruder was Underhill rushed out to the station’s parking lot where he encountered Oklahoma County Sheriff Stanley Rogers who had just arrived on the scene. Rogers, accompanied by his son who happened to be home on Christmas vacation from medical school, quickly gathered a posse, which included radio dispatchers Jack Roberts and John Whalen along with Oklahoma City Detective John Cassidy and Oklahoma County Deputy W E. The small group hurried to the scene in a two-car caravan, lights flashing. The younger Rogers, McKenzie, and Agee took the front door of the establishment while the sheriff accompanied by Cassidy, Roberts, and Whalen took the rear. The officers, seeing several shadowy figures moving about, kicked in the locked front door while the officers located in the rear entered the already open back door. They quickly discovered an individual lying in a blood-soaked bed with a Lugar pistol lying on the floor next to him. The store’s manager and his wife were standing frozen in position in the far corner of the room. Sheriff Rogers reported he approached the individual who he recognized as Wilbur Underhill and after checking out his wounds, leaned down telling him, You’re in a bad way, boy. ” Underhill haltingly replied “Ya, I’m shot to hell, they got me five times. I counted the slugs as they hit me. When I set sail they really poured it to me. ” Rogers stated “His back was peppered with shotgun wounds and he had been struck by. 45 slugs in the head, right arm, back, and right leg, ” adding, ” How he got through that hail of lead and ran sixteen blocks suffering from those terrible wounds is beyond understanding. Officer Bill McKenzie, describing the badman’s capture in a story for the Shawnee Morning News stated We found Underhill lying motionless on a blood-soaked bed. His blond hair was dyed red from blood, (actually the outlaw had recently had his hair dyed a reddish-brown tint at Miss Nichols beauty shop) he could hardly breath, choking and gasping. His face was wracked with pain. I noticed the top half of his left ear had been shot off. He was also suffering from exposure to the cold due to his long run clad only in his underwear and socks. We expected to have to kill him. It was a relief to discover him lying helpless and offering no resistance. The dying fugitive was transported to the Municipal Hospital to join his partner and Miss Nichols. According to McKenzie, the wounded outlaw repeatedly howled in pain and begged the ambulance driver to slow down due to his fear of falling off the stretcher as the rig made several sharp turns on the ride to the hospital. When the proprietor of the furniture store, who maintained his living quarters in the rear of the building, was asked why the fugitive had picked his establishment to collapse in, he responded, I don’t know. We were awakened when he forced his way through the back door into our bedroom just moments before the cops arrived. I never seen him before in my life. Owens later changed his tune, claiming Underhill had awakened him by pounding on the back door asking for a drink of water. After admitting the fugitive into his apartment, he claimed he put him to bed and offered first aid out of the compassion of his heart. It also appears the storekeeper, rather than immediately contacting the cops, waited nearly an hour before seeking their assistance. A story soon began circulating inferring the store had been used in the past as a warehouse for stolen goods. There appears to have been some credence to this claim. According to FBI reports, Owens was an ex-con who had done time with Wilbur in McAlester. The report went on to read, Evidently Underhill knew exactly where he was headed when he fled. Due to Owens cooperating with the authorities, the feds decided not to further pursue the matter. Back at the scene of the raid, officers began searching the Dewey Street house for evidence. The residence was described as looking like a war-zone, all the home’s furniture was turned over except the dining room table, which sat upright, on it sat a half-empty quart bottle of whiskey. Broken glass and debris covered the floors; the walls and ceilings were shredded by gunfire and splattered with blood. The cottage’s woodwork and doors were reportedly splintered. Officers estimated over two hundred rounds had been fired in the shootout. A large quantity of ammunition and four pistols, a Lugar automatic with a folding stock, two Colt. 45 automatics, and a. 38 caliber revolver were also found in the search. When officers searched Wilbur’s Ford which was parked in the garage, they discovered a. 30.30 rifle, a sawed-off. 12 gauge Winchester pump shotgun, a short double barreled shotgun with a pistol handle, and a tin pail full of roofing nails for use as a deterrent for pursuing squad cars (Not exactly James Bond-like, but effective). He also stated the prison offered a more secure environment than the Shawnee Hospital which was a bizarre statement considering 163 inmates had escaped from the Oklahoma prison system in 1933 alone. Examining the prisoner shortly after his arrival, prison physician, Dr. Munn, expressed little hope for his survival. At approximately nine that evening Underhill lapsed into unconsciousness and at 11:42 died. Infamous as the Tri-State Terror. ” He was born in Joplin, Missouri, and turned to crime in his youth, becoming a burglar, car thief, and “lover’s lane robber. He served two terms in the state prison at Jefferson City and emerged as a small-time holdup man but endowed with a homicidal streak and an expert jailbreaker to boot. Convicted of an Oklahoma murder in 1927 and charged with another, Underhill was sentenced to life in the state prison at McAlester but escaped on July 14, 1931. One month later he murdered policeman Merle Colver at the Iris Hotel in Wichita, Kansas. Wounded and captured the same day, Underhill received another life term but escaped with master bank robber Harvey Bailey and nine others from the state prison at Lansing, Kansas on Memorial Day, 1933, using smuggled guns and taking the warden and two guards hostage. Underhill robbed several banks over the next few months, first with Bailey and fellow escapees Bob Brady, Jim Clark and Ed Davis and later with the Ford Bradshaw gang and former Barker gang member Elmer Inman. He was also sought by the Division of Investigation (future FBI) as a suspect in the Kansas City Union Station massacre. He gained the moniker “the Tri-State Terror” for operating principally in the states of Missouri, Oklahoma and Kansas, though his crimes actually extended as far as Arkansas and Kentucky. On December 30, 1933, Underhill was tracked by federal agents and police to a house at 606 Dewey Street in Shawnee, Oklahoma and shot several times in a terrific gun battle. Fleeing the house in his underwear, Underhill ran down the street, broke into a furniture store at 509 East Main, and collapsed on a bed where he was found a few hours later by Sheriff Stanley Rogers. After a brief hospital stay Underhill was transferred to the state prison for safekeeping and died in the prison hospital. UNDERHILL, HENRY WILBUR (19011934). Born Henry Wilber Underhill on March 16, 1901, in Newton County, Missouri, to Henry and Dora Underhill, as a teenager the son changed the spelling of his name to Wilbur. He believed that the new signature appeared more masculine. Raised in Joplin, Missouri, during the boom of the Tri-State Mining District, Underhill began committing increasingly more violent crimes and by 1920 had served time in the Missouri State Penitentiary. Released in 1921, he traveled to Picher, Oklahoma, and briefly worked in the lead and zinc mines before returning to malfeasance. In 1923 he was again in the Missouri Penitentiary, and by 1926 his three brothers, Ernest, Earl, and George, joined him. Freed in 1926, he moved back to Picher and worked as a mining company clerk. He soon teamed with Ike “Skeet” Akins, and the pair committed armed robbery throughout the district. The police arrested the duo in Tulsa, but in January 1927 they escaped from the Okmulgee County Jail. In early February authorities captured Akins, but Underhill remained free, committing robbery and murder, until a police officer captured him at Panama, Oklahoma, on April 20, wounding the felon in the process. It was during this period that newspapers began dubbing Underhill the Tri-state Terror. In 1927 he began his incarceration at the Oklahoma State Penitentiary in McAlester, serving a life term. In 1931 he escaped and again entered the criminal underworld. Less than one month later he killed a police officer in Wichita, Kansas. This led to a life sentence in the Kansas State Penitentiary in Lansing. In 1933 he teamed with hardened criminal Harvey Bailey and four other prisoners, breaking out of the prison. During the escape five more inmates joined the fugitives. Underhill and several of his cohorts traveled to Oklahoma and began a statewide bank-robbing spree. He later united with Oklahoma outlaw Ford Bradshaw and along with several others continued to assault banks, traveling as far as Kentucky. In December 1933 federal and state authorities, including Oklahoma City police officers Clarence Hurt and Jelly Bryce, ambushed Underhill at a house in Shawnee. His current wife, Hazel (he had several wives during his lifetime), acquaintance Ralph Roe, and Eva Nichols were also in the home. Roe and Nichols received bullet wounds, with Nichols dying a few days later. Officers shot Underhill multiple times, but he eluded the forces, only to be found the next morning at a used furniture store in downtown Shawnee. Wilbur Underhill died of his injuries on January 6, 1934, at the Oklahoma State Penitentiary in McAlester. He was buried in Joplin, Missouri. If ever there was a Boogeyman of Depression-era outlaws, it was Wilbur Underhill. Born Wilber Underhill Jr. On March 16, 1901, this burglar, bank robber and prison escapee was one of the most wanted and feared bandits in Oklahoma during the 1920s and 30s. Known as the “Tri-State Terror” and “Mad Dog, ” Underhill terrorized the Southwest for nearly a decade and captured the publics attention with his deeds. Arrested and convicted of murder in Oklahoma, he was sentenced to life, but escaped. He then killed a police officer in Kansas, was recaptured, and received another life term. He again escaped, this time leading 10 others in a mass breakout. In the final months of his life, he rose to national notoriety as a suspect in the infamous Kansas City Massacre, and had the dubious distinction of being the first criminal ever shot and killed by agents of a fledgling federal police agency which would soon evolve into the FBI. True criminal immortality eluded Underhill, however, as his name was eclipsed in the national headlines by such outlaws as John Dillinger, Charles Arthur “Pretty Boy” Floyd, and George “Baby Face” Nelson. But scratch the surface of Oklahoma history even today, and hes still there, remembered in legend and song. Early life and criminal career. Underhill was born in Joplin, Mo. One of seven children. His three older brothers, Earl, George and Ernest, all became career criminals though none gained the notoriety of Wilbur. His three sisters, however, married and led law-abiding lives. When Underhill was 12, his brother George killed a street vendor and was sentenced to life imprisonment. It was shortly after this incident that Underhill began to show his own criminal streak, although his mother claimed that streak was the result of a childhood accident that Didnt leave him quite right. He also changed the spelling of his name from Wilber to Wilbur, believing it sounded more manly. Underhill committed his first known offense by stealing silverware from a neighbors home. When questioned by police, he tried to convince them a stranger had given it to him. They didnt believe him, but lacking evidence, he was released. In 1918, however, he was convicted of burglary and spent four years in prison. A year after his release, a series of armed robberies occurred in remote areas, and the robber was dubbed the Lovers Lane Bandit. A police decoy eventually caught the bandit, identified as Underhill. This time he was sent to the Missouri State Penitentiary for five years. Crime spree with Ike “Skeet” Akins. Soon after his parole in late 1926, Underhill, along with Ike “Skeet” Akins, robbed a drug store in Okmulgee, Okla. Akins and Underhill got away, but were arrested on Jan. 7, 1927, and charged with murder and armed robbery. While awaiting trial, the pair escaped from the Okmulgee jailhouse on Jan. 30 with fellow inmates Red Gann and Duff Kennedy using smuggled hacksaws. Akins was recaptured in Lamar, Mo. Confronted by Constable George Fuller, he grabbed Fullers pistol and killed a deputized civilian, Earl ONeal, before escaping. Escape and Frank Underhill. Underhill made several attempts to escape from the Oklahoma State Penitentiary before finally succeeding on July 14, 1931. The following month he recruited his nephew, Frank Underhill, to join him on a crime spree. 12, they robbed a Wichita, Kan. A short distance from the robbery, Underhill crashed his car and had to have it towed to a nearby garage. The pair checked into a hotel to await repairs. The next morning, Patrolman Merle Colver, assigned to check Wichita hotels for suspicious guests, went to their room to question them. When he knocked on the door, Wilbur Underhill shot him three times in the head killing him instantly. Fleeing on foot, Underhill became involved in a running gunfight with police. A 2-year-old boy was killed in the crossfire when police fired at Underhill. He was eventually stopped by a lucky shot to the neck. Underhill was convicted for the murder of Colver, and given another life sentence, and sent to the state prison in Lansing on Sept. Frank Underhill was not charged and, apparently “scared straight” from his experience, never committed another criminal offense for the rest of his life. On May 30, 1933, Underhill participated in a mass escape with 10 others using pistols smuggled in by Frank “Jelly” Nash. Among the escapees were Harvey Bailey, Jim Clark, Frank Sawyer, Ed Davis and Robert “Big Bob” Brady. Several of the escapees joined a gang headed by Underhill and Bailey and went on a six-month crime spree. On June 17, they robbed a bank in Black Rock, Ark. And the next day Underhill and Bailey were among several fugitives wrongly named as participants in the Kansas City Massacre, a failed attempt to free Frank Nash from police custody, resulting in the deaths of Nash and four lawmen guarding him. Two days later, Underhill, apparently acting alone, robbed a bank in Canton, Kan. But rejoined the others to rob a bank in Kingfisher, Okla. Gang is broken up. Three days after the Kingfisher robbery, Bailey was hiding out on the Texas ranch of Robert “Boss” Shannon, father-in-law of George “Machine Gun” Kelly, when police and federal agents raided the property. He was given a life sentence. With Bailey back behind bars, Underhill took charge of the gang. 6, he and several others robbed a bank in Baxter Springs, Kan. That robbery was quickly followed by bank raids in Galena, Kan. Underhill was now attracting national media attention. He had been called “Mad Dog” or the “Tri-State Terror” by several newspapers. One even dubbed him The Southwest Executioner. A special task force was formed, and an extensive search was made of Oklahomas Cookson Hills, where he was known to be hiding. 18, with the task force in the area, Underhill quietly walked into the courthouse in nearby Coalgate and applied for a marriage license under his own name. His fiancee was Hazel Jarrett Hudson, a sister of the outlaw Jarrett brothers. The following day, Underhill and several others robbed a bank in Frankfort, Ky. Return to the Cookson Hills. Pursuit by the FBI. Shawnee ambush and death. Was born Joplin, Missouri on March 16, 1901, one of seven children. His three older brothers Earl, George and Ernest all became career criminals, though none gained the notoriety of Wilbur, while his three sisters led law-abiding lives. When Underhill was 12 years old, his brother George killed a local peanut vendor and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Underhill began to show a wild streak soon afterwards though his mother claimed it was the result of a childhood accident that “[didn’t leave] him quite right”. He also changed the spelling of his given name from Wilber to Wilbur believing it sounded more manly. Underhill committed his first criminal offense by stealing silverware from a neighbor’s home. When questioned by police, he attempted to convince them that a stranger had given it to him. In 1918, he was convicted of burglary and spent four years in prison. A year after his release, Underhill became locally known as the “Lovers Lane Bandit”. When his identity became known, after being caught by a police decoy, he was sent to the Missouri State Penitentiary for five years. Underhill was released on parole in late 1926, and on Christmas Day he and Ike “Skeet” Akins robbed a drug store on Okmulgee, Oklahoma. They were eventually arrested on January 7, 1927, and charged with murder and armed robbery. Underhill and Akins were still awaiting trial when they decided to escape from the Okmulgee jailhouse on January 30 with fellow inmates Red Gann and Duff Kennedy using smuggled hacksaws. While Underhill successfully eluded authorities, his partner was captured at Lamar, Missouri on February 9. Three days later, while being brought back to Okmulgee, Akins attempted another escape and was killed by Sheriff John Russell. Confronted by Constable George Fuller, he grabbed Fuller’s pistol and killed a deputized civilian, Earl O’Neal, before escaping. Underhill made several attempts to escape from the Oklahoma State Penitentiary and finally succeeded on July 14, 1931. The following month he recruited his young nephew, Frank Underhill, to join him on a new crime spree. While leaving the scene of the robbery, Underhill crashed into another car and had to have it towed to a nearby garage and checked into a hotel. The next day, Patrolman Merle Colver arrived at the hotel. He had been assigned to check Wichita hotels for suspicious guests and went to their room to question them. When he knocked on the door, Wilbur Underhill shot him 3 times in the head killing him instantly[2] Fleeing on foot, Underhill became involved in a running gunfight with police. Wilbur Underhill was convicted with murder, earning him another life sentence, and was imprisoned in Lansing state prison on September 4, 1931. By the early 1930s, Underhill had become one of the most notorious bandits in Oklahoma. While an inmate in Lansing, he participated in a mass escape with 10 other inmates using pistols smuggled in by Frank “Jelly” Nash and headed for Cookson Hills. Among those included in the jailbreak included fellow outlaws Harvey Bailey, Jim Clark, Frank Sawyer, Ed Davis and Robert “Big Bob” Brady on May 30, 1933. Many of these men later became members of the gang headed by himself and Bailey as they set off on a crime spree lasting a little over six months. Almost two weeks after their escape, on June 16, he and Bailey led a robbery with several other men robbed a bank in Black Rock, Arkansas. The next day, Underhill and Bailey were among several fugitives wrongly named as participants in the Kansas City Massacre, a failed attempt to free Frank Nash from police custody, resulting in the deaths of Nash and the four lawmen guarding him. Two days later, Underhill apparently acted alone in a bank robbery in Canton, Kansas but rejoined the gang by the time the Bailey-Underhill Gang struck a bank in Kingfisher, Oklahoma on August 9, 1933. Three days after the Kingfisher robbery, Bailey was visiting Robert Shannon, father-in-law of Machine Gun Kelly, at his Texas ranch and safehouse when police and federal agents raided the property. With Bailey serving a life sentence, Underhill took charge of the gang. These were followed by bank raids in Galena, Kansas and Stuttgart, Arkansas. He had been called “Mad Dog” or the “Tri-State Terror” by several newspapers, one even dubbing him The Southwest Executioner, while authorities made efforts to go after them almost immediately following the Okmulgee heist. A special task force was formed, and included armored cars, and searching through Cookson Hills looking for him. On November 18, while the task force was still in Cookson Hills, Underhill presented himself at the courthouse in nearby Coalgate and applied for a marriage license under his own name. His fiancée, Hazel Jarrett Hudson, was a sister of the outlaw Jarrett brothers. As part of a wedding present for Hazel, Underhill and several others robbed a bank in Frankfort, Kentucky. Edgar Hoover, reportedly frustrated with the lack of progress from Oklahoma authorities, assigned agent R. Colvin to the Underhill case. Colvin soon discovered that Underhill had given his wife’s address in Oklahoma City to the minister who married them in order to receive their marriage certificate. Federal agents staked out the home and spotted the Underhills a week later. Agents at the scene called for reinforcements but, by the time they arrived, the newlyweds had left to celebrate their honeymoon. A few days later, police raided a farm near Konawa where they knew Underhill was staying. However, Underhill had passed them earlier on the highway and was able to escape before police realized their mistake. Underhill and his gang continued to remain active in the area. Underhill, Jack Lloyd and Ralph Roe attempted to burglarize a bank in Harrah, Oklahoma on December 11, 1933, and robbed another bank in Coalgate two days later. On December 26, 1933, Wilbur and Hazel Underhill were celebrating their honeymoon with Ralph Roe and his girlfriend Eva May Nichols at a rented cottage in Shawnee, Oklahoma. Four days later, a 24-man strike force including federal agents, state troopers and local police surrounded the house. The group was led by R. Colvin and Frank Smith, the latter a survivor of the Kansas City Massacre. When called on to surrender, Underhill began firing resulting in the task force returning fire. Eva Nichols, an innocent woman, was killed in the gunfight and Underhill, barefoot and still in his underwear, ran from the house attempting to escape. He was hit five times before leaving the yard but ran for another 16 blocks before breaking into a furniture store and collapsing on one of the beds. Ralph Roe, also wounded, was taken into custody with Hazel Underhill. Underhill was taken to McAlester where he remained, handcuffed in his bed, at the prison hospital until his death on January 6, 1934. His last words were “Tell the boys I’m coming home”. Underhill’s gang, led by Ford Bradshaw, led a raid into the small town of Vian and shot up the town in revenge for Underhill’s capture. This accomplished little, especially with Underhill’s death a week later, and the incident was used by newspapers to turn public opinion against the gang and within months Bradshaw and the others had been killed or apprehended. The item “SCARCE! OUTLAW HANDWRITTEN LETTER WILBUR UNDERHILL JR. (1901-1934) KILLED FBI” is in sale since Monday, August 2, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “collectiblecollectiblecollectible” and is located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. This item can be shipped to United States.
Scarce! Outlaw Handwritten Letter Wilbur Underhill Jr. (1901-1934) Killed Fbi

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Original_Korea_Chang_Myun_Handwritten_Letter_Assassination_Rare_Vintage_01_ero Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage
Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage
A FANTASTICALLY RARE HANDWRITTEN LETTER ON REPUBLIC OF KOREA PAPER BY CHANG MYUN. ALSO ORIGINAL ARTICLE REFERENCING HIS ATTEMPTED ASSAINATION ATTEMPT. THE LETTER REFERENCES THE ATTEMPT ON HIS LIFE AND TO PROTECT HIM AND THE WELFARE OF HIS PEOPLE. Chang Myon (hangul: ; hanja: ; August 28, 1899 June 4, 1966) was a South Korean statesman, educator, diplomat, journalist and social activist as well as a Roman Catholic youth activist. He was the last Vice President of South Korea and the Prime Minister of the Second Republic. His styled name (ho) was Unseok (,). His English name was John Chang Myon (baptismal name, surname, given name). Under the Japanese rule, Chang worked as a teacher. From 191921, he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School and from 193136 at Dongsung Commerce High School. From 193744, he was principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten of the Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church. From 193645, he was principal of Dongsung Commerce High School. In 1948, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly. In 1949, he became the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In 1950, he successfully appealed to the United States and the UN to send troops to assist in the Korean War. On November 23, 1950, he was appointed the second prime minister of the First Republic of Korea. From 1956 to 1960, he served as the fourth vice president of the First Republic of Korea. When Syngman Rhee’s government was ousted by the student-led pro-democracy uprising of April 19 Movement, he was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic in 1960. After the country adopted a parliamentary system in response to Rhee’s abuse of presidential power, Chang became the head of government. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee led a successful military coup on May 16, 1961, which marked the end of the Second Republic and the nation’s brief experimentation with the cabinet form of government. Study in the United States. Religious belief and education movements. Prime Minister of the First Republic. Prime Minister of the Second Republic. Chang Myon was born in 1899 in Jeokseon-dong, Hansung. He was the first son of Chang Gi-bin and Lucia Hwang. His given name was Myon (;). [2] He was a member of the Indong Chang Family (;), and descended from Jukjong Chang Cham (;), a well-known Neo-Confucianism philosopher. Chang’s ninth-generation grandfather lived in South Pyongan Province Province but his father moved to Incheon. [3] The first Roman Catholic believer in his family was his great-grandmother, Lady Park. In 1906, he began studying at Incheon Parkmun Primary School (;), and graduated in 1912. He then went to Incheon Public Simsang Elementary School (,), graduating in 1914. He later attended Suwon Agriculture High School (,), and he graduated on May 25, 1917. In March 1916, he married Kim Ok-yun. They had six sons and three daughters. Manhattan College student, 1921. In September 1918, he was registered at the YMCA Village School, and from 191921 he taught at Yongsan Youth Catholic Theology School (,). On March 1, 1919, he participated in the eponymous protests against Japanese occupation of Korea but escaped arrest. In January 1921, Chang Myon went to the United States with his younger brother Chang Bal to study. They were sponsored by the Maryknoll Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America. In September 1921, he entered Manhattan College and in 1924 took a one-year leave of absence from the college due to acute appendicitis. In August 1921, he entered the Secular Franciscan Order. After graduating from Manhattan College in July 1925, he left for Italy on July 30 to attend the beatification of 79 Korean Joseon Catholic martyrs. He was also received by Pope Pius XII. On December 2, 1925, he was appointed Maryknoll Center School’s professor of the Korean language and translation. At the same time, he served as the leader of the laity for the Pyongyang archdiocese. On February 11, 1927, he formally entered the service of the Pyongyang Catholic church. He translated religious terms for Catholic teaching into the Korean language and published The Summary of Religious Terms in November 1929. In 1930, he published Way of the seeker of truth (;) and on September 15 he published An Outline of Joseon Catholic History (,). On March 18, 1931, he resigned from the affairs of Pyongyang archdiocese (;) and moved to Seoul. Appointed as a teacher at Dongsung Commerce High School (;) on April 1, 1931, he took on the responsibility of teaching English and rhetorical subjects. On July 10th, along with Jeong Ji-yong, he published the first issue of Catholic Young Men’s News (;). In 1935, he became Manager of Affairs for Dongsung Commerce High School. On April 1, 1937, he became the lay leader of Hyehwa-dong Catholic Church and principal of Hyehwa Kindergarten (,). On November 19, 1936, he became principal of Dongsung Commerce High School (;). At the same time he took on the additional role of principal of Gyesong Elementary School (;) in Jongro, Seoul, in April 1939. That September, he was appointed chairman of the Seoul Catholic Young Men’s National Union (,). He translated James Gibbons’ The Faith of Our Fathers: A Plain Exposition and Vindication of the Church Founded by Our Lord Jesus Christ into the Korean language and published the hangul edition on July 4, 1944. Republic of Korea Ambassador to USA, 1949. The Third UN General Assembly, 1948. On February 11, 1946, he was appointed a member of the Democratic Conference (,) and a Representative of Emergency Peoples Conference (,). That August, Chang was elected to the South Korean Provisional National Assembly (,). By this time, he emerged as a major political figure in the Syngman Rhee administration of the First Republic of Korea. On May 10, 1948, he ran for a National Assembly seat from Jongro District of Seoul, and he was duly elected on May 30. On October 11 of the same year, he led the delegation of the Republic of Korea to the UN General Assembly and witnessed the recognition of the Republic of Korea as a sovereign nation by the UN on December 12, 1948. In 1949, he visited the Vatican to express his appreciation of the Vatican’s active support of his diplomatic endeavors. In December 1949, he was appointed the first ambassador of the Republic of Korea to the United States. In April 1950, he was designated a special envoy of the Republic of Korea to Australia, New Zealand, and the Philippines. Immediately after the outbreak of the Korean War, on June 25, 1950, he actively solicited urgent aide from the United States and the UN. The 6th UN General Assembly, 1952. In November 1950, Chang was appointed the second Prime Minister of the First Republic of Korea, a position he at first refused, but after an earnest request from Syngman Rhee, he accepted and went on to serve from October 1951 until April 29, 1952. He was sent to the sixth UN General Assembly held in Paris, France. The involvement of the Catholic Church with the democratic opposition to the Rhee administration first began in the 1950s. As the foremost leader of the opposition in the late 1950s, Chang Myon, a devout Catholic, already had a good relationship with Roh Ki-nam, the Bishop of Seoul, from the early 1940s. Roh soon came to be known as the “political bishop” because of his frequent critical statements on the dictatorial tendencies of Syngman Rhee. In the 1950s, the governing Liberal Party was led by President Syngman Rhee. In April 1952, opposition lawmakers and some Liberal Party lawmakers attempted a constitutional amendment but were branded enemies of the state by Syngman Rhee[5] When the assembly voted to have martial law lifted in Busan, Rhee had half of them arrested. After a staged assassination attempt on Rhee, police began to investigate alleged links to the opposition. Police claimed that Chang Myon was working with assassins paid by North Korea to depose Rhee. Under this type of pressure, the assembly voted 160 to zero for Rhee’s constitutional amendments. [5] By the late 1950s Chang Myon emerged as the major alternative to Rhee, and in 1960, when Rhee was overthrown by the April 19th Movement and a popular revolution, Chang Myon was elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea and de facto chief executive. Chang’s campaign for vice-presidency (1956). On September 18, 1955, he was defeated by a narrow margin by Shin Ik-hee for the Democratic Party’s candidacy in the presidential election. Instead, he was nominated for the vice-presidency as the running mate of Shin Ik-hee, who died suddenly on May 5, 1956. On May 30, 1956, Chang was duly elected the fourth vice president of the Republic of Korea. On September 28, 1956, at the Democratic party’s national convention in the Sigong Building (,) in Jongno, Seoul, he was shot by a sniper in the September 28 Incident [ko] and received a penetrating wound to the wrist. The would-be assassin was immediately arrested. The assassination attempt was in all probability sponsored by the top echelon of the Liberal Party. During his vice presidency, Chang came into conflict with Lee Ki-poong, an influential Liberal Party member, who sent spies and placed him under surveillance. In 1959, he was appointed as a member of the Supreme Council of the Democratic Party of the Republic of Korea. In the same year, he became the Democratic Party’s candidate for the vice-presidency and the running mate of presidential candidate Cho Byong-ok. Chang had attempted to become a candidate for the presidency, but once again he lost by a narrow margin, this time to Cho. In November of the same year, he was reelected as a member of the supreme council of the Democratic Party. In the Republic of Korea’s vice-presidential election of March 15, 1960, Chang suffered defeat at the hands of Lee Ki-poong by such a suspiciously large margin that protesters took to the streets alleging fraud. [6] A thousand residents gathered in front of the opposition Democratic Party building in the southern city of Masan to protest. When the police started shooting, the protesters responded by throwing rocks. Following the suppression of the protests, the body of a young man, Kim Ju-yul, a student at Masan Commercial High School who had participated in the protests, was found on a nearby beach. [6] This tragic incident served as a catalyst for the April 19 Movement and the popular revolution that overthrew the Rhee regime in May 1960. In May 1960, Chang was a candidate in the election for a National Assembly seat. At the time, he was the leader of the New Group in the Democratic Party (,). On August 18, 1960, he was duly elected the Prime Minister of the Second Republic of Korea under a parliamentary system. When Syngman Rhee was forced out of office in April 1960 because of the Rhee administration and Lee Ki-poong’s misgovernment of state affairs, compounded by the exposure of egregious corruption, the Republic of Korea found itself in serious disarray. Hence, the administration led by Prime Minister Chang Myon faced volatile political and grievous socioeconomic difficulties. In the midst of such difficulties, the Chang administration did not resort to dictatorship. After all, Chang Myon fought against the Rhee dictatorship for many years. He was a true believer in democracy. [7] Moreover, his administration had successfully designed the first five-year economic development plan that would have proven beneficial for all Koreans. And this five-year economic development plan was “borrowed” by the Park Chung-hee administration. Park used virtually the same Five-Year Economic Development Plan, originally designed and drafted by the Chang Myon administration, for his economic development after the May 16 military coup. In 1961, the Chang Myon administration attempted to resume talks on a treaty of relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea, and discussed eight of the proposed articles designed to normalize diplomatic ties. However, the talks came to a halt because of the military coup led by Park Chung-hee on May 16. On May 20, 1961, he was removed from the position of Prime Minister after less than one year in power. In January 2005, the government of the Republic of Korea uncovered 1,200 pages of diplomatic documents of the Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea of 1965 that had been kept secret for forty years. These documents revealed that the Japanese government proposed to the government of the Republic of Korea, headed by Park Chung-hee, to directly compensate individual victims of Japanese colonization of Korea, but it was the Park administration that insisted it would handle the individual compensation to the victims, and took over the entire amount of the grant, 300 million dollars, (for 35 years of Japanese colonial rule in Korea), on behalf of the victims. The Park administration negotiated for a total of 360 million dollars in compensation for the 1.03 million Koreans conscripted into the forced labor and military service during the colonial period but received only 300 million dollars. [9] On March 30, 1962, the Park Military Government detained Chang and prohibited him from engaging in any further political activity. Initially, he was under the threat of the death penalty. However, in August 1962, he was released on bail. In 1962, he wrote an appeal to F. Remler, Why Must I suffer? On January 27, 1966, Chang was hospitalized with hepatitis at the Holy Mother Hospital (,) in Seoul, and on June 4, 1966, he died in Jongro at the age of 66. Chang was buried in the Hehwa Catholic Church burial site on Chonbo mountain (;) in Pocheon, Gyeonggi Province. On October 27, 1999, he was posthumously honored by President Kim Dae-jung of the Republic of Korea, with the first class rank of the Order of Merit for National Foundation. [10] On the occasion of the hundredth birthday of Chang Myon, Cardinal Kim Sou-hwan celebrated a memorial mass at Hehwa Catholic Parish Church in August 1999. He rhetorically asked: How is it possible for the leaders of the May 16 military coup to declare that the Chang Myon administration of the Second Republic was already corrupt and incompetent in less than a month of its inception? Their first two children died at an early age. The first child, Anna Chang Myeong-sook (baptismal name, surname, given name), died before age one, and the second child, Joseph Chang Young died at age two. Joseph Chang Jin, Ph. Was a professor of biology at Princeton University and Sogang University (deceased); Benedicta Chang Yi-sook, MFA, an artist and teacher, a member of the order of Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur; Andrew Chang Geon, MA, a successful architect; John Chang Yik, Catholic bishop of Chuncheon (deceased); Leo Chang Soon, Ph. A professor of political science; Matthew Chang Heung, Ph. A manager at the Bank of Paris; Teresa Chang Myong-ja, MA in Library Science, a librarian (deceased). Chang Myon had two younger brothers and three younger sisters. The older, Louis Chang Bal, was an artist and dean of the College of Fine Arts, Seoul National University (deceased); the younger, Paul Chang Geuk, Ph. Was a professor of physics and aerodynamics/space scientist at NASA, Catholic University, Washington, DC, and the Korean Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), (deceased); the eldest of the three younger sisters was Gunaegunda Chang Jeong-hae (deceased), the second, Agneta Chang Jeong-eun, was a Maryknoll Sister and the founder and the mother superior of a Korean order in North Korea, Sisters of Our Perpetual Help, (deceased under fateful duress, October 1950); and the third was Martha Chang Jeong-soon, deceased in 1937 at the age of 21, a senior at Sacred Heart University. Third UN General Assembly, 1948. Chang Myon championed liberal and democratic values. Therefore, he was strongly opposed to communism as practiced by the Soviet Union and fascism/Nazism as practiced by Nazi Germany. Likewise, he firmly opposed totalitarianism and authoritarianism in any shape or form. He believed in individualism in the context of common good. Thus, he abhorred endemic political and economic/financial corruption in the Republic of Korea. The word republic stands for res, things/affairs, and publica, public. In short, republic stands for things public, commonweal, public interest and/or common good. He led a modest and frugal life. He lived in a small, unpretentious house (Seoul, Jongro-gu, Myongreun-dong, 1 Ga, 36-1) where he and his spouse spent most of their life and raised seven children. Anyone who visits the old house, now renovated, can readily see his life style. This house is now designated a National Heritage site and converted to be a museum dedicated to him. It is open to the public. As a member of the National Assembly in the late 1940s, he initiated a legislation prohibiting concubinage and prostitution. It was duly passed. Throughout his life, he abstained from smoking and drinking. He had many good friends and enjoyed listening to classical music. He influenced the conversion of Kim Dae-jung to Catholicism and became his godfather. Kim later remarked that Chang was a devout Catholic who believed in Catholic action to rectify many evils in Korea. Democratic Party of Korea. The Second Republic of Korea was the government of South Korea from April 1960 to May 1961. The Second Republic was founded during the April Revolution mass protests against President Syngman Rhee, succeeding the First Republic and establishing a parliamentary government under President Yun Bo-seon and Prime Minister Chang Myon. The Second Republic ended Rhee’s authoritarianism and repression, formed a liberal democracy, and formulated the first Five-Year Plans to develop the neglected economy. The Second Republic’s failure to improve South Korea’s political and economic issues led to instability, and after thirteen months it was overthrown by the South Korean Army in the May 16 coup led by Park Chung-hee. The Second Republic was replaced by a provisional military government under the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction, leading to the Third Republic of Korea. The short-lived Second Republic was the only government under a parliamentary system in the history of Korea. Proclamation of the Second Republic of Korea. From right: Chang Myon (Prime Minister), Yun Bo-seon (President), Paik Nak-jun (President of the House of Councillors) and Kwak Sang-hoon (President of the Chamber of Deputies). The First Republic of Korea had existed since 1948 under President Syngman Rhee, who was widely considered to be corrupt and a dictator who abused his presidential powers to maintain his rule and cronyism. Although the First Republic was officially a representative democracy, Rhee adopted a strongly anti-communist position and used the threat of communism to enact a policy of severe repression against all political opposition. Tolerance of Rhee and his Liberal Party-dominated government declined in the mid-to-late 1950s, as the South Korean public were increasingly discontent with the repression and the limited economic and social development. In April 1960, Rhee was overthrown by widespread protests known as the “April Revolution” in response to the discovery of a high school student murdered by police during demonstrations against Rhee and rigged election in March. After Rhee’s fall, power was briefly held by a caretaker government headed by Heo Jeong as Prime Minister until a new parliamentary election was held on 29 July 1960. The Second Republic operated under a parliamentary system, with the Prime Minister of South Korea as the head of government and the President of South Korea as the head of state. Due to Rhee’s numerous abuses of power, the President’s power was greatly reduced, to the point that he was effectively a figurehead. He was elected by both houses of the legislature. Real power was vested in the Prime Minister, who was elected by the National Assembly. The Second Republic was the first and the only instance of the South Korean government using a cabinet system instead of a presidential system. The Democratic Party, which had been in the opposition during the First Republic, easily gained power. And Rhee’s former opponent Chang Myon became Prime Minister. The new legislature was bicameral, with the House of Commons as the lower house and the Senate as the upper house. Yun Bo-seon was elected as the second President of South Korea on 13 August 1960. Real power now rested with the Prime Minister and cabinet, who were both elected by the National Assembly. Part of a series on the. History of South Korea. Preludes to Division 191048. People’s Republic of Korea. Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Assassination of Park Chung-hee. 1997 Asian financial crisis. Flag of South Korea. Svg South Korea portal. Much of this activity was from leftist and student groups, which had been instrumental in the overthrow of the First Republic. Membership of unions and activity grew rapidly during the later months of 1960. [2] Estimates suggest around 2,000 demonstrations were held during eight months of the Second Republic. Under pressure from the left-wing, the Chang government carried out a series of purges of military and police officials who had been involved in anti-democratic activities or corruption during the First Republic. A special law to this effect was passed on 31 October 1960. [4] Around 40,000 people were placed under investigation; of these, more than 2,200 government officials and 4,000 police officers were purged. [5] In addition, the government considered reducing the size of the South Korean Army by 100,000, although this plan was shelved. The Second Republic government was faced with mounting instability in economic terms as well, seeing unemployment and wholesale prices also rose during this period. The won lost half of its value against the US dollar between fall 1960 and spring 1961. [7] The government formulated a five-year economic plan based around agriculture and light industry to decrease unemployment, although it was unable to act on it prior to being overthrown. Chang’s government resumed negotiations for the normalization of diplomatic relations between Korea and Japan, which had not progressed under the Rhee regime that had existed since the end of Japanese rule. The Second Republic established diplomatic relations with many new countries, with Sohn Won-yil, the first ambassador to West Germany, attending the independence ceremonies of Cameroon, Togo, Guinea, Mali, Nigeria, and Morocco. The Second Republic suffered from numerous political, economic, and social issues that were both new and inherited from the First Republic. Failure to properly address the issues caused a growth in political instability as factional fighting within the Democratic Party, combined with the increasing activity from opposition and activist groups, led to a breakdown in South Korean politics. Main article: May 16 coup. Many high-ranking figures of the South Korean military held animosity for so-called “liberation aristocrats” the ruling class of conservative politicians involved in the Korean independence movement and United States Army Military Government that they blamed for the stalling of development in South Korea. Military figures noted how South Korea had been intensively developed under the Japanese colonial system and the “economic miracle” occurring in Japan, in marked contrast to Rhee’s presidency which saw little significant effort to develop the economy, which remained stagnant, poor and largely agrarian. The lack of development under Rhee provoked a growing nationalistic intellectual reaction which called for a radical restructuring of society and a thorough political and economic reorganization, rejecting the model being pursued by the governing elite. Park Chung-hee, a Major General in the Republic of Korea Army with decidedly ambiguous political leanings, was heavily influenced by this unfolding intellectual reaction. Park became the leader of a reformist faction within the military that plotted a coup d’etat against the civilian government of the Second Republic on 12 May 1961. The plot was aborted after being leaked, however, the military attempted another coup four days later on 16 May which was successful, dissolving the Second Republic. They proceeded to broadcast a proclamation outlining the policy objectives of the coup, including anti-communism, strengthening of ties with the United States, the elimination of political corruption, the construction of an autonomous national economy, Korean reunification, and the removal of the present generation of politicians. Park and his supporters subsequently established the Military Revolutionary Committee as a military junta government, later renamed the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction. Park became the de facto dictator of South Korea as the Chairman of the Council, while Yun Bo-seon remained President as a figurehead. On one autumn day in 1969, when the Korean engineering design office of a Nevada Corporation was located within the U. Army Yongsan Garrison in central Seoul, a tall handsome man, dressed in a black suit with a small rectangular white window in the front part of the collar, visited my design office. He was Father Chang Ick. Somehow, I immediately liked his elegant and refined manner. I don’t remember why, but we spoke in English. He wanted us to design a Catholic church building in Seongbuk-dong, northeastern Seoul, and showed me a cadastral map. I asked him to give us the general concept and specifications of the proposed building. May I use your typewriter? I let him sit at my desk, and quickly replaced the old typewriter ribbon with a new one. The Father knew by heart every concept of his new church, and typed the design requirements rather quickly. He typed three pages of the specifications, without even making typographical errors. I glanced over the papers and said Give us two weeks and I’ll submit to you three different conceptual ideas showing the floor layouts and facades, before we enter into the detailed design. Then I checked the city planning regulations in the area around City Hall. There were no restrictions. Then, later we applied for a building permit. The answer came back a week later and we were told that there is a height restriction in the area by the Metropolitan Army Defense Command. We were told that the very area in Seongbuk-dong comes within the field vision of anti-aircraft artillery as the zone is within the range of protection for Cheong Wa Dae. We redesigned and lowered the height of the tower of the Roman Catholic church and finally we were able to receive the building permit. Chang Myon’s government ended when Park Chung-hee, a major-general, led a military coup on May 16, 1961. Over a cup of coffee in my office, Father Chang kept criticizing Park Chung-hee for taking over the country in a coup d’etat. Such anti-military government words were taboo and dangerous at the time. 20, 2011 this column carried an article Cryptography is the key to Information Age. ” A part of it reads, “When Chang Myon, vice president and prime minister of the First and the Second Republic, was assigned as South Korea’s first ambassador to the United States in 1949, he hid a Korean-English dictionary in his portfolio. The foreign ministry’s Seoul Office had the same copy. The dictionary was their code book. A word is picked up by indicating the page number and the column number from the same dictionaries in Washington, D. Bishop Chang Ick was my age, 87. I’m thinking of that wonderful gentleman in this time of sorrow. [Raw] Gwangmyeong 3 (1899). [Death] 1966.6.4. Graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After earning a doctorate in law and returning to Japan, engaged in Christian business. He was a member of the Constituent National Assembly in 1948 and became the first ambassador to the United States in 1949. 51 years Prime Minister became but Lee Sunman (Syngman Rhee) president and the collision to resign. In 1955, he organized the Democratic Party with Sin Ik-hui and became an opposition leader. In the third presidential election in 1981, he was elected vice president from the opposition party under President Lee Seung-man of the Liberal Party. Even after taking office, he blamed the Lee administration’s policies and resigned as vice president in the student revolution in April 1960. August Cabinet has been appointed to the responsibility system the second Prime Minister of the Republic, the following year of the five-sixteen military revolution can not respond quickly in, resulting in a successful revolution as a result. The Cabinet resigned altogether. Imprisoned for anti-revolution case in 1987Received a 10-year sentence , but was released from expulsion in 1965. SourceBritannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia Information about. Commentary on Digital Daijisen. Became Prime Minister in 1950, but resigned in conflict with President Syngman Rhee. He formed the Democratic Party of Japan in 1955, and was reappointed as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April Revolution of 1960. 1961 Chung of the coup in the downfall. Chang Myon (Chang Myon). Commentary on the 2nd edition of the World Encyclopedia. The issue is Unishi. Born in Incheon, Gyeonggi Province. Graduated from the Catholic University of Manhattan in New York in 1925. Participated in the formation of the Democratic Party of the Conservative Opposition in 1955. He defeated Lee Ki-poong of the Liberal Party in 1981 and was elected Vice President, but there was no fundamental difference in his pro-American personality. Inaugurated as Prime Minister after the fall of the Syngman Rhee administration in the April 1960 Revolution. In 1961, he signed the Korea-US Economic and Technical Assistance Agreement and endeavored to realize a new Korea-US relationship. But the president Yoonadministration, such as (in-failure) faction split is a weakness, not be able to respond effectively to the popular movements that hope the negative and unification also to North-South dialogue as a transient regime, 61 years Chung of He was banished from political activities in the 5/16 coup d’etat. SourceInformation about Heibonsha World Encyclopedia 2nd Edition. Commentary on the Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica). A politician from South Korea. Born in Gyeonggi Province. After graduating from Suwon High School of Agriculture and Forestry, studied abroad in the United States and graduated from Manhattan College in 1925. After returning to Japan, following the Catholic business, he became the principal of Tosei Commercial School from 1931 to 1945. After liberation, he entered politics and became a member of various parliament. 1951 Prime Minister, 1952 Presidential election and lost. He founded the Democratic Party in 1955 and confronted the ruling Liberal Party. After the student revolution in April 1960, he was elected Prime Minister under the new constitution and established the Democratic Party of Japan (a spokesman at the time was later President Kim Dae-Jung). However, he was dismissed by the military revolution in May 1961 and was temporarily charged with anti-revolutionary charges. He was released from exile in 1965, but died in June 1966 in disappointment. Mention of Chang Myon in the World Encyclopedia. From [Republic of Korea]. However, in order to perpetuate the administration, the people were forced to revise the constitution, such as changing the presidential election method from indirect elections by members of the Diet to direct elections by the people, and abolishing the three-election prohibition clause for the presidential term. The Lee administration collapsed due to the April revolution centered on students in 1960, against the backdrop of the economic crisis. In the Second Republic, which was established in its place, the criticism of Lee’s dictatorship was changed to a responsible cabinet system with significantly reduced presidential authority, and the Chang Myon administration (President Yun Posun) based on the opposition party (Democratic Party) during the Lee administration. However, the energy of the people who caused the April Revolution overcame the regulations of the Zhang administration, and the movement for democratization and unity showed unprecedented upsurge. [From the Park administration to all administrations] When. It seemed that a new phase would be opened in the North-South division situation, a military coup d’etat (May 16 coup d’etat) broke out on May 16, 1961, and mainly military personnel. Chung administration (third Republic) is satisfied. 1899 8 28 34. , · , 1948 5 10. 1961 5 16 809. 3 (79·) (76·) (41·). 4 (77· , , ,) 1994 ····· · ··. 5 (75·) (44·) (36). (40·)·(37·)·(35·) , (29·). 2 (81·,) , 3 (78) 3. Korea (or Korean peninsula) is a region in East Asia. Since 1945 it has been divided into two sovereign states: North Korea (officially the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”) and South Korea (officially the “Republic of Korea”). Korea consists of the mainland Korean Peninsula (“Mainland Korea”), Jeju Island, and several minor islands near the peninsula. It is bordered by China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast. It is separated from Japan to the east by the Korea Strait and the Sea of Japan (East Sea). During the first half of the 1st millennium, Korea was divided between the three competing states of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla, together known as the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the second half of the 1st millennium, Silla defeated and conquered Baekje and Goguryeo, leading to the “Unified Silla” period. Meanwhile, Balhae formed in the north, superseding former Goguryeo. Unified Silla eventually collapsed into three separate states due to civil war, ushering in the Later Three Kingdoms. Toward the end of the 1st millennium, Goguryeo was resurrected as Goryeo, which defeated the two other states and unified the Korean Peninsula as a single sovereign state. Around the same time, Balhae collapsed and its last crown prince fled south to Goryeo. Goryeo (also spelled as Kory), whose name developed into the modern exonym “Korea”, was a highly cultured state that created the world’s first metal movable type in 1234. [3][4][5][6][7][8] However, multiple incursions by the Mongol Empire during the 13th century greatly weakened the nation, which eventually agreed to become a vassal state after decades of fighting. Following military resistance under King Gongmin that ended Mongol political influence in Goryeo, severe political strife followed, and Goryeo eventually fell to a coup led by General Yi Seong-gye, who established Joseon in 17 July 1392. The first 200 years of the Joseon era were marked by relative peace. During this period, the Korean alphabet was created by Sejong the Great in the 15th century and there was increasing influence of Confucianism. During the later part of the dynasty, Korea’s isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname of the “Hermit Kingdom”. By the late 19th century, the country became the object of imperial design by the Empire of Japan. After the First Sino-Japanese War, despite the Korean Empire’s effort to modernize, the country was annexed by Japan in 1910 and ruled by it until the end of World War II in August 1945. In 1945, the Soviet Union and the United States agreed on the surrender of Japanese forces in Korea in the aftermath of World War II, leaving Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel. The North was under Soviet occupation and the South under U. These circumstances became the basis for the division of Korea by the 2 superpowers with the 2 diffirent ideologies, exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence. The Communist-inspired government in the North received backing from the Soviet Union in opposition to the pro-Western government in the South, leading to Korea’s division into two political entities in 1948: North Korea, and South Korea. Tensions between the two resulted in the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. With involvement by foreign troops, the war ended in a stalemate in 1953, but without a formalized peace treaty. This status contributes to the high tensions that continue to divide the peninsula. Both governments of the two Koreas always claim to be the sole legitimate government of this region. Japanese occupation and Japan-Korea Annexation. List of heads of state (since 1897). Comparison of the two countries of Korea. Notable public holidays in South Korea. Independence Movement Day, March 1st. Memorial day, 6 June. National Liberation Day, 15 August. Hangul Day, 9 October. Main article: Names of Korea. See also: Korean romanization. “Korea” is the modern spelling of “Corea”, a name attested in English as early as 1614. [9][10] Korea was transliterated as Cauli in The Travels of Marco Polo, [11] of the Chinese MCKawlej, [12] mod. This was the Hanja for the Korean kingdom of Goryeo (Korean: ; Hanja: ; MR: Kory), which ruled most of the Korean peninsula during Marco Polo’s time. Korea’s introduction to the West resulted from trade and contact with merchants from Arabic lands, [13] with some records dating back as far as the 9th century. [14] Goryeo’s name was a continuation of Goguryeo (Kogury) the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, which was officially known as Goryeo beginning in the 5th century. [15] The original name was a combination of the adjective go (“high, lofty”) with the name of a local Yemaek tribe, whose original name is thought to have been either Guru (, “walled city, ” inferred from some toponyms in Chinese historical documents) or Gauri (, “center”). With expanding British and American trade following the opening of Korea in the late 19th century, the spelling “Korea” appeared and gradually grew in popularity;[9] its use in transcribing East Asian languages avoids the issues caused by the separate hard and soft Cs existing in English vocabulary derived from the Romance languages. The name Korea is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. In South Korea, Korea as a whole is referred to as Hanguk , [hanuk], lit. “Country of the Han”. The name references Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. [16][17] Although written in Hanja as , , or , this Han has no relation to the Chinese place names or peoples who used those characters but was a phonetic transcription (OC:Gar, MCHan[12] or Gan) of a native Korean word that seems to have had the meaning “big” or “great”, particularly in reference to leaders. It has been tentatively linked with the title khan used by the nomads of Manchuria and Central Asia. In North Korea, Japan, China and Vietnam, Korea as a whole is referred to as , (Joseon, [tosn]), (Chsen), / (Cháoxin/Jusn), Triu Tiên lit. “[land of the] Morning Calm”. “Great Joseon” was the name of the kingdom ruled by the Joseon dynasty from 1393 until their declaration of the short-lived Great Korean Empire in 1897. King Taejo had named them for the earlier Kojoseon , who ruled northern Korea from its legendary prehistory until their conquest in 108BCE by China’s Han Empire. This go is the Hanja and simply means “ancient” or “old”; it is a modern usage to distinguish the ancient Joseon from the later dynasty. Joseon itself is the modern Korean pronunciation of the Hanja but it is unclear whether this was a transcription of a native Korean name (OCT[r]awser, MCTrjewsjen[12]) or a partial translation into Chinese of the Korean capital Asadal , [18] whose meaning has been reconstructed as “Morning Land” or “Mountain”. Main article: Geography of Korea. See also: Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea, and Provinces of Korea. A neighborhood in North Gyeongsang Province. A view of Mount Seorak. Daedongyeojido this 1861 map of Korea represents the peak of pre-modern mapmaking in the region. Korea consists of a peninsula and nearby islands located in East Asia. The peninsula extends southwards for about 1,100 km (680 mi) from continental Asia into the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by the Sea of Japan (East Sea) to the east and the Yellow Sea (West Sea) to the west, the Korea Strait connecting the two bodies of water. [19][20] To the northwest, the Amnok River separates the peninsula from China and to the northeast, the Duman River separates it from China and Russia. [21] Notable islands include Jeju Island, Ulleung Island, Dokdo. The southern and western parts of the peninsula have well-developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mount Paektu (2,744 m), through which runs the border with China. The southern extension of Mount Paektu is a highland called Gaema Heights. This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter. To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This mountain range is named Baekdudaegan. Some significant mountains include Mount Sobaek or Sobaeksan (1,439 m), Mount Kumgang (1,638 m), Mount Seorak (1,708 m), Mount Taebaek (1,567 m), and Mount Jiri (1,915 m). There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is almost perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan. They are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are basically northwest. Unlike most ancient mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju Island, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mount Halla or Hallasan (1950 m) is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung Island is a volcanic island in the Sea of Japan, the composition of which is more felsic than Jeju-do. The volcanic islands tend to be younger, the more westward. Because the mountainous region is mostly on the eastern part of the peninsula, the main rivers tend to flow westwards. Two exceptions are the southward-flowing Nakdong River and Seomjin River. Important rivers running westward include the Amnok River, the Chongchon River, the Taedong River, the Han River, the Geum River, and the Yeongsan River. These rivers have vast flood plains and provide an ideal environment for wet-rice cultivation. The southern and southwestern coastlines of the peninsula form a well-developed ria coastline, known as Dadohae-jin in Korean. Its convoluted coastline provides mild seas, and the resulting calm environment allows for safe navigation, fishing, and seaweed farming. In addition to the complex coastline, the western coast of the Korean Peninsula has an extremely high tidal amplitude at Incheon, around the middle of the western coast. It can get as high as 9 m. Vast tidal flats have been developing on the south and west coastlines. Korea has a temperate climate with comparatively fewer typhoons than other countries in East Asia. Due to the peninsula’s position, it has a unique climate influenced from Siberia in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the east and the rest of Eurasia in the west. The peninsula has four distinct seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. As influence from Siberia weakens, temperatures begin to increase while the high pressure begins to move away. If the weather is abnormally dry, Siberia will have more influence on the peninsula leading to wintry weather such as snow. During June at the start of the summer, there tends to be a lot of rain due to the cold and wet air from the Sea of Okhotsk and the hot and humid air from the Pacific Ocean combining. When these fronts combine, it leads to a so-called rainy season with often cloudy days with rain, which is sometimes very heavy. The hot and humid winds from the south west blow causing an increasing amount of humidity and this leads to the fronts moving towards Manchuria in China and thus there is less rain and this is known as midsummer; temperatures can exceed 30 °C (86 °F) daily at this time of year. Usually, high pressure is heavily dominant during autumn leading to clear conditions. Furthermore, temperatures remain high but the humidity becomes relatively low. The weather becomes increasingly dominated by Siberia during winter and the jet stream moves further south causing a drop in temperature. This season is relatively dry with some snow falling at times. Main article: Wildlife of Korea. Animal life of the Korean Peninsula includes a considerable number of bird species and native freshwater fish. Native or endemic species of the Korean Peninsula include Korean hare, Korean water deer, Korean field mouse, Korean brown frog, Korean pine and Korean spruce. The Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) with its forest and natural wetlands is a unique biodiversity spot, which harbours eighty-two endangered species. Korea once hosted many Siberian tigers, but as the number of people affected by the tigers increased, the tigers were killed in the Joseon Dynasty and the Siberian tigers in the South Korea became extinct during the Japanese colonial era period. It has been confirmed that Siberian tigers are only on the side of North Korea now. There are also approximately 3,034 species of vascular plants. Main article: History of Korea. See also: History of North Korea and History of South Korea. Four Commanderies of Han. Northern and Southern States period. United Silla (Unified Silla). Later Three Kingdoms period. Unified Silla (Later Silla). ArtDivisionLanguageMilitary (Goguryeo)MonarchsNavalScience and technologyHistory of Jeju. Main articles: Prehistoric Korea and Gojoseon. The Korean Academy claimed ancient hominid fossils originating from about 100,000BCE in the lava at a stone city site in Korea. Fluorescent and high-magnetic analyses indicate the volcanic fossils may be from as early as 300,000BCE. [24] The best preserved Korean pottery goes back to the paleolithic times around 10,000BCE and the Neolithic period begins around 6000BCE. According to legend, Dangun, a descendant of Heaven, established Gojoseon in 2333BCE. In 108BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Gojoseon and installed four commanderies in the northern Korean peninsula. By 313, Goguryeo annexed all of the Chinese commanderies. Main article: ProtoThree Kingdoms of Korea. The ProtoThree Kingdoms period, sometimes called the Multiple States Period, is the earlier part of what is commonly called the Three Kingdoms Period, following the fall of Gojoseon but before Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla fully developed into kingdoms. This time period saw numerous states spring up from the former territories of Gojoseon, which encompassed northern Korea and southern Manchuria. With the fall of Gojoseon, southern Korea entered the Samhan period. Located in the southern part of Korea, Samhan referred to the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan. Mahan was the largest and consisted of 54 states. Byeonhan and Jinhan both consisted of twelve states, bringing a total of 78 states within the Samhan. These three confederacies eventually developed into Baekje, Silla, and Gaya. Main articles: Three Kingdoms of Korea, Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. 7th century Tang dynasty painting of envoys from the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Baekje, Goguryeo, and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea consisted of Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje. Silla and Baekje controlled the southern half of the Korean Peninsula, maintaining the former Samhan territories, while Goguryeo controlled the northern half of the Korean Peninsula, Manchuria and the Liaodong Peninsula, uniting Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye, and other states in the former Gojoseon territories. Goguryeo was a highly militaristic state;[26][27]self-published source? It was a powerful empire and one of the great powers in East Asia, [28][29][30][31]self-published source? Reaching its zenith in the 5th century when its territories expanded to encompass most of Manchuria to the north, parts of Inner Mongolia to the west, [32] parts of Russia to the east, [33] and the Seoul region to the south. [34] Goguryeo experienced a golden age under Gwanggaeto the Great and his son Jangsu, [35][36][37][38] who both subdued Baekje and Silla during their times, achieving a brief unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea and becoming the most dominant power on the Korean Peninsula. [39][40] In addition to contesting for control of the Korean Peninsula, Goguryeo had many military conflicts with various Chinese dynasties, [41]self-published source? Most notably the GoguryeoSui War, in which Goguryeo defeated a huge force said to number over a million men. [42][43][44][45][46] In 642, the powerful general Yeon Gaesomun led a coup and gained complete control over Goguryeo. In response, Emperor Tang Taizong of China led a campaign against Goguryeo, but was defeated and retreated. [47][48]self-published source? After the death of Tang Taizong, his son Emperor Tang Gaozong allied with the Korean kingdom of Silla and invaded Goguryeo again, but was unable to overcome Goguryeo’s stalwart defenses and was defeated in 662. [49][50] However, Yeon Gaesomun died of a natural cause in 666 and Goguryeo was thrown into chaos and weakened by a succession struggle among his sons and younger brother, with his eldest son defecting to Tang and his younger brother defecting to Silla. [51][52] The Tang-Silla alliance finally conquered Goguryeo in 668. After the collapse of Goguryeo, Tang and Silla ended their alliance and fought over control of the Korean Peninsula. Silla succeeded in gaining control over most of the Korean Peninsula, while Tang gained control over Goguryeo’s northern territories. However, 30 years after the fall of Goguryeo, a Goguryeo general by the name of Dae Joyeong founded the Korean-Mohe state of Balhae and successfully expelled the Tang presence from much of the former Goguryeo territories. Seokguram Grotto from the Silla era, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The southwestern Korean kingdom of Baekje was founded around modern-day Seoul by a Goguryeo prince, a son of the founder of Goguryeo. [53][54]self-published source? [55] Baekje absorbed all of the Mahan states and subjugated most of the western Korean peninsula (including the modern provinces of Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Jeolla, as well as parts of Hwanghae and Gangwon) to a centralised government; during the expansion of its territory, Baekje acquired Chinese culture and technology through maritime contacts with the Southern Dynasties. Baekje was a great maritime power;[56] its nautical skill, which made it the Phoenicia of East Asia, was instrumental in the dissemination of Buddhism throughout East Asia and continental culture to Japan. [57][58] Historic evidence suggests that Japanese culture, art, and language were influenced by the kingdom of Baekje and Korea itself;[31][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66][67][68][69] Baekje also played an important role in transmitting advanced Chinese culture to the Japanese archipelago. Baekje was once a great military power on the Korean Peninsula, most notably in the 4th century during the rule of Geunchogo when its influence extended across the sea to Liaoxi and Shandong in China, taking advantage of the weakened state of Former Qin, and Kyushu in the Japanese archipelago;[70] however, Baekje was critically defeated by Gwanggaeto the Great and declined. The Three Kingdoms of Korea, at the end of the 5th century. Although later records claim that Silla was the oldest of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, it is now believed to have been the last kingdom to develop. By the 2nd century, Silla existed as a large state in the southeast, occupying and influencing its neighboring city-states. In 562, Silla annexed the Gaya confederacy, which was located between Baekje and Silla. The Three Kingdoms of Korea often warred with each other and Silla was often dominated by Baekje and Goguryeo. Silla was the smallest and weakest of the three, but it used cunning diplomatic means to make opportunistic pacts and alliances with the more powerful Korean kingdoms, and eventually Tang China, to its great advantage. [71][72] In 660, King Muyeol ordered his armies to attack Baekje. General Kim Yu-shin, aided by Tang forces, conquered Baekje after defeating General Gyebaek at the Battle of Hwangsanbeol. In 661, Silla and Tang attacked Goguryeo but were repelled. King Munmu, son of Muyeol and nephew of General Kim Yu-shin, launched another campaign in 667 and Goguryeo fell in the following year. Main articles: NorthSouth States Period, Later Silla, and Balhae. Beginning in the 6th century, Silla’s power gradually extended across the Korean Peninsula. Silla first annexed the adjacent Gaya confederacy in 562. By the 640s, Silla formed an alliance with the Tang dynasty of China to conquer Baekje and later Goguryeo. After conquering Baekje and Goguryeo, Silla repulsed Tang China from the Korean peninsula in 676. Even though Silla unified most of the Korean Peninsula, most of the Goguryeo territories to the north of the Korean Peninsula were ruled by Balhae. Former Goguryeo general[73][74] or chief of Sumo Mohe[75][76][77] Dae Jo-yeong led a group of Goguryeo and Mohe refugees to the Jilin and founded the kingdom of Balhae, 30 years after the collapse of Goguryeo, as the successor to Goguryeo. At its height, Balhae’s territories extended from southern Manchuria down to the northern Korean peninsula. Balhae was called the “Prosperous Country in the East”. Unified Silla and Balhae in the 8th century CE. Later Silla carried on the maritime prowess of Baekje, which acted like the Phoenicia of medieval East Asia, [79] and during the 8th and 9th centuries dominated the seas of East Asia and the trade between China, Korea and Japan, most notably during the time of Jang Bogo; in addition, Silla people made overseas communities in China on the Shandong Peninsula and the mouth of the Yangtze River. [80][81][82][83] Later Silla was a prosperous and wealthy country, [84] and its metropolitan capital of Gyeongju[85] was the fourth largest city in the world. [86][87][88][89] Later Silla was a golden age of art and culture, [90][91][92][93] as evidenced by the Hwangnyongsa, Seokguram, and Emille Bell. Buddhism flourished during this time, and many Korean Buddhists gained great fame among Chinese Buddhists[94] and contributed to Chinese Buddhism, [95] including: Woncheuk, Wonhyo, Uisang, Musang, [96][97][98][99] and Kim Gyo-gak, a Silla prince whose influence made Mount Jiuhua one of the Four Sacred Mountains of Chinese Buddhism. [100][101][102][103][104]. Later Silla fell apart in the late 9th century, giving way to the tumultuous Later Three Kingdoms period (892935), and Balhae was destroyed by the Khitans in 926. Goryeo unified the Later Three Kingdoms and received the last crown prince and much of the ruling class of Balhae, thus bringing about a unification of the two successor nations of Goguryeo. Goryeo was founded in 918 and replaced Silla as the ruling dynasty of Korea. Goryeo’s land was at first what is now South Korea and about 1/3 of North Korea, but later on managed to recover most of the Korean peninsula. The name “Goryeo” is a short form of “Goguryeo” and was first used during the time of King Jangsu. Goryeo regarded itself as the successor of Goguryeo, hence its name and efforts to recover the former territories of Goguryeo. [106][107][108][109] Wang Geon, the founder of Goryeo, was of Goguryeo descent and traced his ancestry to a noble Goguryeo clan. [110] He made Kaesong, his hometown, the capital. During this period, laws were codified and a civil service system was introduced. Buddhism flourished and spread throughout the peninsula. The development of celadon industries flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries. The publication of the Tripitaka Koreana onto more than 80,000 wooden blocks and the invention of the world’s first metal movable type in the 13th century attest to Goryeo’s cultural achievements. [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Goryeo had to defend frequently against attacks by nomadic empires, especially the Khitans and the Mongols. Goryeo had a hostile relationship with the Khitans, because the Khitan Empire had destroyed Balhae, also a successor state of Goguryeo. In 993, the Khitans, who had established the Liao dynasty in 907, invaded Goryeo, demanding that it make amity with them. Goryeo sent the diplomat Seo Hui to negotiate, who successfully persuaded the Khitans to let Goryeo expand to the banks of the Amnok (Yalu) River, citing that in the past the land belonged to Goguryeo, the predecessor of Goryeo. [111] During the GoryeoKhitan War, the Khitan Empire invaded Korea twice more in 1009 and 1018, but was defeated. After defeating the Khitan Empire, which was the most powerful empire of its time, [112][113] Goryeo experienced a golden age that lasted a century, during which the Tripitaka Koreana was completed, and there were great developments in printing and publishing, promoting learning and dispersing knowledge on philosophy, literature, religion, and science; by 1100, there were 12 universities that produced famous scholars and scientists. Goryeo was invaded by the Mongols in seven major campaigns from the 1230s until the 1270s, but was never conquered. [116] Exhausted after decades of fighting, Goryeo sent its crown prince to the Yuan capital to swear allegiance to the Mongols; Kublai Khan accepted, and married one of his daughters to the Korean crown prince, [116] and the dynastic line of Goryeo continued to survive under the overlordship of the Mongol Yuan dynasty as a semi-autonomous vassal state and compulsory ally. The two nations became intertwined for 80 years as all subsequent Korean kings married Mongol princesses, [116] and the last empress of the Yuan dynasty was a Korean princess. In the 1350s, King Gongmin was free at last to reform the Goryeo government when the Yuan dynasty began to crumble. Gongmin had various problems that needed to be dealt with, which included the removal of pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officials, the question of land holding, and quelling the growing animosity between the Buddhists and Confucian scholars. During this tumultuous period, Goryeo momentarily conquered Liaoyang in 1356, repulsed two large invasions by the Red Turbans in 1359 and 1360, and defeated the final attempt by the Yuan to dominate Goryeo when General Choe Yeong defeated a Mongol tumen in 1364. During the 1380s, Goryeo turned its attention to the Wokou threat and used naval artillery created by Choe Museon to annihilate hundreds of pirate ships. In 1392, the general Yi Seong-gye overthrew the Goryeo dynasty after he staged a coup and defeated General Choe Yeong. Yi Seong-gye named his new dynasty Joseon and moved the capital from Kaesong to Hanseong (formerly Hanyang; modern-day Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung palace. [117] In 1394, he adopted Confucianism as the country’s official ideology, resulting in much loss of power and wealth by the Buddhists. The prevailing philosophy of the Joseon dynasty was Neo-Confucianism, which was epitomized by the seonbi class, scholars who passed up positions of wealth and power to lead lives of study and integrity. Joseon was a nominal tributary state of China but exercised full sovereignty, [118][119] and maintained the highest position among China’s tributary states, [120][121] which also included countries such as the Ryukyu Kingdom, Vietnam, Burma, Brunei, Laos, Thailand, [122][123][124] and the Philippines, among others. [125][126] In addition, Joseon received tribute from Jurchens and Japanese until the 17th century, [127][128][129] and had a small enclave in the Ryukyu Kingdom that engaged in trade with Siam and Java. During the 15th and 16th centuries, Joseon enjoyed many benevolent rulers who promoted education and science. [131] Most notable among them was Sejong the Great r. 141850, who personally created and promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet. [132] This golden age[131] saw great cultural and scientific advancements, [133] including in printing, meteorological observation, astronomy, calendar science, ceramics, military technology, geography, cartography, medicine, and agricultural technology, some of which were unrivaled elsewhere. [134] Joseon implemented a class system that consisted of yangban the noble class, jungin the middle class, yangin the common class, and cheonin the lowest class, which included occupations such as butchers, tanners, shamans, entertainers, and nobi, the equivalent of slaves, bondservants, or serfs. In 1592 and again in 1597, the Japanese invaded Korea; the Korean military at the time was unprepared and untrained, due to two centuries of peace on the Korean Peninsula. [137] Toyotomi Hideyoshi intended to conquer China and India[138] through the Korean Peninsula, but was defeated by strong resistance from the Righteous Army, the naval superiority of Admiral Yi Sun-sin and his turtle ships, and assistance from Wanli Emperor of Ming China. However, Joseon experienced great destruction, including a tremendous loss of cultural sites such as temples and palaces to Japanese pillaging, and the Japanese brought back to Japan an estimated 100,000200,000 noses cut from Korean victims. [139] Less than 30 years after the Japanese invasions, the Manchus took advantage of Joseon’s war-weakened state and invaded in 1627 and 1637, and then went on to conquer the destabilized Ming dynasty. After normalizing relations with the new Qing dynasty, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. Kings Yeongjo and Jeongjo led a new renaissance of the Joseon dynasty during the 18th century. In the 19th century, the royal in-law families gained control of the government, leading to mass corruption and weakening of the state, with severe poverty and peasant rebellions spreading throughout the country. Furthermore, the Joseon government adopted a strict isolationist policy, earning the nickname “the hermit kingdom”, but ultimately failed to protect itself against imperialism and was forced to open its borders, beginning an era leading into Japanese imperial rule. Main article: Korean Empire. The earliest surviving depiction of the Korean flag was printed in a US Navy book Flags of Maritime Nations in July 1889. Beginning in 1871, Japan began to exert more influence in Korea, forcing it out of China’s traditional sphere of influence. As a result of the Sino-Japanese War (189495), the Qing dynasty had to give up such a position according to Article 1 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which was concluded between China and Japan in 1895. That same year, Empress Myeongseong of Korea was assassinated by Japanese agents. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty proclaimed the Korean Empire (18971910). King Gojong became emperor. During this brief period, Korea had some success in modernizing the military, economy, real property laws, education system, and various industries. Russia, Japan, France, and the United States all invested in the country and sought to influence it politically. In 1904, the Russo-Japanese War pushed the Russians out of the fight for Korea. In Manchuria on 26 October 1909, An Jung-geun assassinated the former Resident-General of Korea, It Hirobumi, for his role in trying to force Korea into occupation. Main article: Korea under Japanese rule. See also: Japanese war crimes. The memorial tablet for the March 1st Movement in Pagoda Park, Seoul. In 1910, an already militarily occupied Korea was a forced party to the JapanKorea Annexation Treaty. The treaty was signed by Lee Wan-Yong, who was given the General Power of Attorney by the Emperor. However, the Emperor is said to have not actually ratified the treaty according to Yi Tae-jin. [143] There is a long dispute whether this treaty was legal or illegal due to its signing under duress, threat of force and bribes. Korean resistance to the brutal Japanese occupation[144][145][146] was manifested in the nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919, during which 7,000 demonstrators were killed by Japanese police and military. [147] The Korean liberation movement also spread to neighbouring Manchuria and Siberia. Over five million Koreans were conscripted for labour beginning in 1939, [148] and tens of thousands of men were forced into Japan’s military. [149] Nearly 400,000 Korean labourers died. [150] Approximately 200,000 girls and women, [151] mostly from China and Korea, were forced into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. [152] In 1993, Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono acknowledged the terrible injustices faced by these euphemistically named “comfort women”. During the Japanese annexation, the Korean language was suppressed in an effort to eradicate Korean national identity. Koreans were forced to take Japanese surnames, known as Sshi-kaimei. [155] Traditional Korean culture suffered heavy losses, as numerous Korean cultural artifacts were destroyed[156] or taken to Japan. [157] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collections. [158] One investigation by the South Korean government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 in Japan and 17,803 in the United States. However, experts estimate that over 100,000 artifacts actually remain in Japan. [157][159] Japanese officials considered returning Korean cultural properties, but to date[157] this has not occurred. [159] Korea and Japan still dispute the ownership of the Dokdo islets, located east of the Korean Peninsula. There was significant emigration to the overseas territories of the Empire of Japan during the Japanese occupation period, including Korea. [161] By the end of World War II, there were over 850,000 Japanese settlers in Korea. [162] After World War II, most of these overseas Japanese repatriated to Japan. Main articles: Division of Korea, Korean conflict, and Korean reunification. Flag of North Korea. In 1945, with the surrender of Japan, the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments, North Korea and South Korea. Satellite image of the Korean peninsula taken at night showing the extent of the division between the Koreas; note the difference in light emitted between the two countries. The aftermath of World War II left Korea partitioned along the 38th parallel, with the north under Soviet occupation and the south under US occupation supported by other allied states. Consequently, North Korea, a Soviet-style socialist republic was established in the north and South Korea; a Western-style regime, was established in the South. North Korea is a one-party state, now centred on Kim Il-sung’s Juche ideology, with a centrally planned industrial economy. South Korea is a multi-party state with a capitalist market economy, alongside membership in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Group of Twenty. The two states have greatly diverged both culturally and economically since their partition, though they still share a common traditional culture and pre-Cold War history. Since the 1960s, the South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure was radically transformed. In 1957, South Korea had a lower per capita GDP than Ghana, [163] and by 2008 it was 17 times as high as Ghana’s. Rummel, forced labor, executions, and concentration camps were responsible for over one million deaths in North Korea from 1948 to 1987;[165] others have estimated 400,000 deaths in concentration camps alone. [166] Estimates based on the most recent North Korean census suggest that 240,000 to 420,000 people died as a result of the 1990s famine and that there were 600,000 to 850,000 unnatural deaths in North Korea from 1993 to 2008. [167] In South Korea, as guerrilla activities expanded, the South Korean government used strong measures against peasants, such as forcefully moving their families from guerrilla areas. According to one estimate, these measures resulted in 36,000 people killed, 11,000 people wounded, and 432,000 people displaced. Main article: Korean War. Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as U. Marines fight North Koreans holding the city. The Korean War broke out when Soviet-backed North Korea invaded South Korea, though neither side gained much territory as a result. The Korean Peninsula remained divided, the Korean Demilitarized Zone being the de facto border between the two states. In June 1950 North Korea invaded the South, using Soviet tanks and weaponry. During the Korean War (195053) more than 1.2 million people died and the three years of fighting throughout the nation effectively destroyed most cities. [169] The war ended in an Armistice Agreement at approximately the Military Demarcation Line, but the two governments are officially at war. In 2018, the leaders of North Korea and South Korea officially signed the Panmunjom Declaration, announcing that they will work to end the conflict. Korean Empire (1897 1910). 12 October 1897 20 July 1907. 20 July 1907 29 August 1910. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (1948). Chairman of the Standing Committee. Of the Supreme People’s Assembly. 9 September 1948 20 September 1957. 20 September 1957 28 December 1972. 28 December 1972 8 July 1994. President of the Presidium. 5 September 1998 11 April 2019. Chairman of the National Defence Commission. 9 April 2009 17 December 2011. First Chairman of the National Defence Commission/Chairman of the State Affairs Commission. Republic of Korea (1948). 24 July 1948 26 April 1960. 13 August 1960 23 March 1962. 17 December 1963 26 October 1979. 6 December 1979 16 August 1980. 1 September 1980 24 February 1988. 25 February 1988 24 February 1993. 25 February 1993 24 February 1998. 25 February 1998 24 February 2003. 25 February 2003 24 February 2008. 25 February 2008 24 February 2013. 25 February 2013 10 March 2017. The name “Korea” is written as it started from 1897. Main articles: Koreans, Demographics of South Korea, and Demographics of North Korea. The combined population of the Koreas is about 76 million (North Korea: 25 million, South Korea: 51 million). Korea is chiefly populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak the Korean language. [170] The number of foreigners living in Korea has also steadily increased since the late 20th century, particularly in South Korea, where more than 1 million foreigners reside. [171] It was estimated in 2006 that only 26,700 of the old Chinese community now remain in South Korea. [172] However, in recent years, immigration from mainland China has increased; 624,994 persons of Chinese nationality have immigrated to South Korea, including 443,566 of ethnic Korean descent. [173] Small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese are also found in North Korea. Main articles: Korean language and Korean Sign Language. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (August 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). Hunminjeongeum, afterwards called Hangul. Korean is the official language of both North and South Korea, and (along with Mandarin) of Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in the Manchuria area of China. Worldwide, there are up to 80 million speakers of the Korean language. South Korea has around 50 million speakers while North Korea around 25 million. Other large groups of Korean speakers through Korean diaspora are found in China, the United States, Japan, former Soviet Union and elsewhere. Modern Korean is written almost exclusively in the script of the Korean alphabet (known as Hangul in South Korea and Chosungul in China and North Korea), which was invented in the 15th century. Korean is sometimes written with the addition of some Chinese characters called Hanja; however, this is only occasionally seen nowadays. Main articles: Culture of Korea, Korean art, Korean pottery and porcelain, Korean martial arts, Korean dance, Korean bow, and Korean architecture. Location of World Heritage Sites in Korea. Note: Seoul is home to three separate properties; Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty locate throughout the country, only one site is shown on map. Traditional Korean dance (Jinju geommu). In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as “Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk” (,) and “Eastern Nation of Decorum” (,). [177] Individuals are regarded as one year old when they are born, as Koreans reckon the pregnancy period as one year of life for infants, and age increments increase on New Year’s Day rather than on the anniversary of birthdays. Thus, one born immediately before New Year’s Day may only be a few days old in western reckoning, but two years old in Korea. Accordingly, a Korean person’s stated age (at least among fellow Koreans) will be one or two years more than their age according to western reckoning. However, western reckoning is sometimes applied with regard to the concept of legal age; for example, the legal age for purchasing alcohol or cigarettes in the Republic of Korea is 19, which is measured according to western reckoning. Main article: Korean literature. Korean literature written before the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called “Classical” or Traditional. Literature, written in Chinese characters (hanja), was established at the same time as the Chinese script arrived on the peninsula. Korean scholars were writing poetry in the classical Korean style as early as the 2nd centuryBCE, reflecting Korean thoughts and experiences of that time. Classical Korean literature has its roots in traditional folk beliefs and folk tales of the peninsula, strongly influenced by Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. Modern literature is often linked with the development of hangul, which helped spread literacy from the aristocracy to the common people. Hangul, however, only reached a dominant position in Korean literature in the second half of the 19th century, resulting in a major growth in Korean literature. Sinsoseol, for instance, are novels written in hangul. The Korean War led to the development of literature centered on the wounds and chaos of war. Much of the post-war literature in South Korea deals with the daily lives of ordinary people, and their struggles with national pain. The collapse of the traditional Korean value system is another common theme of the time. Main article: Music of Korea. Traditional Korean music includes combinations of the folk, vocal, religious and ritual music styles of the Korean people. Korean music has been practiced since prehistoric times. [178] Korean music falls into two broad categories. The first, Hyangak, literally means The local music or Music native to Korea, a famous example of which is Sujechon, a piece of instrumental music often claimed to be at least 1,300 years old. [179] The second, yangak, represents a more Western style. Main articles: Religion in Korea, Religion in South Korea, and Religion in North Korea. See also: Korean shamanism, Korean Confucianism, Korean Buddhism, Taoism in Korea, Christianity in Korea, and Islam in Korea. Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s. Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religious practice has been suppressed in North Korea. Throughout Korean history and culture, regardless of separation; the influence of traditional beliefs of Korean Shamanism, Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism have remained an underlying religion of the Korean people as well as a vital aspect of their culture; all these traditions have coexisted peacefully for hundreds of years up to today despite strong Westernisation from Christian missionary conversions in the South[180][181][182] or the pressure from the Juche government in the North. According to 2005 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 29.2% of the population (of which are Protestants 18.3% and Catholics 10.9%) and Buddhists 22.8%. Islam in South Korea is practiced by about 45,000 natives (about 0.09% of the population) in addition to some 100,000 foreign workers from Muslim countries. Main article: Korean cuisine. See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean royal court cuisine. Tteokbokki, rice cakes with spicy gochujang sauce. Koreans traditionally believe that the taste and quality of food depend on its spices and sauces, the essential ingredients to making a delicious meal. Therefore, soybean paste, soy sauce, gochujang or red pepper paste and kimchi are some of the most important staples in a Korean household. Korean cuisine was greatly influenced by the geography and climate of the Korean Peninsula, which is known for its cold autumns and winters, therefore there are many fermented dishes and hot soups and stews. Bulgogi and side dishes. Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, a side dish which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables, most commonly cabbage. Kimchi is said to relieve the pores on the skin, thereby reducing wrinkles and providing nutrients to the skin naturally. It is also healthy, as it provides necessary vitamins and nutrients. Gochujang, a traditional Korean sauce made of red pepper is also commonly used, often as pepper (chilli) paste, earning the cuisine a reputation for spiciness. Bulgogi (roasted marinated meat, usually beef), galbi (marinated grilled short ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork belly) are popular meat entrees. Fish is also a popular commodity, as it is the traditional meat that Koreans eat. Meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, such as galbitang (stewed ribs) or doenjang jjigae (fermented bean paste soup). The center of the table is filled with a shared collection of sidedishes called banchan. Other popular dishes include bibimbap, which literally means “mixed rice” (rice mixed with meat, vegetables, and red pepper paste), and naengmyeon (cold noodles). Instant noodles, or ramyeon, is a popular snack food. Koreans also enjoy food from pojangmachas (street vendors), which serve tteokbokki, rice cake and fish cake with a spicy gochujang sauce; gimbap, made of steamed white rice wrapped in dried laver seaweed; fried squid; and glazed sweet potato. Soondae, a sausage made of cellophane noodles and pork blood, is widely eaten. Additionally, some other common snacks include “Choco Pie”, shrimp crackers, “bbeongtwigi” (puffed rice grains), and “nurungji” (slightly burnt rice). Nurungji can be eaten as it is or boiled with water to make a soup. Nurungji can also be eaten as a snack or a dessert. Korea is unique among Asian countries in its use of metal chopsticks. Metal chopsticks have been discovered in archaeological sites belonging to the ancient Korean kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla. Main articles: Education in North Korea and Education in South Korea. The modern South Korean school system consists of six years in elementary school, three years in middle school, and three years in high school. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, ranks South Korea’s science education as the third best in the world and being significantly higher than the OECD average. South Korea ranks second on math and literature and first in problem solving[citation needed]. Although South Korean students often rank high on international comparative assessments, the education system is criticised for emphasising too much upon passive learning and memorization. The South Korean education system is rather notably strict and structured as compared to its counterparts in most Western societies. The North Korean education system consists primarily of universal and state funded schooling by the government. The national literacy rate for citizens 15 years of age and above is over 99 percent. [190][191] Children go through one year of kindergarten, four years of primary education, six years of secondary education, and then on to universities. The most prestigious university in the DPRK is Kim Il-sung University. Other notable universities include Kim Chaek University of Technology, which focuses on computer science, Pyongyang University of Foreign Studies, which trains working level diplomats and trade officials, and Kim Hyong Jik University, which trains teachers. Main article: History of science and technology in Korea. See also: List of Korean inventions and discoveries. Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris. One of the best known artifacts of Korea’s history of science and technology is the Cheomseongdae (,), a 9.4-meter high observatory built in 634. The earliest known surviving Korean example of woodblock printing is the Mugujeonggwang Great Dharani Sutra. [192] It is believed to have been printed in Korea in 75051, which if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. During the Goryeo Dynasty, metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in 1234. [193][5][194][195][8][3] This invention made printing easier, more efficient and also increased literacy, which observed by Chinese visitors was seen to be so important where it was considered to be shameful to not be able to read. [196] The Mongol Empire later adopted Korea’s movable type printing and spread as far as Central Asia. There is conjecture as to whether or not Choe’s invention had any influence on later printing inventions such as Gutenberg’s Printing press. [197] When the Mongols invaded Europe they inadvertently introduced different kinds of Asian technology. The Korean alphabet hangul was also invented during this time by King Sejong the Great. Main articles: Sport in South Korea and Sport in North Korea. North Korea and South Korea usually compete as two separate nations in international events. There are, however, a few examples of them having competed as one entity, under the name Korea. While association football remains one of the most popular sports in South Korea, the martial art of taekwondo is considered to be the national sport. Baseball and golf are also popular. Taekwon-Do is Korea’s most famous martial art and sport. It combines combat techniques, self-defence, sport and exercise. Taekwon-Do has become an official Olympic sport, starting as a demonstration event in 1988 (when South Korea hosted the Games in Seoul) and becoming an official medal event in 2000. The two major Taekwon-Do federations were founded in Korea. The two are the International Taekwon-Do Federation and the World Taekwondo Federation. Hapkido is a modern Korean martial art with a grappling focus that employs joint locks, throws, kicks, punches and other striking attacks like attacks against pressure points. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the pure use of strength against strength. Ssireum is a traditional form of wrestling that has been practiced in Korea for thousands of years, with evidence discovered from Goguryeo of Korea’s Three Kingdoms Period (57BCE to 688). Ssireum is the traditional national sport of Korea. During a match, opponents grip each other by sash belts wrapped around the waist and the thigh, attempting to throw their competitor to the sandy ground of the ring. The first opponent to touch the ground with any body part above the knee or to lose hold of their opponent loses the round. Ssireum competitions are traditionally held twice a year, during the Dano Festival (the 5th day of the fifth lunar month) and Chuseok (the 15th day of the 8th lunar month). Competitions are also held throughout the year as a part of festivals and other events. Taekkyon is a traditional martial art, considered the oldest form of fighting technique of Korea. Practiced since centuries and especially popular during the Joseon dynasty, two forms co-existed: one for practical use, the other for sport. This form was usually practiced alongside Ssireum during festivals and competitions between villages. Nonetheless, Taekkyon almost disappeared during the Japanese Occupation and the Korean War. Though lost in North Korea, Taekkyon has enjoyed a spectacular revival from the 1980s in South Korea. It is the only martial art in the world (with Ssireum) recognized as a National Treasure of South Korea and a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage. Emblem of North Korea. Emblem of South Korea. GDP total 2011/2014 est. Korean People’s won (sign: , ISO: KPW). Korean Republic won (, KRW). Main article: List of public holidays in South Korea. Samiljeol, Independence Movement Day, commemorates Korea’s declaration of independence from Japanese occupation on 1 March 1919. The name is derived from Korean “sam”‘three’, “il”‘one,’ and “jeol”‘day’, the date of the uprising in 1919. Korea was annexed to the Empire of Japan on 29 August 1910 following the imposed Japan-Korea Treaty. On 1 March 1919, Korean presented their resistance towards Japan and Japanese occupation with a declaration of independence. Following the conclusion of World War II, Korea was liberated from Japan and its independence restored. The newly established Korean government set aside 1 March as a national holiday to commemorate the sacrifices borne in the long struggle for Korean independence. Hyunchoongil is the national holiday in Korea commemorating those who fought and died for the nation. In August 1948, only a few years after Korea achieved its independence from Japan, the Korean War, in Korea also known as the 6.25 war, broke out between North and South Korea. During this war, approximately 400,000 soldiers and some one million citizens were killed or injured. In 1953, North and South Korea agreed to a cease-fire, and three years later the Korean government established Hyungchoogil to commemorate the soldiers who fought in the Korean War. Subsequent to its establishment, Hyungchoogil was reinterpreted as a day of remembrance for those who died defending Korea in all conflicts, not only during the Korean War. Gwangbokjeol is the day for celebrating liberation of the country from Japan in 1945 as well as celebrating the establishment of Korean government in 1948. It was first declared to be national holiday in 1949 October 1. On this date every year, the president of Korea visits Independence Hall, and invites diplomatic envoys from many countries and all social standings in countries to Cheongwadae (the Blue House, the Korean presidential residence). Hangul Day (also spelled as Hangeul Day) is a day that celebrates the creation of the Hunminjeongeum (Hangul, Korean alphabet), which was inscribed to the UNESCO Memory of the World Register in 1997. [202] Hangul was created by Sejong the Great in 1443 and proclaimed in 1446. Before the creation of Hangul, people in Korea (known as Joseon at the time) primarily wrote using Classical Chinese alongside native phonetic writing systems that predate Hangul by hundreds of years, including idu, hyangchal, gugyeol, and gakpil. [203][204][205][206] However, due to the fundamental differences between the Korean and Chinese languages, and the large number of characters needed to be learned, there was much difficulty in learning how to write using Chinese characters for the lower classes, who often didn’t have the privilege of education. To assuage this problem, King Sejong created the unique alphabet known as Hangul to promote literacy among the common people. [207] Hangul Day was founded in 1926 during the Japanese occupation by members of the Korean Language Society, whose goal was to preserve the Korean language during a time of rapid forced Japanization. [208] Today, both South Korea and North Korea celebrate Hangul Day as a national holiday. Anti-Japanese sentiment in Korea. Index of Korea-related articles. List of Korean inventions and discoveries. List of people of Korean descent. National Treasures of North Korea. National Treasures of South Korea. North KoreaSouth Korea relations. The item “ORIGINAL KOREA CHANG MYUN HANDWRITTEN LETTER ASSASSINATION RARE VINTAGE” is in sale since Monday, August 2, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “collectiblecollectiblecollectible” and is located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Chile, Colombia, Panama, Jamaica, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Paraguay, Reunion, Uruguay.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: Korea, Republic of
  • Original/Reproduction: Original

Original Korea Chang Myun Handwritten Letter Assassination Rare Vintage

General Neal Dow Handwritten Letter Signed On Liquor By Father Of Prohibition

General_Neal_Dow_Handwritten_Letter_Signed_On_Liquor_By_Father_Of_Prohibition_01_uuc General Neal Dow Handwritten Letter Signed On Liquor By Father Of Prohibition
General Neal Dow Handwritten Letter Signed On Liquor By Father Of Prohibition

General Neal Dow Handwritten Letter Signed On Liquor By Father Of Prohibition
GREAT CONTENT: FATHER OF PROHIBITION WRITES ABOUT THE WORD RUMMY… LIQUOR TRAFFIC-AND NOT A MAN WHO DRINKS. CIVIL WAR BRIGADIER GENERAL NEAL S. DOW HANDWRITTEN LETTER SIGNED. BY PORTLAND MAINE MAYOR AND. ONE PAGE, 5 X 8, PORTLAND, SEPT 14, 1886. Interview I had with the reporter of the Tribune… All I know of the Chief Constable… The word rummy with us means a man whose sympathies are with the liquor traffic – and not a man who drinks. Very Respectfully, Neal Dow. Some age toning but otherwise in fine condition. THIS IS AN ORIGINAL HAND SIGNED AUTOGRAPH. We do not sell reprints or facsimile autographs. This is our 31. We are a long-time member of UACC #RD338 and the Manuscript Society. International Buyers Please Note. The item “GENERAL NEAL DOW HANDWRITTEN LETTER SIGNED ON LIQUOR BY FATHER OF PROHIBITION” is in sale since Sunday, April 14, 2019. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Political\Other Political Autographs”. The seller is “stevnowli_0″ and is located in Nokomis, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Modified Item: No
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United States
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Signed by: GENERAL NEAL DOW
  • Autograph Authentication: HISTORY MAKERS AUTOGRAPHS

General Neal Dow Handwritten Letter Signed On Liquor By Father Of Prohibition

Thomas Babington Macaulay Handwritten Letter Signed July 15, 1842

Thomas_Babington_Macaulay_Handwritten_Letter_Signed_July_15_1842_01_jii Thomas Babington Macaulay Handwritten Letter Signed July 15, 1842
Thomas Babington Macaulay Handwritten Letter Signed July 15, 1842

Thomas Babington Macaulay Handwritten Letter Signed July 15, 1842
BARON THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY. “T B MACAULAY, ” IN IRON GALL INK, 1 PAGE, TWO SIDES, 4.5 X 7, ALBANY, JULY 15, 1842. THE HISTORIAN WRITES TO A RELATIVE, “DEAR HENRY, ” ASKING FOR THE NAME OF HIS AGENT IN ORDER TO SEND A SETTLEMENT FROM HIS FATHER’S ESTATE AND FURTHER MENTIONS SOME MATTER BEFORE THE COMMITTEE THAT MIGHT LEAD TO THIS PERSON’S EMPLOYMENT. IN FINE CONDITION WITH A CENTER FOLD LINE NOT AFFECTING APPEARANCE. THIS IS AN ORIGINAL HAND SIGNED AUTOGRAPH. We do not sell reprints or facsimile autographs. This is our 31. We closed our retail galleries and now are totally internet sales oriented. We are a long-time member of UACC #RD338 and the Manuscript Society. Our collectibles make for fantastic additions to long standing collections, great starting points for new collectors looking for trusted authentic material, and make for a truly unique gifts for that special person in your life or corporate gift for a special client. International Buyers Please Note. Be sure to add me to your favorites list! Check out my other items! The item “THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY HANDWRITTEN LETTER SIGNED JULY 15, 1842″ is in sale since Tuesday, April 2, 2019. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “stevnowli_0″ and is located in Nokomis, Florida. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Signed by: THOMAS BABINGTON MACAULAY
  • Autograph Authentication: HISTORY MAKERS AUTOGRAPHS

Thomas Babington Macaulay Handwritten Letter Signed July 15, 1842

Hunter Thompson 5pp. Letter With Handwritten Edits

Hunter_Thompson_5pp_Letter_With_Handwritten_Edits_01_yw Hunter Thompson 5pp. Letter With Handwritten Edits

Hunter Thompson 5pp. Letter With Handwritten Edits
Exceptional five-page, single-spaced typed letter by Hunter S. Thompson, published in “Proud Highway” but without the handwritten edits found here. Dated 18 April (1965) from his home on Parnassus Street in San Francisco, Thompson writes to his friend Paul Semonin on a host of subjects including Vietnam, non-violent protests including the Selma March, the Free Speech movement at Berkeley, and his recent article on “outlaw motorcyclists”, which would of course evolve into “Hell’s Angels”. Punctuation is unusually spotty throughout, due to Thompson’s new “rotten fing electric typewriter”, and content here is uncorrected. Letter reads in very small part. Along these lines I;ve been watching the slow, day by day action over at BerkleyThe reason the whole ;thing came to a publicity head in the first place was a giant Establishment fup by a Chancellor named Strong, who has since resigned under pressure — not for doing what he did, but for doing it too blatantlylike the difference between Goldwater and JohnsonIf you get arrested once, for instance, a sympathetic friend or liberal benefactor might be happy to make bail. The second time, maybe — depending on what kind of publicity is involved. But then on the third try when the reporters are tired of the story & besides it has since been brought out that you have two convictions for lice-carrying, then bail is a hell of a lot harder to makelike being drafted. You think [Mario] Savio’s name popped out of a hat? On the whole, the main reason I’ve been silent for so long is that I’m going into a kind of maddog funk after too many days with the Chronicle and the Examiner. And television, and radio — and random conversations. I have gone into a kind of karate tenseness; the supercontraction of all muscles so it won’t hurt when you’re hit. One technique I haven’t mastered as yet is the puffing up of the jaws to creat an air pocket around the teeth” Thompson then writes a long paragraph on the “nausea gas story – likely the gas explosion in Quebec that occurred in March 1965, writing about media censorship of it. He mentions “Carey McWilliams, edit editor of the Nation — for whom I just did a piece on outlaw motorcyclists” which would become “The Motorcycle Gangs: Losers and Outsiders”, published in the May 1965 issue of “The Nation”. He continues, In other words,’Who can afford to give a F? This marriage thing is not a killer in itself but in the small routines and trivial obligations that come with it. Besides that, I seem to be doing everything humanly possible to finish myself with booze and general physical abuse, pills, no sleep, etc. This Vietnam thing has driven me to the point of a continuing froth. I wrote Johnson, telling him to f himself and count me out under any circumstances — and although I already have one letter on file (to the AF) saying I would never again put on a uniform, that now I wanted to reiterate this feeling and especially to withdraw my application for the governorship of American Samoa since I felt I could under no circumstances serve this administration either at home or abroad. It was a serious letter, in all, bearing down heavily on my prior Dow-Jones affiliation so they couldnt write me off as a cloistered kook, and saying all any citizen would have to say in these times to get on all the wrong lists. When I go to vote theyll probably X me out, and the next time Johnson comes to SF I expect to be interred for the duration of the visit. What I want to do in the meantime is a story of some kind on the FBI. Sandy says this is a worthless electric typewriter, an ancient and discredited model. So much for the natural integrity of my friendly typewriter merchant. This is a royal example of the shit that is driving me wild, of the horrible predatory rot that pervades the whole system. Once you become conscious of itthen all manner of once-innocent and natural-seeming things begin falling into a pattern of imperialist savagery. But nowhere like on the TV screen. There is the furthest expression of the American dream. Like the Selma march, A TV spectacular — next summer well have Harlem Riots, presented by Monsanto Chemicals. I may be sick and a bit daffy, but something in me rebels at the idea of 500 or 5000 negroes kneeling on the streets of Selman, singing #’I love State Troopers in my Heart. I think this whole non-violent thing was planned from the start by Cardinal Spellman. Dont tell me you meant Swingers instead of hipsters, because here its all the same. In a nut, it is hip to be a swinger and Camp is in. They are slow at times, but they can afford the machinery to be very thorough in the long run. I suppose your suggestion would be that I paint a big sign and join some non-violent picket line ;but no thanks again. That is for people who feel guilty and I dont. I feel like Ive leaned on for a long time by people who dont even have to know my name and should probably have their fing heads blown off on general principles. I spent this afternoon watching a Karate class in action. In the past year it has suddenly dawned on my that people are goddamn dangerous. My good time badass faround is going out of style; the general threat and pressure of life in this country seems to be spawning its inevitable results — several’secret armies’ in Calif, a tremendous upswing all over the country in crimes of pillage, robbery and violence, cops with shotguns riding every subway in NYC between 8pm and 4am — that’s the truth — and an estimated 6 or 7 thousand working karate busters in the Bay area alone. This last is a frightening thing when you consider they are a vengeful lot to begin with and that they leave each lesson with a secret yearning for somebody to say something pushy to them. I know because I went to a bar with two of them afterwards and had to keep one little guy from chopping up an old man who had no idea in hell what he was dealing withbe careful who you snarl at in tavernsNY seems to be a peatbog of slow-heating violence, physical and otherwise. If and when I go back there I definitely mean to carry a small pistol and take my chances with the Sullivan act. I think there is a terrible angst on the land, a sense that something ugly is about to happen, an hour-to-hour feeling of nervous anticipation. Whether its the Bomb or a simple beating, you never know. In closing I remain, increasingly savage and unreasonable — HST, with Thompson circling his typed initials. Five page letter on five sheets measures 8.5″ x 11″. The item “Hunter Thompson 5pp. Letter With Handwritten Edits” is in sale since Saturday, January 2, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Other Collectible Autographs”. The seller is “n8sautographs” and is located in Los Angeles, California. This item can be shipped worldwide.
Hunter Thompson 5pp. Letter With Handwritten Edits

Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8×10

Abraham_Lincoln_Display_with_Hand_Written_Word_from_Letter_PSA_LOA_8x10_01_vppk Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8x10
Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8x10
Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8x10
Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8x10
Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8x10
Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8x10

Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8x10
Abraham Lincoln Display w/ Hand-Written Word in from Letter PSA LOA 8×10. The signature of Lincoln is a facsimile for display only. Abraham Lincoln Custom Matting Cut Display with original Hand-Written Word in from Letter (PSA LOA Copy). The item “Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8×10″ is in sale since Tuesday, July 20, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Political\Presidential”. The seller is “the*auction*king” and is located in Irmo, South Carolina. This item can be shipped to United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Denmark, Romania, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Czech republic, Finland, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Estonia, Australia, Greece, Portugal, Cyprus, Slovenia, Japan, China, Sweden, South Korea, Indonesia, Taiwan, South africa, Thailand, Belgium, France, Hong Kong, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Italy, Germany, Austria, Bahamas, Israel, Mexico, New Zealand, Philippines, Singapore, Switzerland, Norway, Saudi arabia, Ukraine, United arab emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, Bahrain, Croatia, Malaysia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa rica, Panama, Trinidad and tobago, Guatemala, Honduras, Jamaica, Antigua and barbuda, Aruba, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Saint kitts and nevis, Saint lucia, Montserrat, Turks and caicos islands, Barbados, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Brunei darussalam, Bolivia, Ecuador, Egypt, French guiana, Guernsey, Gibraltar, Guadeloupe, Iceland, Jersey, Jordan, Cambodia, Cayman islands, Liechtenstein, Sri lanka, Luxembourg, Monaco, Macao, Martinique, Maldives, Nicaragua, Oman, Peru, Pakistan, Paraguay, Reunion, Viet nam, Uruguay.
  • President: Abraham Lincoln
  • Featured Refinements: Abraham Lincoln Autograph

Abraham Lincoln Display with Hand-Written Word from Letter PSA LOA 8x10

FRANK MILLER 1973 Handwritten Signed EARLY LETTER

FRANK_MILLER_1973_Handwritten_Signed_EARLY_LETTER_01_oint FRANK MILLER 1973 Handwritten Signed EARLY LETTER
FRANK MILLER 1973 Handwritten Signed EARLY LETTER

FRANK MILLER 1973 Handwritten Signed EARLY LETTER
It was written on the backside of the Apa-Five 16 cover as indicated in the letter. There is no envelope but there is a letter of authenticity that came with it stating it’s from the Tom Fagan estate. The actual letter does not have any issues other than the fold as shown. The item “FRANK MILLER 1973 Handwritten Signed EARLY LETTER” is in sale since Saturday, July 31, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Other Collectible Autographs”. The seller is “bakerfan” and is located in Kenmore, Washington. This item can be shipped worldwide.
FRANK MILLER 1973 Handwritten Signed EARLY LETTER

The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964

The_Beatles_Autographed_Fan_Letter_Hand_Written_By_Paul_McCartney_1964_01_yhid The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964

The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964
The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Written By Paul McCartney And Signed By All Four Beatles 1964. Thanking Her For Going To Their Movie “A Hard Days Night” 1964. Thanks For Coming To To See Our Movie “A Hard Days Night”. And We Hope You Enjoyed It. And This Letter Is Really Written By Us. Or Me Paul – We Will Have Your Picture. And It Will Be Given To Us. We Love All Of You Here In America. I Translated The Hand Written Letter By Paul McCartney As Best I Could! This Is The Real Deal – PSA-DNA Will Authenticate It. The item “The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964″ is in sale since Friday, July 30, 2021. This item is in the category “Entertainment Memorabilia\Music Memorabilia\Rock & Pop\Artists B\Beatles\Other Beatles Memorabilia”. The seller is “revforwood” and is located in Ogden, Utah. This item can be shipped to United States.
  • Modified Item: No
  • Country/Region of Manufacture: United Kingdom
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Artist/Band: Beatles
  • Industry: Music
  • Genre: Rock & Pop
  • Featured Refinements: Marilyn Monroe Memorabilia

The Beatles Autographed Fan Letter Hand Written By Paul McCartney 1964

ILLUSTRATOR Ernest Shepard autograph, handwritten letter signed & book

ILLUSTRATOR_Ernest_Shepard_autograph_handwritten_letter_signed_book_01_mnpz ILLUSTRATOR Ernest Shepard autograph, handwritten letter signed & book
ILLUSTRATOR Ernest Shepard autograph, handwritten letter signed & book
ILLUSTRATOR Ernest Shepard autograph, handwritten letter signed & book
ILLUSTRATOR Ernest Shepard autograph, handwritten letter signed & book

ILLUSTRATOR Ernest Shepard autograph, handwritten letter signed & book
ILLUSTRATOR Ernest Shepard autograph, handwritten letter signed & book. Autograph letter with handdrawn sketch signed, two pages (both sides), 5,25 x 7 inch, on Shepard`s blind-embossed letterhead, (Long Meadow, Longdown), 5.12.1933, reply letter to Betty – concerning his state of health and a Cattle show, written and signed in black ink “Ernest” and incorporating a small ink drawing of an ox within the body of the letter below the first line of the second page, with a mild horizontal letter fold – otherwise in very fine condition. Accompanied by a book (unsigned): `Fun & Fantasy – Drawings from Punch by Ernest H. Shepard`, Methuen & Co. I have been partially laid out with a vile cold… Mustard baths, my dear… Hot whiskey at night. I had to venture out & go to the Cattle show at Islington yesterday (for Punch) and saw a lot of fine beasts… (1879 – 1976) English artist and book illustrator – he was known especially for his illustrations of anthropomorphic characters in The Wind in the Willows by Kenneth Grahame and Winnie-the-Pooh by A. LTD, London, 87 pages, 10 x 12,5 inch, hardcover book, with foxing and signs of wear to the spine – in nearly fine condition. Item ID Number: 6027167. Satisfaction Guarantee – If you are not satisfied with the autographs you can return them within 15 days without giving reasons. We do not offer any Autopen-, Secretarial-, Stamped- or Pre-Print autographs. Certificate of Authenticy – We stand 100% behind all the signatures that we offer! You will receive each autograph with a fine certificate of authenticity with a unique identification number. This service is to our knowledge unique, as illustrated certificates only bring a proof of origin in case of emergency. You might also like. Don Budge superb signed Vintage photograph TENNIS autograph. Ann Blyth autograph, signed vintage photo. You will receive your order securely packaged and presented neatly within a few days. All prices include VAT. We are unable to accept any foreign cheques. Please do a google research for “brandesautographs”. In our autograph advice guide we will endeavour to answer the questions that we are most often asked on the subject of autographs. Take some time to read these advices that will help you to enjoy your autographs and collection for a long time! Take a look to our Feedback and Testimonials. We are in business for autographs for more than 25years and maybe have Europeans largest reference library in this field. The item “ILLUSTRATOR Ernest Shepard autograph, handwritten letter signed & book” is in sale since Saturday, April 3, 2021. This item is in the category “Collectibles\Autographs\Historical”. The seller is “brandesautographs” and is located in Kesswil. This item can be shipped worldwide.
  • Original/Reprint: Original
  • Original/Reproduction: Original
  • Product: autograph

ILLUSTRATOR Ernest Shepard autograph, handwritten letter signed & book